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The Gazette from Montreal, Quebec, Canada • Page 10
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The Gazette from Montreal, Quebec, Canada • Page 10

The Gazettei
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Issue Date:
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VOL. CLX. No. 119 10 THE GAZETTE, MONTREAL, TUESDAY MAY 19, 1931. RAILROAD REPORT FINDS DEFENDER mean an estimated aving of yen (about $10,000,000) during the current fiscal year and 25.000,000 yen next year.

AGREEMENT REPORTED Beers, the South African Diamond Syndicate, and the London Diamond Corporation, running for four years and giving De Beers continuance of their former control, was signed on Saturday. It is the result of fifteen months negotiations conducted in liondon, and Cape Town. The Friend, which is weli informed, says the agreement is expected to bring immediate relief to tension in th diamond industry. The textile industry Is listed Canada's fifth Industry. the territory allotted to a "census enumerator," who conducts the house-to-nouse and farm-to-farm canvass, and who is the only census official with whom the public comes directly- in contact.

One object of the census being to determine parliamentary representation, the act directs that census districts shall correspond as nearly as possible to the federal constituencies for the time being, whilst the sub-districts are to be roughly the same as the polling subdivisions. Some of the constituencies, however, are too large for one commissioner and are CANADA'S 7th CENSUS WHY AND HOW TAKEN An Explanatory Article Prepared the Dominion Statistician With the Authority of the Hon. the Minister of Trade and Commerce fabling kings and oligarchies to tax c- the reasons therefor, a number of questions have been inserted, after consultation with Dominion and Provincial Government authorities and leading labor organizations. This information will be of first importance in assisting the Government in its policy regarding unemployment and labor problems generally. The schedule relating to agriculture was also drawn up in consultation with Dominion and Provincial Agricultural Departments and other agricultural authorities, and in the light of the suggestions made for a world census of agriculture by the International Institute of Agriculture.

It will elicit a wealth of information on such features as farm acreages, land values, buildings, implements, crops, fertilizers, farm labor, orchards, small fruits, farm gardens, live stock, poultry, animal products, forest products, land tenure, irrigation, drainage, co-operative marketing, farm mortgages, etc. The schedule on animals, etc. in towns is supplementary to the agricultural schedule; there are of course a considerable number of horses, cattle, poultry, bees, within urban limits and their products, and those of market gardens, town, orchards, are in the aggregate important. The schedule on industrial and business concerns collects only the name, address and class of each; this is for the use of a subsequent detailed inquiry which will be conducted through correspondence by ence of other countries and of six previous censuses in Canada in view, and with special reference to the requirements of the present hour and also to the necessity of not burdening the community with any inquiry that is not fully justified. Perfection of organization is not claimed, for census takinr, in Canada as in other countries, is still in process of development.

Nevertheless the census merits the support of each and every citizen as a patriotic duty, notwithstanding features that may be irksome. The census is taken for the benefit of the community as a whole and therefore directly or indirectly of every member of the community. Never before has there been the like need for census information. Since the last census the aftermath of the war, setting up new strains and stresses and generally creating conditions of the utmost consequence to our national future, has left scarcely a branch of the national life untouched. Especially is an appraisement of the national status necessary at the present moment of acute economic depression.

An appeal to the people is therefore made to assist in this great national undertaking by furnishing the information fully and and thus helping to render the census worthy of the Dominion and of the serious purposes which it has in view. GERMAN CRUISER TO BE LAUNCHED Expected to Bring Relief to Tension in Diamond Field Bloemfontein, Orange Free State, May 18. The newspaper, the Friend, said today that a new agreement by the Union Government, I)e -x. i dun Lite Montreal Dominant Office Building Situ Corlron Hotel, jMtKoijolKotel. 1 C.P.R.

rerminal. Hotel. il Ill I J. mm Building J.I.I. HI Governor Case Believes in New England Minority Opinion Providence, R.I., May 18.

Governor Norman S. Case, of Khode Island, today defended the minority report of the New England governors' railroad committee on the ground that it would eventually "give to all New England a far superior transportation machine to that contemplated in the majority report." Governor Case said: "The theory of the All-New England Railroad does not appeal to me as sound because of the fact that today a majority of stock in the roads now in New England, with the exception of the Maine Central, is held and controlled outside New England. I believe that the all-New England Railroad will isolate New-England whereas the minority re- nort will provide New England wun adequate competition in railroad transDortation and thereby lessen the expense to manufacturers of transportation costs in the moving of their raw materials and tinisnea products. "The minority report does not advocate the bringing into New England of additional railroads but suggests the allocating of trackage already operating to strong trunk lines. The Pennsylvania would an sorb the New Haven, the Chesa peake and Ohio, Nickel Plate would take over the Boston ana Maine, thereby substituting a strong trunk line for a weak local line; and the New York Central would remain as it is.

as would the Canadian 'roads. "From a study of the building up of ports and industrial sections. 1 think it is safe to say that no great port has ever been built up on single railroad facility but must have competitive trunk-line service." Salary Cut Proposed Tokio, May 18.. Under a tentative agreement reached yesterday between Premier Wakatsuki and cabinet ministers, approval will be asked for a salary reduction for officials. If approved the reduction would be effective June 1 and would AM or P.M.

