Sunday Gazette-Mail from Charleston, West Virginia on August 13, 1972 · Page 43
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Sunday Gazette-Mail from Charleston, West Virginia · Page 43

Charleston, West Virginia
Issue Date:
Sunday, August 13, 1972
Page 43
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Page 43 article text (OCR)

HOMES OF FUTURE MAY BE IN FLOATING CITIES Hawaiian Children View Model Planned for 1978 Hawaii Takes to Ocean Floating Cities Wave of Future HONOLULU-AP-Fearing their idyllic islands will be swamped by mass migrations of people from the continental United States, Hawaiians are planning a modern, but away-from-it all city. The city will embrace the high-density, three dimensional approach with apartments clustered and rising-high into the sky, each with a view. · A home communications center will make it possible to shop by computer without leaving one's living room. Newspapers will be delivered by pneumatic tubes. Conveyor belts, elevators and a monorail system will move people. There will be no cars. Everything will be within 30 minutes' walking distance. There will be no pollution, no noise. There will be privacy. And each family will have a continuously changing view of the coastline of Hawaii's islands. For the city will rise out of the sea. It will float. A l-TO-20 MODEL of a city is floating now--in Kaneohe Bay on Oahu's north shore. It was built of sheet metal, welded and bolted togethered by whiskered professors and t-shirt-clad students working on weekends. It was financed by an $85.000-federal grant. "It's a community effort," said Joe E. Hanson, manager of the University of. Hawaii's Floating City Project. He ticks off the local contributions: Firms provided forklifts and trucks; the Navy supplied a tug to tow it; Honolulu Community College donated student welders, and volunteer students and military divers gave their time. The driving force behind the floating city idea is John Craven, a lean, lanky and intense University of Hawaii professor of ocean engineering and the state's marine affairs coordinator. He says: "All I want to do is return the land to environmental use and put the high-density structures at sea. It is the hardest battle to make people understand* that. Hawaii is a very desirable place to live, and stopping people from coming here is just kind of a vain hope." And, to make room for the increasing population Craven says will be double the Between normal growth and migrations from the mainland, Hawaii's population is expected to double in the next 28 years. Because of its limited land area, Hawaiians are looking to the vastness of the Pacific to solve their problem. They're planning a floating city. By William Helton present 770,000 persons by the year 2000, work on the city continues. .After completing tests on the 150-ton model, the next objective will be a two- mile-long city for a marine exhibit in 1978, marking the bicentennial of the discovery of the Hawaiian islands by Capt. James Cook. IF ALL GOES WELL, the exhibition city will float a few miles off Waikiki, permanently accommodating 2,000 persons, having enough hotel rooms for 8,000 overnight guests and handling 40,000 daily visitors. It'll have international marine exhibits, swimming areas, even underwater hotels and restaurants where a tourist from Minnesota can sip a martini and watch the tropical humuhumunukunukuapuaa swim by. The design of the city grew out of a series of meetings among ocean engineering students, Craven and Japanese architect Kiyonori Kikutake. "It is difficult to say who is responsible for which ideas," says Hanson. "But in the main it was Craven and Kikutake who had the initial concepts." The key principle is that long pylons--huge bottles, really--extending deep into the ocean will provide stability enough so that you won't have to worry about getting seasick on the city," Craven said. Three of the giant, 350-foqt-tall bottles bolted together and supporting a platform will form a module, on which hotels and apartments will be built. Ten of the modules fitted together will form the inner ring of the city. Craven hopes an additional 10 will be hooked on the the outside for the exhibition city. August 13,1972 All but 40 feet of the bottles will be under water. They will be weighed down with ballast or other materials to give the city stability. There will be underwater hotels and restaurants in some. IN FUTURE floating cities, they will be the sites of factories, sewage treatment plants and other facilities, such as theaters, which do not require sunlight. . The pylons will be cross-connected with tunnels, permitting a tired worker to drop off at his favorite bar without first going above the surface. Visitors would step off a ferry and take an elevator up a pylon to get to the inner core of the city, a structure that will rise some 13 stories above sea level. A system of pulleys moored to the ocean floor will rotate the city and move it up and down a five-mile tract. It would be possible to watch the sun sink in the west and rise in the east from the same hotel room. And when something goes wrong--when there is damage and need for repairs--the affected module simply will be towed away from the rest of the city and refurbished, thus eliminating noise collu- tion. If it is beyond repair, it simply will be sunk. THAT LAST characteristic has provoked what Craven terms an "eco- religious" response among critics, who accuse him of a grandiose scheme for polluting the oceans and extending an open invitation for more people to come to Hawaii. He says pollution of the ocean will come from the atmosphere, not from "local point sources," and asks: "How many thousands of cities do you have to sink just to make one island?" The opposition has been such that Craven is pessimistic of quick public acceptance--and financing. He estimates that each module of the 20-unit exhibition city would cost $10 million.