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PUBLIC LIBRARY SUNDAY, TUNE 17,1902 THE LOGANSPORT PRESS, LOGANSPORT, INDIANA PAGE FIVE Southeast Asia: Where Communists and Free Nations Contend 1: QUEMOY. Out of the news' recently, this is an off- shore island held by Chinese Nationalists. Trouble can flare here any time. The Formosa patrol of the U. 3. 7th Fleet maintains a defensive vigil between Formosa and the China 2: TAINAN. This is a major link on the supply line to Southeast Asia. Civil Air Transport, an American owned and operated airline operating under the Nationalist flag, has a large base here, American CAT pilots also operate a military contract airlift for the U. S. throughout South. east Asia. Our main Pacific bastion, Okinawa, is two hours flying time north and east of here, off this map. 3: SZEMAO. This is a staging base used by the Chinese Communists for infiltrators, para-military and military operations. Natives of all Southeast Asian nations have been recruited] by the Communists. They are trained in subversion and then smuggled back to their native lands from here. Borders between countries are vague and unguarded in this wild country. 4: HONG KONG, A British crown colony, U. S. warships use its great harbor for a base. The city is now clogged with refugees from Communist China. It is the warehouse for Chinese Communists' imports and exports and a key U. S. listening post. 5: DIEN BIEN PHU. Here colonial France suffered its Asian Waterloo. After nine years of war and 92,000 dead, Premier Pierre Mendes-France and France gave up all of Indo-China at Geneva in 1954. Laos and Cambodia were given political identity and were to become neutral. Communists and Nationalists in Viet Nam had joined to fight the French but split with victory. Viet Nam north of the 17th parallel became Communist-controlled. Elections to unify the country after a period were called for in the settlement but have never again been proposed. 6: HANOI. Capital of North Viet Nam. Here Ho Chi Minh, student of Lenin and disciple of Mao Tse- tung, directs Communist operations against Laos and South Viet Nam. A critical unknown in (he situation is who, at present, has control — Moscow or Peiping. 7: HAIPHONG. Coastal junks from Red China run supplies to this city, the port of Hanoi. Often underestimated is the Communist problem of supplying jungle forces in the remote areas of Laos. and South Viet Nam. Reds operating in Laos are a long way from supplies in an area where roads, when they exist, are simply oxcart paths. One million refugees fled from North Viet Nam to resettlement locations in the south. 8: XIENG KIIONG (Thailand) HOUEI SAI (Laos) The specific event which triggered the dispatch of U.S. troops to Thailand took place here. Laos rebels captured Moung Sing just north of here. This was where Dr. Tom Dooley had established his first hospital. Battalions of Royal Laos soldiers, who detest fighting, started running. They fled all the way to Thailand. In the confusion it was believed the Reds were poised on the Thai border and American forces began to move. When the dust had cleared American advisors established that Hotiei Sai had not been taken by the Reds and pushed the wary Laos warriors back over the river to occupy the (own. This is a critical trouble spot. 9: LUANG PRABANG. This is the Royal capital of Laos. It almost fell to the Reds in 1953. It is important for its airfield. Here Die Mekong River is not the Thai border. The area of Laos west of the river once belonged to Thailand. The Thais plan to make the Mekong their defense line. Should the Royal Laos government collapse the Thais will occupy this area. 10: VIENTIANE. Here in the administrative capital of Laos hopes are held for a political settlement, a coalition government made up of both left and right wing factions headed by neutralist Prince Souvanna Phouma. . 11: U. S. PATROLS. Our forces maintain intelligence surveillance off the North Viet Nam coast. 12: UDON. Our G. I.'s have erected a tent city called Camp Cobra here. The area abounds with snakes. It is the railhead town for supplies going to Laos 80 miles to the north. It has a good airfield where American helicopters working in Laos are based. The Mekong River line runs to the south. It is in this area, between Udon and Ubon at the other end of the railroad branch, that our forces are bolstering the Thai army's defenses. 1,1: RANGOON. An army junta headed by Gen, Ne Win rules neutralist Burma. It is also the home of United Nations Acting Secretary General U Thant. Burmese military leaders have, expressed fears that a Communist takeover in Southeast Asia is inevitable. Accordingly, they are moving their neutralism toward the Communists' favor. 