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The Virginia Gazette from Williamsburg, Virginia • Page 1

Williamsburg, Virginia
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Printed by JOHN DIXON And WILLIAM HUNTER. MAY 25, 1776. ALiJTerfons may be fupplied with this Paper at Twelve Shillings and Sixpence a Year, and have Advertisements (of a moderate Length) inferted for Three Shillings the firft Week, and Two Shillings each Week after. Printing Work done at this Office in the neatest Manner1, with Care and Expedition. From the PENNSYLVANIA EVENING POST.

Reafons for a Declaration of the Independence of the American Colonies. jflfcyJr HE colonies will be delivered from two go JT) vernmcnts directly oppofed to each other. SC 2. The colonies will be delivered from the diforders which anfe from theunlimit I nr ed, undefcribed, and fimetitnes arbitrary I 1 II vn jf 11 i powers 01 voiivcnuons, vuiumiuccs 01 w. aaiety, ana ommmees 01 lnipeeuou fV 3' A criminal correfpondence with the IviWAWVAvlfL enemies of this country will be prevented, or punifhed under the article of high trea The colonies will be delivered from the danger of Crown officers, whofe apparent intereft it will always be to remain inactive, or to co operate with the enemies of America.

The Britifh conftitution may be immediately reftored to each colony, with the great and neceffary improvements of a Governor and Council chofen by the people. 6. France will immediately attack Bntaui in the molt defence, lefs parts of her empire, and thus draw off her fleets and armies from our coafts. 7. All the powers of Europe will conceive fuch idea? of our union, love of freedom, and military refources, that they will not be tempted to accept of a fliare in us upon the condition of conquering us.

0 N. 4 Intelligence ExT'Raordinary. HIS Majefty's right arm is lame, occafioned by a fprain from flourilhing his fword over the heads of his new made Te Rev. Mr. Peters, from' Connecticut, has obtained his Maiefty'a leave to pick hops at 9d.per day, a penny more than the ufual price, as a reward for his paft faithful fervices.

And by this lucrative bufmefs it is fuppofed he will foon acquire a fortune equal to what he left bekind him. Colonel Ingerfoll, from the MafTachufetts, has a patent for mowing grafs, and is to have iod. fterlingr day, jd. half penny pe? acre, and has an exdufive nght to cut where he pleafes. There are many other rewards given to perfons who have ned from the colonies, equal to the above mentioned.

4pril a LAST Friday a veffeL arrived off Mirbiehead, from Halifax, Dr. Stockbridge, and a nurnber of other refugee Tories. The information from fome of them is, that they had their choice of enlifting as foldiers, and as fuch to be provided for, or ta ftarve, of return to this colony. They chofc the latter, and are now fupplicating theinWntry for mercy. How they have been difpofcd of we have not heard.

From the New York Journal. were a few days fince informed of the honour done General Gage, by naming a child after him, it may not be a mifs to let it be known, that Lord Dunmore a fo comes in for his fliare in the fame way. Therefore, if you th.nk proper, infert the inclofcd in your paper, and oblige a cuftomer. On Monday the 8th inftant a lufty likely Negro Wench was delivered of a male child, who, memory of a certain notable Negro Chief, is named Dunmore." Haill doughty Ethkpean Chief! Though ignominious Negro Thiej 7 THf BLACK hall prop thy finking name And damn thee to perpetual fame. uery, Is not this, though an aft of juftice to Dunmore, cruelty to tne innoceiuiiui Afmgular pajfage in the life of Behram, King of Pe I A BEHRAM, King of Perfia, fucceeded to his father's throne, at an age more proper to be under controul than to govern his fpecies He imagined that the whole bufmefs of a Monarch was to confult his own hapuinefs To attain this end, he abandoned the arduous tafk of government to his Prime Minifter.