Any is Lite Saver vcv. time for Smokers jmmQKe tfienexb Cm Aha taste better-'. PEM-MINT CINN-0M0N, ItC-ORICi VKHET WINT-O-CAEN ft time ht i 1 TV Hindenburg to Officiate at Ceremony at Kiel Today Kiel, May IS. Bright scenes of by gone imperial days will be recalled tomorrow when the German navy's youngest and strongest postwar cruiser will be launched. The octogenarian soldier-president Paul Von Hindenburg will be sponsor of the cruiser and emash the traditional bottle of champagne.

The entire German navy was assembled today in Kiel Harbor especially for this occasion. An elaborate programme has been worked out, crowned by the attendance of President Von Hindenburg. At the moment the "grand old man" arrives at Kiel main station, the whole fleet will fire a salute of 21 guns, while at the same time the presidential colors will be hoisted on the cruiser "Koenigs-berg." Owing to the restrictions of Versailles, the German engineers had to construct into the vessel of ten thousand tons a fighting strength of twenty thousand tons. A further novelty is the newly-devised defensive arrangement against mines which, of course, is strictly kept secret, enabling the warcraft to pass any mino barrier without the slightest risk. The body of the vessel consists of welded steel plates; absence of rivets saves deadweight for the benefit of a heavier armament.

For the first time in the history of war-craft building, a considerable quantity ot light metal has been used for the inner constructions. The Diesel machinery plant, which is tho biggest that has ever been installed into a vessel, means a revolution in shipping. It develops fifty-thousard horse-power and its total weight amounts to 17 li pounds per horse-power compared with 110 pounds per horsepower of Diesel motors that were in use up to 1918. This plant gives the vessel a speed of 26 knots and a radius of ten thousand miles. The christening ceremonies will be concluded by navy manoeuvres and a review of the whole fleet off Kiel Bight by President Von Hindenburg aboard ths cruiser "Koenigsberg." Textile Workers Strike Lille, France, May 18.

One hundred thousand textile workers went on strike today because their pay had been cut three to four per cent to cover social insurance. About one-fourth of the workers in the Lille region stayed on the job. On June 1, 1931, the seventh census of the Dominion will be taken. The census has been called "the largest single act of administration of the Government, in relerenci partly to its physical extent, the census organization covering every section of the country for a com plex and many-sided task, and also to the great importance of census results. The success of the census de pends largely upon the co-operation of the people.

"Without general appreciation of the ends in view, and without the cordial assistance of individual citizens towards those ends, a good census will be impos sible. A brief description of the scope, methods and purpose of the census and of its place in statistical and general administration will therefore be or interest and utility at the present moment. HISTORICAL SUMMARY. Census-taking dates from the dawn of civilization. Moses numbered the Children of Israel in the fifteenth century, B.C.

(Exodus XXX, 12-15; Numbers 1, 2-4 and 47-49; III, 14-16; IV, 34-43). But statistical investigations were known many centuries earlier, in Babvlonia, (4,000 BO, in China (3,000 B.C.), in Egypt (2,500 B.C.) A census taken by King David in 1017 B.C. achieved evil notoriety in history from the Divine wrath which it provoked (II Samuel XXIV, 1-25; I Chronicles XXI, 1-27) and which was cited for many generations against the spirit of inquiry. The census was one of the institutions founded by the great lawgiver Solon at Athens in the sixth century, B.C. The Romans were assiduous census-takers, both under the Republic and the Empire; Julius Ceasar reformed the census among ether things.

The Breviary of Charlemagne (A.D. 808) and the Domesday Book of William the Conqueror (A.D. 1086) are celebrated mediaeval censuses. Later, the census disappeared from Europe. It may not be generally known that the credit of taking the first census of modern times belongs to Canada.