14: TCHEPONE. Russian trans, port planes ferry in supplies here for distribution to the Reds fighting in Laos and South Viet Nam. The town and base are just off old Route Coloniale No. 9, the hast east-west road going into Laos from Viet Nam. 15: TOURANE. U. S. transports and helicopters land here to supply the South Viet Nam regulars fighting the Red Viet Cong. It is also a gas stop for flights to Hong Kong, Formosa and the Philippines as an alternate to Saigon. An important supply link, it is very close to areas of heavy Red concentrations. 18: TAKLI. U. S. fighters are based here on an airfield rebuilt by our aid program several years ago in anticipation of its present use. This area is the rice bowl of Asia. Fertile soil and irrigation combine In make two bumper crops a year possible. 17: PAKSE. Communist Pathct Lao forces are strong in this area. Thailand fears Reds may capture Pakse in Laos and use it as a base of operations for infiltrators to move into Thailand. 18: SARA BURI. Asia's only real superhighway runs from here In Khoral. Khorat is also the rail junction town for shipments to Udon and Ubon. The First Battle Group of the 27th (Wolfhound) regiment is in this area. The 27th was also first in Korea. Khorat is also home of the Khorat cat. They are rare in the area and are known throughout the rest of the world as Siamese cats. The Wolfhounds have also learned that "Mekong," in addition to being a river, is whisky. Local beer is Sing. Both - are made under strict quality control supervision, 19: CHACHOENGSAO. This hard-to-pronounce town hns been home to a U. S. engineer battalion building a military road toward Cambodia should trouble come from that direction, 20: BANGKOK. Thailand's capital city is also headquarters for the South East Asia Treaty Or- ganizalion. Translated it means City of Angels or Los Angeles. Us tremendous airfield at Dong Moung is a major supply point and now bases U. 3. fighters. The small but efficient Thai Air Force also has its headquarters at the field. The Thais are a warm, friendly people, very pro-American and servicemen consider Bangkok one of the best liberty ports in the Orient. 21: SATTAHIP. A joint U. S. and Thai navy base has been under construction here for several years. Still incomplete, it will be a mapor part facility below the sand bar which blocks Bangkok's harbor. The U. S. aid program has dredged a channel, but it is still too shallow for larger fleet elements, 22: PHNOM PENH. Cambodia's capital is the home of Premier Norodom Sihanouk, who has steered his fledgling nation along an erratic and unpredictable course.he calls neutralism. He is unable to enforce his neutrality, however, and the Laos and South Viet Nam Communists cross Cambodian borders at will when they need unofficial asylum. 2;t: SAIGON. The French-styled capital of South Viet Nam's President Ngo Dinh Diem. U. 3. General Paul Harkins has his headquarters here. It is. the key supply and control center of U. S. forces helping the Viet Namess fight the Viet Cong. 24. U. S. PATROLS. Our Navy patrols the Vietnamese coast from North Viet Nam to Caps Man in the south intercepting coastal junks attempting to smuggle supplies to the Viet Cong. 25: SUBIC BAY. This is the location of Cubi Point Navy Base. Granted by treaty with the Philippines it is the only base in the Far East where American carriers can pull in alongside an airfield and load planes directly from a field to a carrier. Ships which transported the first Marine elements to Thailand were based here. 26: CLARK FIELD. This vital air base, also granted to us by treaty with the Philippines, is our key Southeast Asian air supply base. The buildup at Clark now exceeds peak Korean War operations. U. S. relations with the Philippines have been strained since Congress voted down a $73 million payment owed Philippine citizen.s for claims arising from World War II. 27: SINGAPORE. This is a major British installation at the tip of the Malay Peninsula. U. 9. ships often use (ho base. The Communists attempted to take over Malaya by the same tactics of jungle terror they are now employing in Viet Nam and Laos. They were defeated. But it toolc 100,000 men 13 years to eliminate an estimated 8,000 Reds, And the Communists in Malaya had no adjacent friendly country for sane, luary or supplies as they have in Laos and Viet Nam. 28: NORTH BORNEO. U. S. forces now stationed in Laos trained in jungle fighting in this British controlled area. New Life With New Believers In The Shakers The Shakers, one of America's most fascinating sects, may not be dying out after all. New believers may give it new life. For years historians have been summing up studies of the Shakers, sometimes known as the Shaking Quakers, with the sorrowful conclusion that they would all be dead and gone in a few years. The predictions seemed reasonable. The sect, officially the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, had been steadily declining in numbers. A score of prosperous colonies from New England into Kentucky and Indiana, after surviving fearful persecution, has been reduced to two. The