This Viziar never expeains; to be questioned about his management fham'efully abufed tlfe power delegated to him, as did all the fubordinate officers under his direilion, depending upon the like impunity; fo that they. fought only their own p. ofit, without any regard to the public, to which they were refponfible. The troops, ill paid, became negligent their duty; no order maintained no jultice adminiftred nor any ceconomy praflifed, the people became feditious. The Prince was too late informed that his fubjeas were ready to deny h.m obedience.

He was alarmed at the report, and flaking off the indolence he had fo long been accuftomed to, inquired from whence fuch a general diffatisfaaion mould proceed, as he did no expea or forefte His counfellors fo much dreaded the Viziar d.fpleafuie, that though they acknowledged the diforders, yet had neither virtue nor courage to lay open the caufe. As the Prince" was oneway walking penfive, and ruminating upon the evils he wifhed to remove, he met with a fhepherd, who had been hanging his had 'that animal done (fays the King) to merit fuch he has committed (angered the (hepherd) is, he betrayed the confidence I repofed in him: I railed h.m up, and fed him plentifully, that he might defend my fheep from the wolf I SS Pinftcad cf performing the I intended and eTpefted from him, he Entered into a comb.nat.on with thofe vSSs 'and not only ncglefted the charge cf protec tion, but alfo became a fharer with them in the plunder; by which means my flock is devoured through the peihdiouihefs of my aog. lie calamities or the multitude is always owing to tnoie mat govern. Thefe words made a deep impreffion in the King's mind, opened his eyes to refleaion, and convinced him that he had been impru. dent in trulting too implicitly to his Viziar, as treacherous as the inepherd dog, and therefore condemned him to the fame punilh merit the cur fo juftly deferved.

This example ftrua terror into thofe, who, in imitation of the rnme Minuter, had abuled that portion of authority committed to them. By this wholefome feverity good order was eltablifhed in Perfia, and the King was inftrufted by the leader of a flock in wnat manner he ihuuld govern his fubjects. TO THE PRINTERS. Gentlemen, Once more oblige many of your cujlomers by inferting in your ga x.euc we joumumg piece. To the Touth in the Army, DEAR SONS A your remote and unknown fituations to many of us puts it il out of our power to addrets you in a more private way, we beg you will receive this as if dit6led to each or you in particular, from your tender parents.

Our love to liberty (that gift of Heaven) love to our country, and love to you, triumphed over the more fond and tender feelings or a parent heart We wiped off the trickling tear, und cheer fully bad you farewell, when you went forth in defence of your country, to engage in all the perils and hardfhips of war. Wo would now bid you be of good courage, and play the men for your people, and for the attes ojyour Cod. tie obedient to your omcers, and kind and friendly to each other. Let not dangers nor hardfhips difcourage you, nor ever let our eyes be blalted with the fight of your names in the public prints as defer ters. Serve God, tear to offend him, and perfevere in your duty till he fhall crown you with viaory, which, in fuch a caufe, you may have good reafon to expea.

But, fons, with grief and diftrefa we rauft inform you, that we hear a very different condua prevails in your camps, Our hearts are made to and our ears to tingle, with the reports ofyourwickednefs, curling, fwearing, gaming, and debauchery. What! cannot you make good foldiers, unlefs you firlt commence veterans in fin Cannot your country ne laveq out oy tne 101s 01 your fouls? A thoufand worlds fo bought were bought too dearl" For what ball a man give in exchange for his foul Is it the way to obtain the favour and blefTing of God, to live in contempt of his laws and government, and daily to affront and provoke him? This is not the doctrine we taught you; nor what you learn'd from your bibles. Or are you already arrived at the wretched fhift of infidels and libertines, in trying to eafe your confeiences by difbelieving God's woid, and thereby arrogate to yourfelves a liberty to fin with impunity With equal fuccefs you might as well think to evade the force of a cannon ball levelled at your head, by winking hard againft it. The doarmes of chriftianity and facred truths of fcripture will live, when all defpifers of it are dead and damned according to its fentance (of whatever rank they may be) and the time is fait haltening when they fhall call to the rocks and mountains to fall on them, and hide them from the wrath of an offended God. We therefore now call upon you in time, and warn you by all that is dear and facred to break of your finful courfes before the dcltruaive confequences of your doings come upon you 1 'Ruin, certain ruin, fcr yourfelves and your country.

