Dayton Daily News from Dayton, Ohio on February 11, 1934 · 13
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Dayton Daily News from Dayton, Ohio · 13

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Sunday, February 11, 1934
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SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 11, 1934 THE 'DAYTON" DAILY NEWS . SECOND NEWS SBC. Greatest'Sea Power Ever Known Is Aim of America; Building Program Started Statement of Policy Will Be the First of Kind in Nation's History Roosevelt Backing It. Br OWEN I SCOTT Copyright, 1M4, by The Amrrinn Nwppr Alllanra and Tin Paylon Pally Nwa WASHINGTON, Feb. 10. Lost to siffht in the shuffle of emergency action and legislation in Washington is an impending statement of American naval policy, accompanied by a naval building program, that will giye the United States a sea force as powerful as any in the world. i That statement of policy, in the form of an act of congress, will declare this country's intention to build a navy as large a is permitted by the agreements reached in Washington back in 1922 and in London in 1930. It will also declare the intention of the United States to keep its navy at the full allowed strength. In accordance with this new policy, the president is to he authorized to undertake construction of a large complement of ships. It is described as the first f formal declaration of permanent naval policy in the country's history. It is to usher in the most ambitious naval building program since the war days and place the navy in the most enviable position it has occupied since the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. Representative Carl Vinson, of Georgia, chairman of the house naval affairs committee, is fathering the legislation. His bill already has passed the house and is favorably reported for early action in the senate. It has the backing of President Roosevelt. 'Just at this time, when the county is about to embark on a definite program of naval construction, there are many events that serve to center attention on the navy. There is the troubled situation in the Pacific- with Japan and Russia at odds, and the British uneasv over the sparks that might fly. There is the fact that for four years not a single ship was authorized for the American navy. There is the demand of the Japanese for a navy as large as either the British or the American fleets. There is the approaching naval limitation conference to be held in 1935, when the Japanese demands are expected to be made. .There is the report of a Japanese admiral that the navy of Japan is stronger now than the American navy in submarines and destroyers. Into that situation the United States now will inject a statement of national policy that asserts its intention to build ship for ship and gun for gun with any country. To carry out this policy, the country may be called upon to spend between ?40(),ooo,ouo and &uu,-000,000 a year. That would support an enlarged personnel, a building program for ships and airplanes and the regular operation of the navy. The United States thus ceases its effort to induce other countries to reduce naval armament by following the American example. That effort started back in 1921, when, at the Washington conference, this country agreed to scrap 11 of the world's most powerful ships then under construction and to destroy 20 other ships already built. Later America refrained from building up to the strength allowed by treaty. Officials emphasize that the United States still favors limitation of navies by agreement. They say there is no desire or intention to engage in a naval construction race. There only is a determination that if an agreement is reached on the relative strength of the world's navies, this country will build ' tip to the strength agreed upon. To carry out the new naval policy many things are happening and many more are planned. Already 52 ships are building. They involve a tonnage of 222,061. of this number 37 ships with a tonnacre of 138.000 are being con structed out of an allotment of $238,000,000 made to the navy by the public works fund. l his is the first outlay in a program that will extend over the next five years. At the end of that time the United States will have built or building all of the ships which it is allowed under the limitation. It also will have built an additional 1183 airplanes." As things now stand, the United States is authorized to have 1, 186,000 tons of naval vessels. It actually has 84 ships totaling 708,550 tons that are under the age limit set by the treaties, Great Britain is authorized to have 1,201,700 tons and has 975,000, in 137 ships. Japan is authorized to have 763 050 tons and has 656,-125. Under construction by the United States are 52 ships of 222,- 061 tons. Great Britain has 47 under construction, totalling 124,-135 tons, and Japan has 45 under construction totalling 123,132. When these ships are completed the Japanese navy will be up to full treaty strength. To bring the United States navy to the same position this country will need not only to complete the vessels now being built, but to build 102 more. These will consist of 65 destroyers, one airplane carrier, 30 submarines and six Pictures Interfere With Statecraft -BY WILL ROGERS- BEVERLY HILLS, Cal., Feb. 10. Well, all I know is what I read