The year was 1666; the census was one of the Colony of New France. There had been earlier records of settlement at Port Koy (1605) and Quebec, (1608), but the census of 1666 was a systematic "nominal" enumeration of the people, (i.e., a record of each individual by name), taken for a fixed date, showing the age, sex, place of residence, occupation and conjugal condition of each person. The results are to be seen in a document of 154 pages in the Archives of Paris, of which a transcript is in Ottawa. Altogether this census recorded 3,215 souls. When it is recalled that in Europe the first mod-ern census dated only from the eighteenth century( those of France and England dating from the first year of the nineteenth), whilst in I the United States no census was taken before 1790, the achievement of the primitive St.

Lawrence Colony in instituting what is today one of the principal instruments of Government in every civilized community may call for more than passing appreciation. This initial Canadian census was repeated several times during the French regime, after which a series of less elaborate investigations by successive colonial Governors took its place. The first legislation on the subject was an act of the United Provinces, dated 1847. Under it a census of Upper and Lower Canada was taken in 1851 and again in 1861. Censuses of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick were taken in the same years.

An account of these and of preceding investigations may be found in Volume IV of the Report of the Census of 1871, a volume designed to start the new Dominion on its career with a review of all previous statistics relating to its domain. At Confederation the British North American Act specifically mentioned "The Census and Statistics" as falling within Dominion as distinguished from provincial jurisdiction (Section 91). The first Dominion Census Act was passed in 1 870, and the first census was taken thereunder in 1871. Similar comprehensive censuses have followed every tenth year, namely, 1881, 1891, 1901, 1911 and 1921. In 1886, a special census, of Manitoba Northwest Territories was taken midway between the other censuses.

This so-called "Quinquennial" census was repeated for Manitoba in 1896, whilst in 1906, 1916 and it also embraced Saskatchewan and Alberta, created into provinces in 1905, the reason being the rapidly changing conditions in these newer sections of the Dominion. The census of June 1, 1931, is therefore the seventh comprehensive decennial census to be taken since Confederation. The administration of the census was originally vested In the Minister of Agriculture; in 1919, however, in a reorganization and -centralization of the statistical work of the Government it was transferred to the Minister of Trade and Commerce, who will accordingly promulgate the schedules and regulations of the present census. OBJECTS AND USES OF CENSUS. With the census of ancient times we would today have little sympathy.

Originally the census was no more than a means of mustering men for foreign wars, and of en- inoved from this conception that it is now expressly forbidden to use census data for any such purposes. In "anada the fundamental legal raison d'etre of the census is to determine the representation in our federal Parliament. As is well-known, the British North America Act gave the Province of Quebec a fixed number of seats (sixty-five) in the Dominion House of Commons. The number assigned to the other Provinces was pro rata, with an arrangement that the first readjustment should take place on the completion of the census of 1871, and that a similar readjustment should follow every subsequent decennial census. The census is thus taken primarily to enable a redistribution bill to be passed by Parliament.

But the census has far wider uses than to fix electoral representation. It constitutes, in fact, under modern system, nothing less than a great periodical stocktaking of the Canadian people, designed to show from the widest angle the poirt that has been reached in the general progress of the nation, -t is difficult within brief compass to explain how this function is fulfilled. Fundamentally, the importance vt the census hinges upon its analysis of the human element or man power of the country. The peop themselves after all are the basic asset of every state. Their numbers, sex, age occupation, racial origin, language, education, are facts in themselves of the greatest moment.

They constitute, moreover, the background against which almost all other facts must be projected if the latter are to have real significance. The well being of the state physical, moral, economic (including such varied phases as birth and death rates, education, transportation facllties, financial conditions, etc.) with its converse in any" form, can be appre hended and interpreted only through the medium of population statistics. Even if the census went no farther it would be the basis of all study of our social and economic conditions. Linked with other official data, however, it rounds out tno scheme of information by which as by a chart the Government directs the national affairs. Without the census, it is literal truth to say that legislation and administration would be carried on in the dark, and that there would be no means of knowing whether the country was on the road to success or disaster.

So cogently is this felt that censuses at five year intervals, instead of ten, are universally advocated, the chief drawback being the heavy cost. As the practice of nations in regard to census-taking tends more and more to uniformity, the census affords- the inestimable benefits of comparison with other countries-and enables our national problems to be studied in their general setting. Especially is this true of the countries which constitute the British Empire. The censuses of the various Dominions, India and the Crown Colonies are now taker, in the same year and within a few weeke of each other; so that when the results are completed we shall have a large and harmonious body of data at command for the sti'dy not only of the relations of the Dominions inter se, but also of the place of the Empire as a whole among the nations of the world. As a result of the work of the International Institute of Agriculture, which has been investigating the requirements of a census of agriculture and the means by which it may be made uniform in as far as possible for all countries, we will now have for agriculture a body of data which can be compared with those of other countries.