Beg of your officers to ufe their authority and influence in dif couraging vice among you of every kind, and in particular that they drive from your camps thofe fiery curies, and word of plagues to human kind, lewd and abandoned women. As we mult not be tedious, let thefc few hints fuffice. May the blefTing of God attend you; may he profper you and give you fuccefs, and return you in his own time a comfort to us your afijiiled parents, and a blefTing to your country. From, dear fons, Your affeSionate Parents, To the PEOPLE of PENNSYLVANIA. LETTER VII.

THE author of Common Senfe does not truft wholly to hism ture doBrines for the demolition of monarchical government; and, indeed, how could he? For he feeins only to have begun his ftudy of the Bible fince the fatal 19th of April 1775." Before that period, as he eloquently tells us, no man was a warmer wijhcr to reconciliation with monarchical government than hirai'elf." Jt may be proper, then, to tike fome notice of what he offers by way of argument againft monarchy, and particularly the hereditary kind. If hereditary fucceflions (fays he, meaning fucceifion to monarchical government) did enfure a race'of good men, it would have the feal of divine authority." Thus we find him, with Ins own hand, affixing the feal of Heaven to what he has before told us the devil invented, and the Almighty entered his proteji A ftrange inconfiftency, as well as heterodoxy ior if monarchy be from hell, and reprobated by Heaven, how can a iucttfuon to it be fanaified by the authority of ever Jailing goodneis He finds another curious argument againft theEnglifh monarchy in particular, by tracing it to the rafcally original of a Fnmhbaf tard Yet, in the eltiroativn of many, this will prove as little aeainft the inftitutiou itfelf as it would prove againtt.tbis author's argument or mine in the prefent contioverfy it both of us were difcovered not only to have lprung from bajfards, but to be fuch ourfelves. femily fcutchfon is without a blot muft but of very frtfo date. The Roman empire, by tins author's argument, had a double or twin rafcaUty in its original. Hamulus and Remur.

did not know their own father. Tbey were (fays Sidney) the foas sf a Nun, conftupraced (or pknei 4.) as is probable by a lufty foldier, who was (by the language of flattery, afterwards) laid to be Mars, and for their vigour and valour were made heads of the pioplc." The reft of his arguments appear nothing better than thefe, even where he difplays his whole force, in laying before us the materials of the Englifk conftitution under different heads. Firft the remains of wwr chical tyranny, in the perfon of the King. Secondly, the remain! of arifocratical tyranny, in the perfons of the Peers. Thirdly, the new republican materials, in the perfons of the Commons," Thefe, he intimates, may be virtuous but he fhould have made them as tyrannical as the others, fo far as thefe colonies are con cerned; elfe what are we contending for againft them? Alas I What more than Augean labour have I undertaken, in attempting to anfwer a writer, who, under the fpecious name of Common Senfe, is conftantly dealing out paradoxus, and fetting himfelfup, not only in contradiction, to the fober fentiments, of the wifeft of mankind, but often in contradiaion to himfelf Can any man expea credit who will gravely alfert, that a people long famed forwifdom and love of liberty, would have employed themfclves for a thoufand years, in compounding and rearing up a conftitution out of the materials of, the different fmpli forms of government, and, all the while, have feleaed nothing but the tyr rannical remains of each To reafon with fuch a writejtMrould be loft labour.