in the papers, or what I see as I prowl hither and thither, and Brother I have lately prowled. I just blew bark here to California about a week ago from one of those Cross Continent escapades. I finished a picture one night and the Studio told me that it would take them about a week before they would have it all assembled and be ready to preview. Here is the way we work it with these pictures, I mean all of em do it about this way. When the picture Is finished they take It out to some nearby town or lots of times in some suburban theater of Los Angeles, and run it. It's ad vertised in front of the theater that there is a preview of a new picture that night, but it does not say what one it is, or whose. A few of the main studio people connected with the making of it, and the principles, go, and its run. Then they see how it goes, and try to see what is the matter with it. Course we dont always see, and then too sometimes we know the main thing thats the matter with it, and that is that it should never have been made, but as it is made and lots of money is invested in it, why they take it back and work on it, maby retake Scenes, add scenes, cut out scenes. Then maby they will take it out and try it again on some other defenseless audience. I made one, one time that we previewed so many times, and so many places, that the last couple of weeks we. had to take it away up around Frisco. All Southern California rebelled and said, we have seen this thing enough. You see what I am trying to get at is that we try to make them as good as we can. Bad pictures are not made with a premeditated design. It looks to you sometimes like we must have purposely made em that way, but honest we dont. A bad picture is an accident, and a good one is a miracle. But this is pot what I Btarted in to tell you at all. I was going to tell you how I got away. You see a Studio is like a jail, you cant just walk out, you got to kinder escape, or in some cases be made a trusty. They told me 1 could go. You see 1 have to go to Washington every so often to see what the Senators are doing. I cant just leave em, they wouldent do a thing, or if they did it would be the wrong thing. I got to go there and kinder prod em up every once in awhile, same as Mr. Roosevelt has to bring em in and pat em on the back every so often. You see thats the way he works em, he never scolds em. He knows they are just children at heart, and when he wants something done, he just coaxes em. brags on em, and first thing you know they have voted "Yes." Well, I cant do that, in fact there is few that can, I am not that even tempered. Our president is almost a freak in that respect, he seems to know just where their back itches and there is where he scratches. But I cant do it, I have to cuss em a little sometimes. I like em, maby at heart as much as Roosevelt, maby more, hut they do vex the very old devil out of me and all of us at times. Well as I say the Studio said I could go, but when they showed the picture that if there was any what we call retakes, that I was to be back there at a certain date to make em. They was turning me loose kinder on probation, if they had found that I had done anything wrong I was to come back and repent. Well, I had just got settled down good in the Senate Gallery when the news come that thev had showed the picture, and that there was practically nothing wrong with it but the Inst five' reels, (they must have skipped the first one) so right in the middle of a Huey Lone oration, I had to grab a plane and hike back to California, and now it dont look like 1 will ever get out again,' so if the Senate gums everything up it will really be my fault for I was not there to guide em. You see Roosevelt cant do everything. So it looks like I will be re-taking the rest of the Spring and early Summer. Copyright, 1934. by h McNaught Syndicate, Inc. Present Ohio Legislature Breaking All Records For Tossing in "Freak11 Bills Little or Nothing Being Accomplished For the Common Weal Dissension Reported in Liquor Control Set-Up. nv t. w. rtsiii R The Dallv Stmt Hurra.) (Ol.l IHBI S, tVb. in.) Rioting in Paris, with its attendant ruin, may be the forerunner of something eminently worse, but one who is conversant to some degree at least with world affairs cannot share the belief of the excitable uninformed that similar torches may be applied all over the universe in civilized countries. i - Likewise, it is inconceivable that the rank and file of the people of the United States can approve of the inflammable utterances of an Ogden Mills or a Senator Arthur Robinson in destructive criticism of the national program for recovery, failing to presentt-ss they do some plan that is better. Actuated by political motives, these men and others overlook the fact that there is such a thing as constructive oriticism. Coming down to our own state, much the same sort of sentiment prevails in different quarters. Even among legislators there is preva cruisers. Now being built or appropriated for are 32 destroyers, six submarines, 11 cruisers and three aricraft carriers. It is possible that Jone of the cruisers to be built will have what is called a "flying deck" to accommodate airplanes. The ordinary cruiser can take care of eight planes, while this new type could accommodate 24. As the navy grows in size, more men and officers are required