SCOPE OF CENSUS. As already remarked, the primary task of the census is the enumeration and -description of every man, woman and child in Canada. Good business dictates that when so large an organization as this requires has once been created, it should be put to every available purpose. In other words, the "overhead" must earn its maximum. The census therefore 6hould deal not only with the people themselves, but directly with the people's institutions and affairs, insofar as the latter can be properly brought within its scope.

CENSUS SCHEDULES. The schedules used in the census are six in number dealing respec tively with (1) Population, (2) Agriculture, (3) Live Stock, fruit growing, in towns, (4) Mer chandizing and Service Establish ments (5) Blindness and Deaf Mutism, and (6) Institutions (penal, mental and neurological, child-caring, homes for adults, hospitals, sanatoria, dispensaries, clinics, day nurseries). Merely to state the questions asked on these would be impossible here. The population schedule carries some forty col umns, recording for each person the name, family, kind of dwelling, age, sex, conjugal condition, birthplace, citizenship or nationality, racial origin, language, religion, education; occupation, unemployment, etc. in all necessary detail.

To meet the pressing demand for facts regarding the number of unemployed and Dominant, Central Location) RISING above Dominion Square where uptown and downtown meet in the path of the westward trend of business close to C.P.R. and C.N.R. stations near main hotels, the new and impressive Sun Life Building enjoys a dominant, central location which should prove of advantage to your business. "Tower" office space now available for renting at current rates offers unusual health features, including "VITA" glass windows, regulated humidity, perfected ventilation, hot water heating thermostatically controlled, etc. The services and appointments are exceptional: under-floor ducts allowing of telephones and lights to suit individual elevator service, fine freight and postal facilities, etc.

The Rental Agents will gladly show floor plans and furnish all information or call. accordingly divided; departure is also necessary in a good many cases from the polling units. Altogether the census of 1931 will employ 253 commissioners and probably 15,000 enumerators. The commissioners are appointed by the minister, and instructed by an officer of the Bureau; the enumerators are appointed and instructed by the commissioners, who must also check and vouch for all the enumerators' returns before the latter are forwarded to Ottawa. All field officers are paid for the most part on a "piece" basis, i.e., acording to the population, farms, enumerated.

All are required to pass a practical test in the work before appointment. For a census that covers half a continent, embracing the most varied conditions of nature and settlement, uniformity of plan is clearly impossible. For the remote and seldom-penetrated regions of unpaid, xMormern untano ana the West, the organization of the fur trading companies and of the various church missions have been engaged. In other similar regions the Royal Canadian Mounted Police will take the census, whilst the acents nf thA Tninn Tin vi will perform a like service for the inuian population on reserves and elsewhere. Representatives of the department will visit the remote northern and sub-Arctic regions.

Even in districts that are closer, there remain a large number of cases where pack trains must be organized, steamers chartered and similar snpr.inl mttana arymlMra ensure that no section of the coun try escapes enumeration. Aero- piiiiiea win oe usea in some districts. For the compilation of the census an extra staff of vr vzn will be engaged at Ottawa. Census compilation and tabulation is an elaborate and detailed process which n-niiM tab mu spauc? IU describe. An interesting feature is the use of machinery in compiling and analyzing the returns.

The method is very briefly as follows: The several facts obtained for each individual are punched on a specially rfpfilVnpil rDrA hn n-r tions showing by their location the exact information obtained at the Census. ThA rarHa ova and otherwise manipulated by macnines which count and record various combinations of data as required, according to the perfora. tions on the cards. For example, should it be desired to know the number nf tu Anniu ul Canadian citizenship between the ui ana ou, in tne province of Ontario, the machines will pick out and count the cards in a few operations, 'ihe Invention of these machines, of which the Bureau of Statistics has a large battery, some being of its own invention and construction, has greatly increased the scope and accuracy of the information derivable from the census, at ine same time that it has halved the cost. A record exists of over a million and a half classifications by one machine in a single day.

It is expected that from two to five weeks from ui fice in normal localities for the completion or the field work. After the third or fourth month it should be possible to give out the first results for many cities, towns, counties, etc. As to when the final count bv nrovinnp fnr th ion will be available, so many un- inrescrauie contingencies are possible that nrnnherv but it is expected that five or six laonius snouia ename a close approximation to be made. In the recent United Stptoa rinoB population count was announced in xuui munins ana seven days. Altogether, an alrearlv nntaA census will cost some millions of aouars.

ine amount set aside this year is about two million and a half, but there was a vote of last year for equipment and preparatory work, and at least another half million will probably be required in 1932 and 1933 to finish. CONCLUSION. The foregoing will have given an outline of What the census is ai.d of how it is carried out. It remains only to say that the whole has been planned with the utmost car over a period of years, with the experi utnodiian. Montreal.