- But he says that is much less than the price tag for similar structures on land. The cost of tearing down and rebuilding inner cities would be excessive, he says, and hence to the sea, where engineers can start with fresh ideas. But he concedes that getting wide public acceptance probably will'involve an "evolutionary approach." THE FIRST STEP, he says, is to get society to recognize that many industrial plants can be placed offshore. "The environmentalists are going to force us in Hawaii to build sewage treatment plants," he says by way of example. "They are going to be offensive to the nose and an eyesore. Why not put them at sea?" Next, the public will come to understand that there is no reason for noisy airports to be located on prime real estate, and they, too, will move to the sea. Gradually, Craven says, the public will come to accept floating cities as living complexes. Richard Lee Strout Our Sense of Rage Numbs With Time WASHINGTON-Harry Truman's military aide, General Vaughan, got a deepfreeze from a grateful client and the scandal rocked Washington. General Eisenhower's assistant, Sherman Adams, received a vicuna coat; he had to resign, of course. But now under President Nixon we have five men with electronic equipment and apparently paid by Republicans, arrested at gunpoint in the dead of night in the Democratic national headquarters, and we tend to smile at it. The very name, "the Watergate Caper," tells how funny it is. How Puritan we all were back in the days of Harry and Ike,; how our sensibilities have changed. Those were pretty innocent days, weren't they? Those were days, for example, before the Vietnam war. That has been a depressing influence. There has been an ethical letdown on a lot of things as we gradually reach moral exhaustion over the slaughter and all those bombs we are dropping on naked peasants. Ugh, let's not think of it. And the protective cynicism we have assumed over Vietnam extends into other fields of government. Hell, it's all politics, isn't it? Take the dairy farmers' political action groups who contributed $72,500 to the Republican party in the last four months of 1971 through dummy organizations, during a period when the administration first announced there would be no increase in milk price support levels, an)! then abruptly and inexplicably reversed itself two weeks later. Who can say that there was any connection? And what droll names some of those dummy corporations took: one w?s "Volunteers for Good Government," another was "Americans United for Safer Streets," ha, ha-«nd this one really was a scream: "Citizens United in Pursuit of the American Dream." Roguish, eh? AND THEN THERE WAS the ITT caper. We can all chuckle over that. The huge corporation abruptly reached an out- of-court settlement with John Mitchell's Justice Department allowing it to keep the Hartford Fire Insurance Company, and simultaneously it agreed to guarantee 1400,000 to the Republicans for their convention in San Diego. The Anti-trust Division suddenly and inexplicably reversed its position. The head of the division was quickly made a judge. A little later Jack Anderson published a private memo from ITT's top Washington lobbyist, Dita Beard, declaring that "Mitchell is definitely helping us, but cannot let it be known. Please destroy this, huh." Under the Federal Lobbying Act of 1946, ITT is supposed to make a report on the money it spends for lobbying, but the law is a farce. ITT doesn't even register. Dita Beard reported personal expenditures under the law in 1971 of $7,030. So that's the entertaining ITT story. Then there was the cute trick of the Republicans of collecting $10 million »in campaign funds from fat-cat contributors just before the new Federal election disclosure law took effect April 7. Of course, after April 7 they could stand on moral principles about not violating their clients' right to privacy. It was hilarious.'Who knows what shy and blushing oil and steel and ITT donors there are behind that sacred veil of anonymity? McGovern made public all his contributors, of course, both before and after April 7, but that man is a dangerous radical, without any sense of humor. ENTERTAINING, EH? Well, now we come to the real laugh, the Watergate Caper. Just to make it easier to follow here are the dramatis personae: »· There's Frank Wills, the watchman, who got $5 added to his $80 a week income for calling the police, Saturday night, June 17. And there's Ernie Prete, the straight man you need in any detective mystery, who arrested five intruders wearing rubber gloves in the seventh-floor suite of Democratic headquarters, all equipped with bugging and camera apparatus. »- James W. McCord, Jr., security coordinator for the Committee to Reeled the President (CRP), one of the arrested five intruders. Fired by CRP. V Bernard Barker, head of 'the five; records show he made at least 15 phone- calls to CRP; had in a bank account $89,000 apparently from CRP, plus $25,000 