to man it. Navy personnel' which now is around 79,000, will be enlarged to R2,500 if congress agrees, as expected, and later to 100,000 if the navy recommendations are accepted. " ' The United States intends to go into the next naval limitation conference with its program of construction in full swing. Congressman Vinson says in this regard: "Delegates from the British empire, Japan and the United States must convene next year to revise, continue or abandon the London treaty of 1930. If our delegation goes into that conference without a definite declaration of this nation's naval policy, its prestige will be almost nil "The British empire has such a policy. Japan has such a policy. Their delegations will go to the conference firm in the knowledge of those policies and secure in the fact that their respective governments have kept up their naval strength to the limit of their agreement. Now the United States intends to have a policy and to be able to say: "'We are as strong as you. We will willingly reduce our armament if you will do the same proportionately. But if you will not, we will match you ship for ship and gun for gun. Our negligence in the past is not a prophecy of the future.' " The whole point of the next conference is expected to revolve around whether or not Japan is to get a hither ratio of ships to the United States and Great Britain. Back in 1921, when dreadnaughts were limited and building stopped, Japan accepted a ratio of three tons to each five tons for the United States and Great Britain. At London she demanded and got a ratio of seven tons to each 10 for the leading naval powers. Now she is demanding equal tonnage with America and. England. There are indications in Washington that the American government is far from ready to agree to any further increase in the Japanese ratio. If Japan insists, the groundwork might be laid for a naval building race. Right now the country is getting ready for any such eventuality. President Roosevelt is more friendly to the navy than any president since Theodore Roosevelt. He is a former assistant secretary of the navy and has its welfare at heart. He is described as very much interested in seeing that a permanent policy of naval construction be undertaken so that this country can be sure that its first line of defense is as strong as that of any other nation. INDORSEMENT OF TICKET POSTPONED HAMILTON, Feb. 10,-Indorse- ment of a Republican ticket of candidates for Butler co. offices subject to the primary next August, has been postponed, it was announced today following a joint meeting of the Republican central and executive committees. A complete ticket, bearing in dorsement of the committees, will be placed in the field after a meeting of these committees March 1, according to plans. The executive committee then is to report on candidates and a ticket then made up. A number of Republican candi dates have announced already, however. They include, R. F. Hoffman, for recorder; C. M Coyle, Tom Davidson and Arthur Strain, for sheriff: Walter Rais ton for county commissioner; Fred Cramer lor prosecutor. IS CRAFTSMAN rtMiitnai, mass., ten. iu. An author on antiquarian subjects, the Rev. Charles F. Luther also is an able craftsman. Not only is he regarded as an outstanding authority on the type of chest peculiar to New England prior to 1740, but he can construct these chests with his own hands with a skill that almost defies detection. His prized possession is a set of old tools said to have been used by one of the early joiners. lent a form of sentiment '.hat nothing need be done," as 'twere. Inability to agree on any sort of program, the lawmakers meet for a tew days, develop an impasse, and then adjourn for a few days, leaving the program of the special taxation committee hanging in mid-air. A recommendation by Gov. White that parochial schools be allowed $2,000,000 emergency aid from an appropriation of $6,-500,000, resulted in the lawmaking body being tied in a knot the past week, and abrupt adjournment was taken. What the harvest is to be the forthcoming week one can only piess. It is not beyond the realm of possibility that new questions will arise to further complicate the situation. There is little doubt but that the ninetieth general assembly has been prolific of the introduction of a greater array of what may be termed freak bills than any other Buckeye state lawmaking body in all history. The biggest thing in the minds of the. people generally the "innocent bystander on the sidelines" is their inability to understand why it is that so often in a crisis practically all time and effort is expended in warring over methods of procedure, with the result that little or nothing is accomplished for the common weal. In many respects, the world, national, state and many local situations are similar to the spectacle of rival fire departments fighting over the question of who will man the pumps while a building burns. The instant government of the city of Columbus is another bright and shining example of exactly that sort of thing. War between the administration and the civil service commission has all but disrupted the police department. Political persecution is the worst form of persecution. It knows no limits. Again, the warden of the Ohio penitentiary, Preston E. Thomas, the holder of that impor tant position, is