Sunday Gazette-Mail from Charleston, West Virginia on June 20, 1976 · Page 72
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June 20, 1976

Sunday Gazette-Mail from Charleston, West Virginia · Page 72

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Charleston, West Virginia
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Sunday, June 20, 1976
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Page 72
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I IF -June20,1976 Sunday --Charleifon. WMI virginU 'SPRINGS' Lord Fairfax Is Shown in a Contemplative Mood His Health Improved After Baths at Warm Springs, later Berkeley Springs Gen. Woodhull American Hero By John Schoolfield A hardened veteran of the French and Indian War, president of the New York Provincial Congress, a staunch patriot and militia leader, he was captured by the British in a barnyard on a stormy afternoon in August 1776, and mortally wounded by his captors for refusing to say "God save the King." Nathaniel Woodhull was born in 1722, the son of a wealthy Long Island, N. Y., landowner. He saw considerable service fighting for the crown in the French and Indian War and was cited for gallantry in action. He was a representative in the New York colonial assembly from 1769 until it was suspended by the royal governor in 1775. During those years he stoutly resisted the restrictive measures of the British parliament. He was chosen president of the New York Provincial Congress in July 1775, and in August was appointed brigadier general of the militia forces on Long Island. * * * WOODHULL was renamed president of the provincial congress in 1776 and was visiting his home on eastern Long Island when he received word on Aug. 22 that the British had landed on the western part of the island. As the large invasion army under Lord Richard Howe pushed toward Brooklyn against the American forces under generals Putnam and Stirling, Woodhull hastened to Jamaica, about midpoint on the island, to assemble his militia. There he received orders from the provincial congress to proceed toward the enemy lines and to drive off from all farms in the region herds of cattle which might State Man Originated Idea of Graded Classes "What grade are you in?" Simple question to ask a youngster but if it weren't for a West Virginian there wouldn't be an answer. The system of putting school children into grades according to age was developed in the 1870s by Dr. Alexander L. Wade, teacher and later schools superintendent in Monongalia County. Wade perceived the need for such a system after watching pupils in rural schools lose ground by enrolling at age 6 and then enrolling year after year at the same educational level. There was no continuing, graduated system. By 1876 Dr. Wade's plan was attracting attention from area educators and newspapermen. A number of states had made his system compulsory by 1879. West Virginia did not adopt the graded system until 1891,10 years after Wade published his plan and had become a popular lecturer. First steps toward a state free public school system were made in West Virginia in 1864 The following years there were schools in 22 counties with 63,458 children enrolled. Only 16,000 attended regularly because home duties often took precedence over education. The first free public school for Negroes opened at Parkersbrug in 1862. By 1876-77 West Virginia was supporting 3 216 schools at an annual cost of $1.4 million Enrollment was up to 192,606 students with 125,332 regularly attending. There were 3,789 teachers. That same year both major political narties adopted resolutions pledging to keep public schools free from sectarian controls, according to a "History of West Virginia" by Dr. Charles Ambler. The need for teachers was recognized by the legislature in 1867 by creation of a state normal school in Huntington, later known as Marshall College and then Mar- V shall University. ^ Branches of the Himtington school fol- lowed at Fairmont, West Liberty, Athens, Glenville and Shepherdstown, establishing a state college network. The Agriculture College of West Virginia was founded at Morgantown in 1867 as a land grant school. It had a faculty of five and an enrollment of 124 students. Of the total, only six students were qualified for college, according to Ambler's history. In 1868 the college's name was changed to West Virginia University. Discipline was rigid at the young institution. Students were forbidden to attend dances and theaters and those who did were expelled. Tradition puts Philander C. Knox, later U.S. Secretary of State, among WVU expulsion victims but school records fail to confirm it. fall into the hands of the enemy and to remove or destroy any other vital supplies which might be of use to the invading army. Woodhull immediately set about his mission but was handicapped by the small Tales of Revolution number of men at his command. Less than 200 militiamen had responded to his call and half of these departed for their homes when they heard of thefteady advance of the enemy. * * * ON WEDNESDAY, Aug. 28, Woodhull. with less than 100 men under his command, received word of devasting American losses and of a British breakthrough. He sent his militia in retreat and in a heavy thunderstorm, accompanied by only two or three companions, sought shelter in an inn. Later that afternoon the inn was surrounded by a detachment of British dragoons and in the muddy yard outside, Gen. Woodhull was forced to give up his sword in token of surrender. A mounted British officer then commanded him to say "God save the King." Woodhull, standing in the rain, looked up at his captor and said: "God save us all." The officer, enraged at the answer, struck Woodhull repeatedly with his broadsword, cutting him on the head and slashing his arm from shoulder to wrist. The injured general was taken to a British camp where his wounds were dressed. He was then taken to the coast of the island and put on board a filthy prison ship which had been used to transport livestock. His condition worsened and he was moved to a field hospital where his injured arm was amputated. He was permitted to send for his wife and he had her bring with her all the money she could get her hands on. The general had this money distributed among the wounded American prisoners before he died in the arms of his wife a few days later on Sept. 20. Higher education was available to blacks at Storer College, opened in 1867 at Harper's Ferry. The teachers education school had about 275 students by the late 1870s. A third of the enrollment was from West Virginia. TAX SAVINGS PLANS! · Tax-favored professional pension plans for Doctors, towyers, Accountants, Architects, and other professionals. 