from a cashier's check apparently intended for Mr. Nixon's campaign chest, made out to Maurice Stans, former Commerce Secretary and now GOP national finance chairman. Stans says he gave the check to Liddy (see below). »· E. Howard Hunt, Jr., novelist and man of mystery, former CIA agent, former $100-a-day White House consultant; two intruders carried papers with his name, and "White House." He has disappeared. »· Charles W. Colson. special counsel of Mr, Nixon, described in The Wall Street. Journal last October as "Nixon Hatchet Man-Chuck Colson Handles President's Dirty Work." He recruited Hunt as White House assistant. Still at White House. »· G. Gordon Liddy, ex-FBI agent; once ran for Congress; counsel to CRP finance committee; refused to answer questions; fired. · Hugh W. Sloan, Jr., ex-White House Staff; campaign finance aide to Stans in 1968 when latter headed Nixon-Agnew finance operation as now. Treasurer of CRP. He has resigned. +· John Mitchell, former Nixon campaign manager; called Democratic $1 million suit over break-in a "political stunt," then retired for family reasons. *· Ronald Ziegler, White House press secretary; dismissed episode as "third rate burglary." · Maurice Stans, national finance chairman; was initially unavailable as his secretary told reporters he is "a very busy man," who is "tightly scheduled" with "appointments every hour." PRESIDENT NIXON, who, unlike Ike who had 193 press conferences, and Truman, who had 322-where reporters asked them about deepfreezes and vicuna coats--has held only 26 press conferences in 3'/z years and isn't asked about, the Watergate Caper. Some people get indignant about things like this. They had much better relax and keep down their blood pressures. Look at the people who gel excited about Vietnam. A year or two ago the kids were all hot and bothered. Now they have calmed down, thank goodness. Maybe they are learning the value of keeping quiet when they can't change things. The public doesn't want the war; the Congress doesn't want the war, but it has to be fought because the Pentagon and the President say so. The kids should leam to work within the system. Mr. Nixon is bringing the boys home--all, that is but the 20,000 killed while he was in office. He has a slick, marvelous reelection machine and can fly in the 100 beautiful Republican pom-pom girls anywhere, anytime, as often as is necessary. Nixon's 72 Goals Near, But Wary's The Word for '73 ByBillXeikirk WASHINGTON-W-A year after President Nixon stunned the nation by freezing wages, prices and rents for 90 days, his broad economic program appears to be on the road to reaching at least its 1972 goals. But the first anniversary of Nixon's dramatic economic moves last Aug. 15 finds even his closest economic advisers wary and uncertain about the future. Although they are pleased with the economy's recent performance, including a slower inflation rate and dropping unemployment, they say the battle is not over. They think the Nixon administration will achieve its targets of reducing unemployment to the range of 5 per cent and cutting inflation to the range of 2 to 3 per cent by the end of the year. BUT NEXT YEAR is another question, they say, and it may be'critical one for the nation's economy. "With big labor negotiations coming up and with the economy, operating much closer to potential, 1973 will be a year of decision," said Dr. Herbert Stein, chair- ·man of Nixon's Council of Economic 'Advisers. The administration is now pondering some of the tough questions: When and how can Nixon's wage-price control system be safely lifted? How can the sharp rise in food prices be halted? If the federal budget gets out of hand, can the wage-price control system stand new inflationary pressures? Can the jobless rate be brought down to 4 per cent, or "full employment?" One of the big challenges facing the program is the continued sharp rise in wholesale prices, which may be passed on to consumers, In July, wholesale prices rose 0.7 per cent. In the eight months before the freeze, the wholesale price index increased 5.2 per cent but in the eight months after the freeze, it has advanced more sharply, up 5.7 per cent. For now, anyway, the administration is basking in the successes of the Phase 2 Md., for a weekend of work. It was there the details of the new economic program were hashed out. On Sunday night, Aug. 15, Nixon went on nationwide television to announce the freeze and suspension of the convertibility of the dollar into gold. He put a temporary 10 per cent surcharge on imports. TO SPCR THE ECONOMY, he asked Congress to give industry an accelerated investment tax credit of 10 per cent for one year and 5 per cent after that, to remove the 7 per cent automobile excise tax, and increase personal tax exemptions--a program that Congress modified and adopted later. "The freeze gave us time to set tip Phase 2," Stein said in assessing its impact. "I think it changed psychology in the country. It put people on "notice. And it overcame our own inhibitions." The administration wanted to avoid the Korean War experience in which Congress debated wage-price controls for several months, he said. By the time it acted, wages and prices had skyrocketed. As Nixon huddled with his advisers at" Camp David, they also talked in broad terms of "Stage 2," as it was known then. "Nobody thought it would be as comprehensive and mandatory as it turned out to be," Stein said, adding the advisers