under fire. Over-zealous legislators have "investi gated the penal institution time and again, always with the same result charges have fallen flat. Prospect of another probe does not appear to worry the veteran war den. Under the circumstances, should he have a desire to retire, he could not well do so, while fires are being built under himj in the latest instance apparently the re sult of differences with a news paper reporter. Mayhap, unfortunately, Gov. White has been drawn into the situation. The warden is on the receiving end, and quite properly is awaiting the line of- procedure the "other fellow" chooses to take, if any, Quite different is the workmen's compensation system situation. Evidence of wrongdoing in that quarter, in Cleveland, is patent. Indictments have been obtained, and others are to follow. It is not surprising that the senate has been aroused by the revelations. Mayhap the investigation tinder way for several months has been slow, and not sufficiently far-reaching, but credit must be given T. A. Edmondson, state director of industrial relations for the manner in which he proceeded, hampered as he has been by lack of financing of a probe, and his department undermanned. A new fire kindled by former Gov, James M. Cox has had its effect. Barriers that Edmondson and members of the industrial commission were unable to break down, due to failure of others in important places to visualize the seriousness of the situation, have been removed. The widest possible cooperation is now assured. Continued solvency of the fund is cer-tr.in. Chiseling on the part of political attorneys, crookedness of employers, conniving by doctors with greedy and grasping beneficiaries of the fund, has been halted abruptly, and probably never can happen again. Fires of dissension are burning in the liquor control setup. The director is at odds with the commission concerning authority to place orders for liquor supplies fo state sources, and the renting vt leasing or properties for state dis pensaries. The board members felt they ought to know all about the contracts. The director thought differently and then another open right started. Now It is proposed to have the legislature make the director a real czar, curtailing the authority of the control board to the writing ot rules and regula' tions, and sitting in solemn eon-clave on appeals from the orders of the director. Just another example of internal dissension while the real functions of the newly-created department Buffers. Since the last previous appear ance of this column of chatter, an other avowed aspirant lor the Democratic nomination for governor of Ohio has flashed on the srene. 'Tis Martin L. Davey, Kent, who ran away from certain nominations and elections in 1930, be cause it was necessary for him to rescue business from threatened ruin. He had to decide between two desires save his business, or be governor of Ohio. He chose the former, and now hopes to get I what ho wanted keenly four years 1 ago the governorship. Candidates for governor and senator announced and unannouncedare just "coasting." All realize it is far too early to start an intensive campaign. In the meantime, those already in the whirlpool are awaiting anxiously final determination on the part of others in prospect. The public is unconcerned about the number of seekers. They'll decide the contests at the proper time. Political ohservpr learn from the columns of his home town newspaper that Frank Harrison, Canton and Massillon steel manufacturer, has definitely decided to toss his hat in the ring for th Republican nomination for governor. Formal announcement is soon due, and that will assure two aspirants from northern Ohio for the same thing, with the prospect of two more from that end of the state Daniel Morgan and John Elden, Cleveland. C. Nelson Sparks, Akron, was first in. Harrison is quoted as declaring that "big business and industry should take hold of state government." If the Massillonian should make a few inquiries about the state among other than "big- business men," he might find there is ex-tant among the proletariat a widespread feeling that "big business" has been having altogether too much to do with state government. SUDDEN RUSH MILWAUKEE, Feb. 10. Thirty South Milwaukee merchants have declared a moratorium on old debts and are experiencing a rush of business. "Don't be ashamed because you owe us money," the merchants told their old customers. "Come in and see us and we won't ask any embarrassing questions. We won't mention your bills." MORI I "LETTERS TO THE ED1TO OLD AGE PENSION LAW To th Editor of Th Nwi: Passage of the old age pension law in Ohio last November left one bar still standing in the way of the worthy aged of the state getting deserved assistance from their state. That is the matter of a state appropriation for pensions. Responsibility for making such an appropriation rests on our governor, the Hon. George White, and state legislatures. The governor can include a recommendation for such an appropriation in his call if he so desires. Then it is up to the legislature whether funds will be provided for pensions. You can help along the cause now. Ask our representatives in the state legislature, both in the local house and in the state senate, to see that an appropriation is made in February. See them personally, or write