0 Tax-favored pension plans for corporations. · Tax-favored Major Medical and group life plans for business firms · Tax-favored H.R.-10 Retirement Plans tor partnership and sole proprietors. · Estate protector plans to provide immediate tax-free cash liquidity. I will be glad to meet with you, your lawyer, or your accountant to discuss any of these plans. There's no obligation. LINES FERGUSON C.I.U. We guarantee NEW YORK LIFE INSURANCE co. tomorrow today. 1017 CHARLESTON NATIONAL PLAZA PHONE 343- 3686 75-Year-Old Bachelor Fairfax Owns 6 Million Acre Domain By John G. Morgan WARM SPRINGS, Va., Sept. 16,1769 Among the most prominent persons who bathed in healing waters here last summer was Thomas 6th Lord Fairfax. The 75-year-old bachelor in fact owns these springs in Frederick County near the Potomac River as a tiny part of his six million acre domain. He has his own private spring within the general complex of springs here, along with a private cottage built last year. His special property joins a lot assigned to George Washington, a visitor to the springs from time to time since 1748. Fairfax and Washington, a military hero and gentleman farmer, are good friends. About 20 years ago Washington was employed as a 17-year-old youth to help survey Fairfax lands. In the years 1750, 1752 and 1753, three tracts totaling 1,550 acres were granted by Fairfax to Washington. These are on Bull Skin Run and between the mouths of the Great and Little Cacapon rivers, all in the original Frederick County area west of the Blue Ridge Mountains. The name of Fairfax today dominates practically all land transactions as English, German. Scotch-Irish. Welsh and other emigrants continue to stream into the area to join or establish new settlements. The increase in population led to establishment of a neighboring new County named Hampshire in 1754. It was named by Fairfax, who observed that fine hogs grown along the South Branch of the Potomac remind him of fine swine grown in Hampshire County, England. Romney, the Hampshire County seat, rivals Mecklenburg in Frederick County for the honor of being the oldest Virginia town west of the Blue Ridge. The Virginia Governor signed acts creating the towns on the same day, Dec. 23, 1762, and actually affixed his signature to the Romney act first. However, it is well known that settlers moved into the Mecklenburg area well in advance of those who came to Romney. Among the very first settlers was Morgan Morgan, a native of Wales who moved down from Maryland about 1730 and settled on Mill Creek in what is now Frederick County. About the same time or. earlier, numerous families were moving into Mecklenburg and elsewhere in the local area. Among the family names were Shepherd, Harper, Forester, Lemon, Mercer, Van Meter, Van Swearingen and Hite. Fairfax is officially known as the proprietor of the Northern Neck of Virginia, embracing all the land between the Rappahannock and Potomac rivers to their sources. Although some property remains in dispute, his domain extends westward to the source of the north branch of the Potomac at the top of the central ridge of the Allegheny Mountains and opposite a corner in the Maryland line. A marker, called the Fairfax Stone, was Mountain Road to Independence erected at this northwestern key point of his property in 1746. It actually consists of three white sandstones, put together in a triangular shape that stands 4'/2 feet high and carries the initials "FX." The Northern Neck lands were granted by King Charles II in 1669 to a group of court favorites who sold out to Lord Culpeper. Fairfax inherited the estate through the Culpeper family and his father in 1719. Fairfax was born in Leeds Castle, England, Oct. 22,1693. He led the royal life until he made the decision to come to Virginia and preside over his property. For his first two-year visit to Virginia in 1735, at the age of"42, he brought along a silk coat, a horseman's coat, a scarlet ruffle waistcoat, two pair of everlasting breeches, 12 nightcaps, four wigs, spectacles, two boxes filled with saddles and bridles and 524 bottles of eider and beer,' among many other things. In 1747 Fairfax came to Virginia to stay. Two years later,.on a green knoll oversha- dowed by trees, he established a new residence and proprietary headquarters under the name of Greenway Court. This is near the Winchester, Va., area, established-as a town in 1752. Greenway Court, only a small cottage at first, grew into a manor house about 100 feet long, with a wooden belfry and a huge bell that could be heard for six miles. Guest houses, a blacksmith shop, stables, kennel and laundry were added later. In this setting, Fairfax leads the life of a gentle lord generally liked by the people. He participates in fox and bird hunts and travels occasionally to Williamsburgi the colonial capital. Fairfax, a portly man with heavy jowls, was said to be in poor physical condition when he arrived here early in the summer. After using the healing waters for drinking and bathing purposes about seven weeks, he is reported to be much improved. Next: The Tree Dwellers SPENCE PAINT WALLPAPER CO. Celebrating our 35th YEAR and Saluting West Virginia's 113th Year and the U.S.A.'s 200th Year. VISIT OUR SALES AND DISPLAY ROOM WHERE WE MEET YOUR EVERY WALL COVERING NEED WAU COVERINGS miDENTIAt-COMMERCIAt RUSTIC-VINYL- CORK-SCENICS PAINT TO MATCH BY · £ · EXTERIOR-INTERIOR __ 1 WASKioii AT ELIZABETH' r--_j 343-9491 Use Want Ads. Dial 348-4848 HMPBHHHBBMBHBHII^M^BHBBBI^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^TM WE WANT YOU! To Join The List of Our Many Satisfied During Our Nation's Bi Centennial Year! You will receive the benefits of a full service bank and reap the savings of our no charge, no minimum balance checking accounts! .NO SERVICE . NO MINIMUM CHARGE BALANCE REQUIRED ICffizens National Bankol 603-613 MacCorkle Avenue St. Albans, West Virginia 25177 Phone 722-4261 · 2 4 HOUR ACCESS TO YOUR CHECKING ACCOUNT I

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