sect never had the means of insuring survival through offspring, because the Shaker religion frowns on marriage, It was .considered something of a miracle that, thus handicapped, the Shakers managed to last two centuries. The last Brother in the sect died last year. Until very recently there were only two dozen elderly Sisters left to carry one. But now two thirtyish women have become novitiates at one of the last two Shaker communities, Sabbathday lak_e near Portland, Maine. The .other is at East Canterbury, N.H. The Maine colony also cares for a high school girl who may join. The Shakers historically kept going by adding converts and adopting orphans. Sister Mildred Barker of the Maine colony uaid the Shakers are philosophical about the future. "We feel that the Shakers have been given a mission to do. If God feels it has been completed then that is His will. If the mission is in continue He will provide." There are incentives to join, Shaker resources are substantial; each colony owns all property in common. Above all, the Shakers hold out the inducement of a simple, rewarding life of service fe> God, serene and apart from the tensions of the world. "Put your hands to work and give your hearts to God" was the guiding precept of Ann Lee, the Mother of the sect who led the little founding band to America from England in 1774. Never large in numbers, the Shakers reached their peak in the 1850s with about 6,000 members. They have been disproportionately influential, however, because of their morality, ingenuity-4hey invented the clothes pin, for one small example — industry, devotion to education, and thrift. They have been notable, too, for their health and long lives. They shun drink and tobacco. Their diet while generous, left out flesh meat and fish. . They achieved their influence despite bitter and sustained persecution for their peculiar beliefs about sex—Shaker men and worn, en were not supposed to even shake hands — their determined aloofness from "the world," and their refusal to bear arms in time of war. Especially trying lo their non- believing neighbors were their ecstatic shaking, dancing and marching. in religious worship. Shakers are best remembered now for their legacy of clean-lined furniture, uncluttered and functional, built in strict accord with religious. law which held that ornamentation was ostentatious and worldly,There are excellent collections in the Shaker village at Hancock, Mass., and the Shaker museum at Old Chatham, N.Y. Sabbathday Lake still has much of the austere old furniture perched incongruously around a television set, Edward Deming Andrews and Faith Andrews, authoritative writers on the Shakers, have credited them with inventing a screw pro- pellor, a rotary harrow, a threshing machine, the circular saw, cut nails, a pea-sheller, the common clothes pin, a machine for paring, coring and quartering apples, apd the first metal pens and flat brooms." Important as all these achievements were, the thing that has most intrigued successive generations of observers was the-Shaker attitude toward sex and marriage. It goes back to Mother Ann Lee. Ann suffered greatly in marriage and -childbirth. All her four children died in infancy. As the Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics p'ut it: "She is said to have regarded the marital state with great repugnance." One story was that Ann's husband once brought a woman of the streets into their home and threatened to turn to her unless his wife renounced the vows of celibacy she had sworn after her last child died. Ann didn't give in. To her, cohabitation had become the source of all evil. If, as she believed, the end of the world was at hand, why populate it? Vicious charges broadcast from time to time by individuals who had left the order led to personal assaults'on Shakers, Their fences were broken, their windows and doors shattered, trees cut -down, their grainfields opened to cattle and their meeting places burned. Violent mobs from time to time demanded the release of adopted children from Shaker communities. The Shakers' refusal to bear arms also set them apart from their neighbors. But if they were spared the rigors of military service, they had lo obey some pretty rigid regulations back home. William Haskett, once a member, reported it was against the rules to do 81 different things. Forbidden, for example: for brethren and sisters to mjlk together, to shake hands with each other, to .trim nails on the Sabbath, to kneel.with the left knee first, to eat any fruit after supper, to have-watches and umbrellas, to have any money privately, to play with dogs or cats, or to give nicknames. The moral seems clear: to be a Shaker you need a gift for work. Shabby Neighborhood Now World's Great Center UNITED NATIONS, N.Y. (AP) —This is a Cinderella story—the tale of a shabby, down-at-the-heels neighborhood that has been transformed into the world's greatest