them. Address as follows: Senator Paul Yoder, Senate Chamber, Columbus, and George Niswonger, member of legislature, Columbus, 0.;William Beard, legislature, Columbus, O., and Jesse Gilbert, legislature, Columbus, O. Urge these men to work and vote for state appropriation, but no county appropriation. Then write our governor, Hon. George White, to carry out the mandate of the voters last. fall. GEORGE YOUNG. R. R. No. 5, Wagner Ford rd., Dayton. THE SWINDLER DOLLAR To th Editor of The, Nw: Government in the U. S. A. cost $23 per capita in 1913 and $84 in 1930. Schools and highways have been improved, civic pride vastly augmented and many valuable services instituted, all of which are desirable assets to any society. But we had ten major depressions under low-cost government, and the present excessive burden is only an eighth of the normal income, so it can hardly be considered a primary cause of depressions. If theer are 5,000,000 electric refrigerators of all makes in use today, there still remains 20,000,000 homes without this improvement; hardly 1 per cent of the population can be said to want for nothing useful or desirable; the cause of depressions is not to be found in overproduction. Even at the bottom of the depression the banks are bursting with billions of idle money. Industry is denied the use of that money, and 12,nnn,noo men forbidden to work. The constriction of currency has pulled down the credit structure, and interest and foreclosure operate to nullify the values built up by a thrifty generation. The natural unrestricted yield of the land is sufficient to pave all the country roads with gold bricks and mount the institutions of learning with pearly gates, if only a medium rf exchange were available to set labor to work. These are the simple facts that no amount of juggling of high-sounding statistics can refute, and they clearly show the root cause of depressions to be the money monopoly. It seems to be the burden of certain interests to justify depressions which, as a matter of fact, are neither necessary nor natural, but deliberately perpetrated in order to buy up the country at 10 cents on the dollar. The remedy is amazingly simple, only it cannot be applied because of the general lust for profit derived from special privilege and exploitation of ignorance and confidence. A youth movement inspired by reasonableness might be able to convert this unhappy world from "grab" to good-will and "let live" that would quickly abolish poverty and billionaires. Give us a simplified government. Give us justice in taxation and freedom from monopoly. But, above all, let us have a nationalized, constitutional dollar instead of a swindler's dollar that will function in business and industry. The only chance for individualism is to recognize and abolish some of the abuses that have too long been perpetrated in its name. Dayton. EDWIN Z. LESH. THE FIRST ABOLITIONIST To th Editor of Th Newi: Now that the American Negroes, descendants of chattel slaves, are celebrating the birthday of Abraham Lincoln, it will perhaps not be amiss to point out to them that the birthday of Lincoln's favorite author has just been celebrated in three nations England, United States and France. Thomas Taine, ever the friend of the Negro, was the first abolitionist on American soil. In the Pennsylvania Journal, March 8, 1775, appeared his first notable essay on this subject, entitled "African Slavery in America": "That some desperate wretches should be willing to steal and enslave men by violence and murder for gain, is rather lamentable than strange. But that many civilized, nay. Christianized people should approve, and be concerned in the savage practice, is surprising; and still persist, though it has so often proved contrary to the light of nature, to every principle of justice and humanity, and even good policy . . . "Most shocking of all is alleging the sacred Scriptures to favor this wicked practice. One would have thought none but infidel cavillers would endeavor to make them appear contrary to the plain dictates of natural light, and conscience, in a matter of common justice and humanity ... "So monstrous is the making and keeping them slaves at all, abstracted from the barbarous usage they suffer, and the many evils attending the practice; as selling husbands away from wives, children from parents, and from each other, in violation of sacred and natural ties; and opening the way for adulteries, incest, and many shocking consequences, for all of which the guilty masters must answer to the final Judire. "If the slavery of the parents be I unjust, .much m"re is their ehil-idren's; if the parents were justly slaves, yet the children are born free; this is the natural, perfect right of all mankind . . . , "How just, how suitable to our crime is the punishment with which providence threatens us? We have enslaved multitudes, and shed much innocent blood in doing it; and now we are threatened with the same. And while other evils are confessed, and bewailed, why not this especially, and publicly. No other vice, if not all ethers, has brought so much guilt on the land . . ." Again and again Paine appealed to -his public on this sorest, most putrid spot of the social organism. In the Pennsylvania Journal of Oct. 18, 1775, he writes: "And when the Almighty shall nave blest us, and made us a