were originally thinking about voluntary wage-price guidelines to follow the freeze. Marvin Kosters, an economist who worked with the Cost of Living Council, said Phase 2 had to be flexible "to avoid waste, distortion and inefficiency" that might be true with tighter controls. The shape of Phase 2 became known more than a month before it went into effect: a seven-member Price Commission, a Pay Board composed of five members each from labor, business and the public, and the Cost of Living Council continuing as overseer. The Internal Revenue Service was assigned to handle enforecement with its economic program. Recent consumer price and job indicators have shown definite improvement. The dollar has survived so far under overseas pressure. Profits ate booming.. Real earnings of workers are up. RICHARD NIXON ENTERS the opening round of the 1972 presidential race with some glowing economic reports on his side. In the second quarter of the year, for instance, the economy grew at a healthy 8.9 per cent rate, while the rate of inflation dropped to 2.1 per cent. A year ago, it wasn't that way. The inflation rate was showing signs of accelerating. In the three months before the freeze, the Consumer Price Index advanced at an annual rate of 4.8 per cent. The unemployment rate remained at a seemingly intractable 6 per cent. In Europe, the dollar was in deep trouble. A new wave of speculation in currencies threatened to erupt. The years of large U.S. balance-of-payments deficits had finally caught up with the nation. With a surplus of about $50 billion overseas, foreign central banks weren't anxious to take in more dollars to maintain the dollar's historic relationship to gold at $35 an ounce. But they had to take in dollars to maintain the value of their own currencies. One alternative would have been to cash in their dollars for gold. But the United States had only about $10 billion in goid. If all countries had lined up at the Treasury, the gold stock would soon be depleted and the country would be broke in terms of reserve assets. Nixon decided to suspend convertibility into gold, a move cutting the dollar loose from its fixed rate of exchange with other currencies. "If you are going to close the gold window, you couldn't just fuss around," Stein said in recalling that action. "You had to take decisive action" on the domestic front. NIXON'S ABANDONMENT of his opposition to wage-price controls wasn't all that hasty. Faced with a midsummer bout of high inflation and joblessness, he decided in principle to take bold action several weeks before the announcement, insiders say. The secret was well kept Only then Secretary of the Treasury John B. Connally, Budget Director George P. Shultz, Paul McCracken, then chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers, and maybe a few others knew. The secret had to be kept because if any word got out, people would start trying to beat it by raising wages and prices. Stein said, adding, "We weie aided by the fact that nobody would have believed it." On Friday, Aug. 13. Nixon summoned all his top economic advisers to Camp David, 3,000 agents, depending heavily on voluntary compliance. The Pay Board set a 5.5 per cent standard to cover wage increases. The Price Commission's rules were more complicated. Basically, higher prices were to be allowed only if they could be justified by allowable costs. And the administration put a restraint on profit margins, to organized labor's surprise. NIXON WEATHERED his first crisis when AFL-CIO President George Meany, who'heavily criticized the freeze on grounds of inequities, finally agreed to serve on the board after receiving assurances from Nixon that the Cost of. Living Council would not veto the board's actions. Five months after Phase 2 started on Nov. 14, Meany walked off the board, taking four of the five union members with him. Nixon then reconstituted the board, retaining the five public members and only one of the five business members. But perhaps the worst crisis was the post-freeze bulge of inflation. The administration had expected prices to rise temporarily after the freeze ended Nov. 13, but no one had thought the bulge would last until Easter. The most recent figures on the cost of living show that consumer prices have risen at. an annual rate of 2.9 per cent in the first six months of the year. In the six- months before the freeze, they rose at a rate of $ per cent. HOW TO REMOVE Ihe controls is a big problem for the administration. The legislation under which Nixon acted expires next April 30, but could be extended by Congress. Nixon has not yet made a decision to extend controls. Shultz, now treasury secretary, said the President doesn't want to set a target dale for ending controls because it could build up expectations and cause wages and prices to skyrocket soon after they end. Just as uncertain is the dollar's performance overseas in foreign exchange markets. Nixon in December devalued the dollar for the first time since 1934 by 8.57 per cent against gold. The devaluation ended weeks of troublesome negotiations over the wave of protest over Nixon's import surcharge and the Aug. 15 decision to close the gold window. For all practical purposes, the international monetary system worked oi!t 25 years ago at Brrtton Woods, N H., had been scrapped. The Smithsonian agreement provided more flexibility, but not the final answer.

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