Northern Echo from Darlington, Durham, England on December 20, 1881 · 3
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Northern Echo from Darlington, Durham, England · 3

Darlington, Durham, England
Issue Date:
Tuesday, December 20, 1881
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already disavowed' the intention to offend their powerful nptghbonr. But there will never be real friendship between the two countries till Europo finally settles the disturbing question of the navigation of the Dauube. 'Austria should undoubtedly have the command of the upper reaches of the river, but gho claims more than her right when she seeks to control the navigation of the stream in its course through Roumanian territory. Koumania, since sho had to exchange Bessarabia for the Dobrudsoha, stands with a foot on each bank of the stream ; and the sooner' the Powers formally acknowledge her right to protect and freely navigate the lower part of this important waterway, the sooner will she and Austria agree to live on neighbourly terms. In the mutter of annexation, England has taken what seems to us to be an unwise step iu granting a Charter to the "British North Borneo Company. Offence has thereby been given to Spain and the Netherlands, though their old treaties with the Sultan of Sooloo and others do not relate to the mainland. Neither Spain nor Holland has deemed her claim good enough to warrant the making of representations to our Government on the subject. No foreign criticism' will be more keen than that to which the Charter will be subjected in the British Parliament. " There is a rumour that France is about to take possession of one or more of the' Leeward or Harvey Islands, whore English missionaries have laboured so long, in order to securo a station on the way to the Panama Canal. Another report is to the effect that Germany has proposed to purchase Heligoland from this country ; but, though thero is no doubt that this is the wish of some (Joimau politicians, the assertion is as yet unsupported by fact. None of these international movements is so important as the projected Turko-German alliance. If we may- believe telegrams from Constantinople, it is already concluded. Wo are gravely assured that Germany intends to go to war with France nest spring, and that the Sultan will then chive the French from Tunis and Algeria, and extend his dominion over tho whole of North Africa. In tho event of Germany having serious complications with Eussia, Turkey is to act in the Caucasus. It will be remembered that the Special Ambassadors to Berlin were to proceed to Borne, with the object of ascertaining what would probably be the action of the Italian Government in the event of war between France and Germany. But it is now stated that, at the suggestion of Prince Bismarck, tho Embassy, instead of visiting Home, will return home by Vienna ; tho German Chancellor's opinion being that the altitude of Italy in' future contingencies is comparatively unimportant if the cordial co-operation of Austria can be secured. It is even alleged that this triple alliance hasheeu arranged, and- that " the visit of the Mission will be simply the consecration of existing arrangements." Ono confirmatory statement is to the effect that when four Turkish irouclads wore on the point of being despatched to Tripoli or Golctta, in order to fight tho French in Tunis, the German Ambassador at Constantinople gave the Sultan to understand that the proper moment for an attack on Franco had not arrived, but that it might come next year, and that therefore Abdul Hamid countermanded the order for the despatch of the ships of war. It is added that- Turkey ceded Thessaly to Greece in deference to German advice, on the understanding that she should receive compensation in North Africa. Now, all this is quite possible and France has laid herself open to the attack of such allies by her.unjusti-fiable action in Tunis; but it is scarcely probable. A Berlin telegram declares that the Turkish Ambassadors have not yet communicated their proposals to Prince Bismaeck, and that the prolonged stay of the Mission is only due to the sudden illness of Ali Nizami Pasha. It may suit Prince Bismaeck to appear to give some encouragement to Turkey, in order to mystify Europe, and point a moral for France. ; But though the Sultan may be sincere in his ambitious scheme, he may have long to wait for German assistance. Probably, as we hope, the intrigue will end with tho hanging up of the badge of the Nichani-Imtiaz in one of the Emperor's apartments, and the roturu of the Special Ambassadors with Ked Eagles on their breasts. PUTTING THE HAND TO THE PLOUGH. The farmers of South Durham and of the North Hiding have every reason to bo satisfied with their meeting at Darlington . yesterday, Tho audience filled the whole body of the hall, and overflowed into the gallery. It was a thoroughly representative audience. No one could have mistaken the robust, ruddy-faced cultivators of the soil for the smoke-darkened labourers at forge or furnace or tho pale-faced workers at counter or desk. The meeting was almost entirely composed of tenant farmers, with gentlemen farmers who farm their own land, and a few townspeople who take an interest in the questions affecting agriculture. There was perfect1 unanimity, and not a little enthusiasm. Not a hand was held up against any of the resolutions, and cheers followed every ono of the many " good points " which were mado in stating the case of the farmers and 'o-dicating the requisite reforms. The applause which greeted Mr Hcwaed's condemnation of the ignorance and the " supffee silliness " of scribblers who impute unworthy motives to those from whom they differ, and-employ abuse in place of argument, was