people dependent only upon Him, then may our first gratitude be shown by an act of continental legislation, which shall put a stop to the importation of Negroes for f-sale, soften the hard fate of those already here, and in time procure their freedom . . "To turn the old and infirm free would be injustice and cruelty; they who enjoyed the labors of their days should keep, and treat them humanely. As to the rest, let prudent men, with the assistance of legislatures, determine what is practicable and best for them. Perhaps Borne could give them lands upon reasonable rent; some, employing them in their labor still, might give them reasonable allowances for it, sd that all may have some property . . . and be encouraged to industry; the family may live together and enjoy the natural satisfaction of exercising relative affections and duties, with civil protection and other advantages, like fellovy men." RALPH WESTLAKE. South Charleston, O. MUDDLING THROUGH To the Editor of Tht New: Only 160 years ago our country consisted of 13 colonial units. Descendants of the Tilgrims lived in Massachusetts, of the Quakers in Pennsylvania, of the Dutch in New York, of the Swedes in Delaware, and of the Irish everywhere. Friendships did not exist and as to credits one unit would not accept the currency of another unit The New Jersey truck farmer was compelled to pay tribute to New York for the privilege to sell his produce. New Jersey retaliated by charging a neat sum for the use of a lighthouse on her shore. Due to some misunderstanding and a few rash acts a crisis was precipitated that compelled all these units to unite for a common cause. It seevs that when one crisis has been overcome another is visible in the offing. To meet this one the "Articles of Confederation" were adopted which paved the way to a constitutional set-up. Politically we have "muddled through up to now. During our first century there was little unemplrment, but during the past fi" years unemployment has continued to increase in volume and frequency. Many people, actually believe that our "new deal" for conservation, reforestation, highway extension and home building, will eventually absorb all our unemployed. Our present progress may he as unsatisfactory as was our political progress under the "Articles of Confederation," but who even doubts that we will muddle through ? F. M. KIRKENDALL. Dayton. i SALESPEOPLE ON COM-- MISSION To th Editor of Th Nrwi: While the great masses of the people today are in high spirit regarding the activity in the almost unbelievable record of work done and about to be done by President Koosevelt, it seems that one single item pertaining to the NltA codes has been entirely overlooked. 1 refer to the salespeople on commission and the every-day jostling about from one end of the city to the other. Take the want ads in any reputable paper and you will find any number of alluring ads, so smoothly worded as to fool the most careful applicant. Why reputable firms will resort to this deceit to get salespeople is beyond me. Why do butter business bureaus tolerate it? Dayton. MRS. N. PEOPLE WHO WRITE To tlie Editor of Tht Nwt: It has been my habit to study the letters in The News for the past three years. One outstanding feature of these letters is the inconsistency on the part of many writers. It seems that so many of Us come across certain ideas of others and they strike a 'discord in our mind. Then, without forethought or reasoning, ' we write our antagonistic reply. My suggestion is, consider three points in answering a letter or article: First, reread the other person's ideas once or twice; second, analyze and consider thoroughly without prejudice the basis for his or her statements; third, think over carefully just why you agree or disagree with him; then decide on a constructive series cf arguments, being sure you are justified in each and can offer some constructive suggestion to displace the statement of the other. May I suggest that more people should make free to write their views. Many people carry through life some valuable theory or practice and unconsciously are selfish in that they keep it to themselves and let nobody share its benefits. D. R, ROUSH. Dayton. THE M-GIFFEY READERS To th Editor of Th Krt: In recent issues of The News there have appeared certain statements relative to the authorship of the McGuffey Readers. The Miami University Bulletin for July, 1928, bears the sub-title, "William Holmes McGuffey and the Peerless Pioneer McGuffey Readers, by Harvey C. Minnich, LL.D., dean school of education of Mimi university, Oxford, O." Dean Minnich had a rare opportunity for acquiring the facts relative to this lamous educator and his readers. He was a colleague of Dean Andrew D. Hepburn of the Liberal Art college, a son-in-law of Dr. McGuffey, came in personal contact with a number of McGuffey's students and had ready access to the records and publica-' tions of the university where William H. McGuffey taught from 1826 to 1830, and where he compiled and arranged the material for the first four readers published under his name. In 18S6 Prof. McGuffey resigned from Miami university and moved to Cincinnati, where were published that same year the first three of the Eclectic Headers. These were followed in July, 1837, by the Eclectic Fourth Reader, Due to certain criticisms, a revised