Some affertions are too abfurd for the poffibilLty of refutation. The rules of logic cannctt lay of them. In fuch a cafe, the belt anfwer that can be given, is to lay be fore the reader a true account of fhe Englifh conftitution, thet praifes of which have adorned and filled the volumes of the greatf eft men, in our own and other countries. In this part of my work, therefore, I ftyiH have little more to do than to copy themi and as the fentiments of foreigners may be deemed more impartial than our own, I fhall take one of the gi cateft of them, the illuff trious Montbsui8u, for my qlwf guidc. But as this truly enlightened genius, with the dignity of a profound lawgiver delivers himfelf almoft in the conciie ftile of aphorifms, that he may be more ufeful to men, clear and comprehenfive understanding renders them fit for the like office themfclves, in the fervice of their country, I fhall endeavour to convey the fubftance of his doarines in the molt familia.1" ftyle, retaining, at far as I an) able, his feniib and fpirit.

I fhall Hkewife venture fome time to make a few adiitiona, either, illuftration or to bringJiis general principles more, clofely home to the Englifh conftitution. There i certainly fomething too venerable in a fetbric 'built up with fo much by our aceors, cctnepted. Vfltb, fo much blood, and to which they have adhered for, fa many ages, to be lightly given up, upon the partial or general inveaivei, of any writer, or number of writers arguing from the abufeoi things againft the ufe of tljeni. We would not lock ourfelves ovii: of an old habitation, till we had provided ew and, better one; nor. part with common friend upon be paflionate accufations of an avowed enemy, without hearing what he could fay' in his de fence, and giving him a fair triajv For, at this rate, we could nave nouung oi me lean iinoiiiiy or permanency upon eartn, anal our whole lives would be employed in, making and unmaking, building up and puUing down, without ever reaping the fmaljeft fruit of our labours.

The author of Common Senfe ftands fingtilar in his rage for condemning the Englifh conftitution in the lump and the admini ftration ofit from the beginning. The immortal Sidnbv himfelf gives it a different character, and fpcafcswith reverence of the wildom of Ouraiiceftoi s. T'y evidently Appear, fays he, not only to have intended well, but tp have taken a right courfe to accomplifh w)iat they intended, This had Jong as the caufe continued, and the only fault whiclj afcribed to that which they eftbli filed is, that it has not proved to be per petual, which is no more than may be juftly faid of the befthu manconftitutions thateverhave been in the world. If we will be juft to our anceftors it win become us, in our time, rather to purfue what we know they intended, and by new conftitution to repair the breaches made upon thttfdt than to accufe them of defeSs that will for ever attend the anions of men." Montesquieu, in the cool moments of philofophical reflecr tion, unbiafledby local prejudices, and rcmofe, both in time and place, from the fcenes he h.aS given us aii inftruaiyp leflon on this head. A very droll fpeaacle (fays he) it was in the lafi century, to behold the impotent efforts the Englifh made for thp eitabiilhment ot democracy or republican government.

The government was continually changing. The people, amazed at fo many revolutions, fought every where for a democracy, withoufbeing able to find it" any where. At length, after a frries of tumultuary motions and violent fhocks, thev were obliged to have recouife tp tjiat very government, which they had lb odioufly profciibed." Every government, in order to be complete, muft have within itfelf the power of preferving its bein, as well as purfuing its well being. And lucii a power neceftmly Iniplies three things. lit.

Ltgijlation, or the making laws amj regulations for the good cf the community, id. The execution of thefe laws. id. The judging when they are duly executed, and punifliing offenders. ne greai oojtci or me wnoie is ponucai natriy, wnicn iviontel quieu defines that tranquillity or peace of mind arifing from the opinion each perfon has of his, fafety.

In order to have this liberty, it is rcquifue that the be io conftituted. as' ne man need not be afraid ot another," either in refpea of his ptifon or' property. Every man's own feelings can tell hirn that tins is a true definition. ot liele three powers, tiic legiftativet the executive, and judicial, in one man or any number otmtii, is not liberty but tyranny complete becaul'e there can be no frfety for individuals in fuch a cafe, unlefs evodnefs were always united with power which is not to be looked for, except under the perfeft government of Heaven. It is 3 miftake (fays the Mr.

Locie) to think that this fault (the abufc of power) is proper only to monar chies. Other forms of government xie h'abie to it as well aj Mentefpiieu, B. xi. Ch. 6.

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