.3.00 p.m.. (E.S.T.) 15 p.m. (E.S.T.) Toronto. .9 .25 p.m. (E.S.T.) 8.15 sjm.

(C.S.T.) ROYAL YORK .30 p-m. (E.S.T.) 9.15 p.m. (E.S.T.) Montreal. .9.45 pjn. (E.S.T.) the Bureau, and which will afford a considerable body of new data covering the whole field of distribution.

The record of the blind and of deaf-mutes is to facilitate the work of educational and other institutions for these classes. The population in institutions will be enumerated in the regular way by means of the population schedule proper, but it is intended that a special inquiry shall be handled direct from the Bureau with the heads of institutions in order that not merely the numbers of men, women and children committed to such institutions may be obtained, but also facts regarding the characteristics of the inmates, causes of commitment and other information which will furnish the basis for a complete analysis of problems incidental to social life, and act as a guide to the Provincial Governments and organizations engaged in social and welfare work. In connection with these some what elaborate and searching series of inquiries the following points should beclearly understood: (1) that no question has been inserted merely for the gratification of curi osity or because the information would be interesting, but only because it has a bearing on basic, social or economic conditions; and J-tnirt-the answeis given by the individual are absolutely confidential, every employee of the Census being under oath and penalty against revealing any individual Item, and the Bureau of Statistics itself being forbidden to issue any statement that would lay bare any personal matter. Though the name of each person is taken down this is not fcr the purpose of associating the individual with any of the facts that are recorded, but merely as a check on the accuracy of tho enumeration. The census is first and last for statistical purposes and cannot be made the basis of any direct administrative action.

Let it also be noted that census enumerators are required to use courtesy and tact in collecting the information, though refusal to answer a census question is penalized by statute. SYSTEM OF COMPILATION. The organization by which this far-flung investigation is carried out and its results reduced to comprehensible and usable form is a large one. Its nucleus exists in a small permanent staff constituting one of the branches of the Bureau of Statistics. This branch maintains connection between census and census, so that experience is continuous and cumulative.

When a census impends, all plans are originated by it, and the necessary expansion of personnel arranged for. The latter falls under two main headings, the field work or collection of the facts, the compilation and tabulation of the latter into census reports. Every detail of importance down to the final stages of the work must be foreseen and provided for from its inception. In planning the field work the country is first divided into "census districts, each of which is placed in charge of a "census commis sioner." The districts are then divided into "sub-districts," varying in population from 600 to 800 in rural localities, and from 1,000 to 1,800 in urban. The sub-district is Via Canadian Pacific I tin Life un uomimon jquurv Rental Agents: Walter Co.

I St 485 McGill Street, Montreal, Que, Telephone: MAfquette 7301 Mt A lY9z CAUTERETS HI 111 Famous Health Resort FRANCE For descriptive booklets on Cauterets and information as to Steamships, Rail-. ways and Hotels, apply to HONE TOURS Suite 103, University Tower BIdg. 660 St. Catherine St. West.

Montreal Phone HArbour 3284 The A of Healthy Childhood Cleanliness, fresh air and nourishing food like Christie's Arrowroots are the foundation of good health. Christie's Arrowroot Biscuits are un-rivalled for little babies and older children because only the purest arrowroot wholesome and nourishing is used in making them. And remember, Christie's Arrowroots are always fresh. There is no substitute fof, Christie's Arrowroots. Leaves Arrives Leaves Arrives Leaves Arrives Arrives Older than Methuselah The custom of loaning money on mortgages dates back to very ancient times, and it said that Solon, the Greek Sage, eulogized the practice before the Christian Era.

To loan money upon the guarantee of a mortgage is in keeping with the good example set by our ancestors and it amounts to practicing the elementary precaution which safeguards us from financial disasters. In your investments give the -preference to mortgage loans. There are no safer investments and none so easy to transact. The rate of interest on a mortgage loan is substantial and it is always payable in full at stated dates. Consult your notary.

If interested, write to Box 1233, Gazette Office. All writers use words as their tools, yet only a few create "best sellers." The difference comes in the thought behind the words and the manner of their usage. Suiting the message to the need is a definite part of our service. The Federated Press Limited PRINTERS AND LITHOGRAPHERS (Member ot the Sales Guild Inc.) 1187 Bleury Street LAncaster 8181 9 Both East and Westbound' trains stop at Westmount and Montreal West on signal. AfiTOTdD(lI)tte I ij Improved Equipment 7.

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