edition of the Second and Third Readers was issued in 18118. It appears that in the preparation and revision of these first four readers assistance was rendered by Alexander II. McGuffey, who was a student at Miami university, 182G-'31. Later, he taught school in Kentucky and Cincinnati. In 1839 he graduated from the law school of Cincinnati college. For most of the time from 1828 tolS.'l'J he made his home with his brother. In 1341 a revision of the first four readers was undertaken. The revising of the First and Second Readers was committed by the publishers to Mr. Mason, a teacher in the Cincinnati schools, and of the Third and Fourth to Dr. Pin-neo, both of whom were on their editorial staff. Since McGuffey and his brother were then professors in Woodward college, Cincinnati, they doubtless were consulted in. this work of revision. To this series of readers was added a fifth. On Sept. 30, 1841, Alexander H. McGuffey entered into agreement with W. B. Smith "to complete and prepare for the said Smith a rhetorical reading book ... to be called McGuffey's Rhetorical Reader ... or by any other appropriate name that said Smith may choose." The material was to be ready for the press within 18 months and the remuneration specified was $5')0. This contract, which is in the handwriting of Alexander H. McGuffey, is in the McGuffey Museum of the Miami university - library, along with a collection of 125 McGuffey Readers, no two of which are alike and some of which are the only known copies. The book thus contracted for appeared in 1844 and bore the title, "McGuffey's Rhetorical Guide or Fifth Reader of the Eclectic Series." In 1857 the publishers brought out a new edition of the readers entitled "McGuffey's New Eclectic Readers." This edition was characterized hy the introduction of some new material, the shifting of many selections from one reader of the old series to another of the new, and the addition of a sixth book to the series. Thus the fourth comprised the best selections of the former editions not included in the preceding three. The Fifth Reader was the remodeled Fourth of 1841 and the new book, "McGuffey's New Sixth Eclectic Reader,'" comprised 143 lessons taken from the Fifth Reader of is 44, together with 57 additional selections. As Dr. rinneo of the edrtoriat staff shared in the revision of 1843, to him was committed the supervision of that of 1857. In this work he was assisted by Mr. and Mrs. Obed J. Smith. Doubtless be had the counsel of Alexander H. McGuffey, who was prominent in Cincinnati educational circles and who had been so intimately associated with both his brother and the publishers in the preparation and subsequent development of the series. Important as was the work of the publisher und their editors, it was the McGuffey brothers who were the original compilers of the first five readers. Others but re-urranged and supplemented the material they supplied and expanded the series from five to six readers. The main credit must be given to William H. McGuffey, who not only discerned a need tit American education but took the initial steps toward meeting such need, and whose widespread popularity as a teacher, preacher and lecturer greatly augmented the demand for the series of textbooks which he originated and which bear his name. JOHN E. BRADFORD, General Secretary Board of Education of United Presbyterian Church of North America. Chicago, III. STADIUM To tht Editor of Tht Newtt Certain tax -spending members of the board of education are again trying to put over the stadium idea on the over-burdened taxpayers of this city. I note the story of the board of education proposing to spend $90,000 for an unnecessary stadium. In another column we find the library board, which is part of our educational system, so short of funds that they cannot pay in full the salaries of their employes and must curtail sen-ice. With the memory of slashes of teachers' salaries and shortening of the school term on account of lack of funds, how can any conscientious members of the board of education explain his action in wanting to vote this large sum of money for something that is not needed, and which will prove to be a continual matter of future ex pense" Dayton. J. W. RUGGED INDIVIDUALISM To th Editor of Th Ntwi: The world, its woes, and the cause? From way back in the dim ages up to our present time it has been the almost universal custom of the human race to move in -roups, do in groups, and think in terms of group formation. And it is from this latter group classed as thinkers, that our chief source of worldly troubles arises. Suppose we classify the people into the four main groups: First The body known as government; second the lawmaking group; third the industrial group, and fourth the common, or labor group. The first three above-named come in for their share of curses and rebukes from the last-named group. And while it is common knowledge thai a body or group in composed of individuals, the Md fart remains that an individual having joined thin body is loo often no longer an individual. He moves as a group, works with the group, which in itself is all right. But what is all wrong is that he thinks in terms of "we" instead of "1." You cannot convince him that he is personally responsible for anything. Tell a lawyer that you think some laws full short of being just und