international center. The heart of this unique com munity on Manhattan's East Side is the plush United Nations headquarters, with its slender glass and marble tower—now one o[ New York's best-known landmarks. But the world center has ex panded beyond the bounds of the United Nations' 17-acre tract which 15 years ago was. noted mainly for its smelly meat-packing houses, breweries and rundown tenements. Building after building has gone up in the area to house organizations and activities attracted by the United Nations. Other buildings are in vari. ous stages of planning and construction. Nowhere else in the world is there such a concentration of agencies, individuals and facilities devoted to global affairs- political, economic and cultural. U'.'N. Plaza, the broad avenue separating these glittering new buildings from the U.N. enclave, has become one of the most popular places in the world for demonstrators and pickets with an international axe to grind. Thousands of tourists daily visit the area that was virtually isolated until the United Nations opened its doors to the public in 1952. Moire -than a million" take the U.N. guided' tours annually. The U.S. delegation now has its own building facing the United Nations' and others are reserving space in some of the other new buildings. The growing demand for land near the world organization has sent real estate prices sky-high. Trailblazer in the new community was the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, which in 1853 dedicated a new 12-story building across the street from the United Nations. The structure, with a predominantly glass front like the United Nations, is located near the spot where American patriot Nathan Hale was reported to have been hanged from an apple tree in 1776 by the British, It cost $5.5 million. Just down Die street is the U.S. delegation's new headquarters, built at a cost of $3.7 million lo replace the former rented offices on ..Park Avenue. Like the Carnegie building and others along the U.N. Plaza, it is 12 stories high. Also like the Carnegie building, it has a spacious auditorium and a penthouse lounge. - A few doors ^ off the plaza, the U.S. Information Agency has opened an elaborate foreign correspondents' center. One of the most attractive additions ,lo the area is the new U.N. Library building, financed by a $6.2 million grant from the Ford Foundation. It houses one of the largest collections of books and ,s on international affairs ever assembled, including the famous Woodrow Wilson collection on the League of Nations. Another recently completed building is the headquarters of the International Business Machine Company's World Trade Corpora- lion. Still under construction or contracted for are three additional structures --a 12-story church peace center being built by the Methodist Church at a cost of $2.1 million, a similai building planned by the Institute of International Education and a cooperative pf- five and apartment building. The apartment building will house U.N. delegations and agencies interested in Die world organization. Plan To Extend Toll Discounts To Truckers As A Stimulus To Traffic 'persons- document! INDIANAPOLIS (AP) - A plan to extend toll discounts lo additional truckers to stimulate commercial traffic on the Indiana Toll Road was taken under advisement by the Toll Road Commission Friday. The commission authorized a study of the proposal, which would extend the 10 per cent discount now given trucking firms with bills of $200 to $400 monthly lo those with bills of $100 to $400 a month. Richard K. Landauer, commission controller, said such a change might cost the commission $3,000 a month at the start before increased traffic overcame the expense. Landauer said total revenues in May were $1,225,503, enough to cover expenses and bond interest for the month with $105,200 left over. In May of 1961 toll revenues failed to meet the Ixind interest after expenses. The commission approved the repurchase of another $28,000 worth of bonds, bringing (he total bond retirement to date to about $6.5 million. Friday evening the commission met with about 40 representatives of bondholders, who were, welcomed to the dinner session by Gov. Matthew E. Welsh. The bond holder representatives were to meet again Saturday with the commission and hear speeches by Welsh, Commission Chairman Jack E. Reich, and Clinton Green, Welsh's administrative assistant. Sponsoring the meeting of bondholder groups with the commission wore City Securities Corp., Indianapolis, and Smith, Barney & Co., New York, (he firms which handled the $280 million bond issue. The commission Friday ordered cancellation of a $58,500 one-year contract with Mead Elcclric Co., Gary, for maintenance of the toll road communications system. Robert A. Tilletl, commission general manager, said he believes $15,000 a year could be saved if the commission does its own electronics maintenance.