he will promptly tell you that be is not responsible for their un-justness. The same goes for religion. No matter how strong a church may seem as a group, the fact remains that each member is individually connected with God, ami upon bis or her own shoulders personally lies the sole chance cf ever reaching heaven. The same thing goes for a city like Dayton. Ask almoht any resident if Dayton could be made better, and the cliHiices are lie will enumerate a dozen different wrongs, and in the same breath disclaim any individual responsibility for those same wrongs. So on in all walks of life. The fate of a nation rests not upon it;; government as a group, but upon each individual in that government which of course includes each and every citizen in the land. Each and every one of us has a cross or burden of his own to bear, and we should not try to lay this burden on the shoulders of a neighbor who already has his own to bear. And thus, until we awake and learn to think in individual terms, we will never form competent pails of an effective working group. H. B. CARPER. Dayton. , CWA VS. DEPRESSION To th Editor of Th Ncwi: About two months ago the federal governaient began a great economic experiment The CWA program was conceived, ordered and put into operation in an unbelievably short time; federal, state and county organizations were set up in less time than is usually required for the appointment of a postmaster. Millions were made available for the work and millions have been spent during the last two months. The whole thing was done so quickly that very little opportunity was offered for criticisms either for or against the idea. Now that the country has had several weeks in which to observe the wordings of the CWA it would seem to be an opportune time to study the net results f the program. In order to form any intelligent Ideas as to the success or failure of the CWA we must first consider the real purposes for which it was organized. It is understood by all that the first aim of the CWA was to provide immediate relief for the unemployed. As to the chief secondary aims of the CWA we may assume them to be first, the stimulation of business, second, the making of needed pub-lie improvements. Has the CWA relieved the unemployed? Ask the thousands of CWA workers, ask the grocery man, the landlord, the coal dealer, the meat dealer, the cl"thing dealer. Ask any man who deals in the common necessities of life. Undoubtedly it ha been a great help to all these but the man who has been the real beneficiary is the CWA worker. He has been enabled to obtain the necessities of life without undergoing the humiliating experience of accepting charity. The CWA has been successful in its first aim. What about the secondary aims? Has business been stimulated? Certain lines of retail business have been helped very appreciably. Certain lines of industry have shown marked gains w ithin the last few months. Other industries have fchnwn but very small gains. Just how much of the gains in industry may be attributed directly to the CWA is difficult to estimate. Tha economic history of this country shows an interesting relation between certain industries and the general prosperity of the country. The steel industry seems to be a sort of business barometer of the country. When the steel business is good, business in gen eral is good. When the steel business lags, business in general lags. This is perhaps due to the fact that the use of steel is invariably associated with the use of lumber, cement, brick, machinery, hardware and many other products of industry. Furthermore, the steel industry alone is one of the really bijf industries of the country. Now if future CWA projects would be planned so as to make much greater use of these products cf the basic industries, not only would these industries be helped but thousands of men now on CWA pay rolls would be called back into the industries. That is where they belong and that is where they want to be. Thus the CWA would attain the real aims for which it was designed. Then there is the problem of working up projects which, when completed, will be real assets to the community. There is a fairly definite limit to the amount of strictly hand labor work that can be done in any community. The first crop of CWA applications included the most useful and most desirable of these. This was right and proper, for these projects could be started at once and it was immediate relief that wag most needed. But, if much last ing good is to be obtained from i me un.i program, projects involving products of industry should be started. There are many grade crossings which should be eliminated. Many old bridges now in use were designed for maximum loads of ten tons and are actually carrying loads of 30 tons. These bridges are dangerous and should be replaced with new ones. Many towns now dumping raw sewage into streams will be compelled, within the nert few years, to install sewage treatment plants. Why not start some of them now? One might go en and mention dozeng of improvements that are actually needed, but that is not the purpose of this article. The whole purpose cf this letter is not to crt'rize wt-at hn been done by the CWA bj't advocate a miih greater ue of tie products of industry. C. C. CARPENTER. Troy, O.

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