a decisive answer to the inventions of prints which are kept going ly narrow-minded landlords. Tho shrewd farmers of the North are quite able to distinguish between the evil results of the present land laws and the good which will follow the granting of security for their capital and of freedom for the employment of their skill. They, know their own. needs; Antiquated estate rules, unfairly short notices of removal, , confiscation of. their improvements, the exaction; of rent for these improvements, the forcing up 0f rents and the letting of farms to men of straw by the operation of the law of distress, the unjust apportionment and pressure of rates and tithes, and exclusion from a legitimate share in county government all theso have long been patiently borne with by farmers, till, when ruin stares them in the face, they feel themselves compelled to stand up for their rights, and insist upon having fair play. Governments, said one speaker, help those who help themselves ; and the best thing that men can do, said another farmer, is to stand on their own legs, and fight their own battles. That was evidently the ' opinion of the whole meeting. The North " Country farmers have banded themselves together to work for reform with that earnestness which cannot fail of ultimate success. They have put their hand to the plough, and they are nor, the men we take them for if they ever think of turning back. OUR LONDON - LETTER. SPECIALLY -TELEGRAPHED. THE QUEEH'a LIKES AKD DISLIKES THE BODY SNATCH: IIS BAOTSKED A MISSING WILL STOBY TBS LOST JliW'iSLS: PE013AELE SENSATIONAL DISCLOSURES. London, Monday Nig ax. The publication of tbe paragraph from Windsor definitively announcing the Queen's determination to open Parliament in person has had the effect of bringing the' deliberations on the snbject to a head. The Queen will nob, even in view of the demand of an additional allowance for Princo Leopold, lend the favour of her presence to tho Parliament which maintains Mr Glurtstouo iu supremacy. 'As far as tho ' Government and House of Commons avo concerned, the deprivation will not be unendurable. The of the opening of Parliament by the Queen involves a great deal of trouble, mid much bustle is detrimental to sober work. But it is another question whether it would not have bona wii.-r for tho Queen, from H-.t Majesty's point of view, to have overcome on the present occasion prejudices which are natural euongh. On ordinary occasions the abstention of tho Queen from duties fulfilled with molerate regularity during I lis lato Parliament may pass without remark, but I believe there has been no occasion when a grant for a member of tiie iioyal Family ha3 been included iu'the estimates that tho Queen has uot boen present at the open-i;i'g of Parliament. The announcement that tho Queen will uot opeu Parliament revives the rumour that after all Priticj Leopold will be content with 15,000 a year and such dowry as his bride may bring him. But I do not think there is any foundation for it. Lady Crawford's determination not to offer any reward for the recovu'y of tho body of the lalo Earl meets, with universal approval. It is now behoved that nothing mare will be heard of tho body. Since tho thieves find they can't make anything of it iu the. way of ransom, they arc sure uot to incur the trouble or the rbk of returning it. An immense amouut of correspondence, largely anonymous, hus reached Lord Crawford and his agent, Mr Alsop. The writers of many of tbolotters profess ability and readiuc-su to disclose the whereabouts of the body on consideration of a certain 'sum of money paid down. All these letters have been placed in the hands of tho police, and where investigation ha3 taken place it has been shown that they are hoaxes. It is, I believe, the impression of Mr Alsop that no ooummuicatioii from the actual perpetrators of the theft has reached him. They have been waiting for tho relatives of the-late Earl to make the next move by of'-riiig a substantial reward. No v is is iiually decided to offer no bribe, this mysterious chapter iu theft is probably closed. - Mr Powell, who is now unreservedly alluded to as .the lata member for Malrnesbury, once played a characteristic pari in a case of stealing documents. "When his father died, and tho family solicitor proceeded to sen. 1 for tho will, it was foaud it had been abstracted from the box iu which it was known to have been kept. A search was made everywhere for it, but it could not bo found. After the lapse of a" week a letter was, received statiug that if Mrs Powell, the widow, would meet the writer at a particular spol named, and pay over .200, the will would be forthcoming. It wa3 added that all precautions wero taken against surprise, and thatif anyone accompanied tho lady, or if any attempt wero made to tr ick the writer, it would he discovered, 'aud Mrs Powell would find no one at the trysting place. Mr Powell, who was then a young man, undertook lo keep the appointment. He dressed himself up in woman's clothos, put., on his mother's bonnet and cloak, and drove off to the rendezvous. Here he was pre-, seutly joined by two men, who asked the supposed lady if she had brought the money, ho answering in tho affirmative in a feigned voice. Mr Powell enquired for the will. "Here it is," said tho man, producing the document from his bread; pocket. Mr F.-woU thereupon sent straight from his shoulder iho most unladylike blow, which felled the thief. The other fled, and Mr Powell brought back Iho prisoner and will in triumph. There are several reports current to-day with respect to Lord Trevor and Her Ladyship's jewels. Ono points to the probability that HU Lordship will havo to staud an action for false imprisonment, brought against him by the valet mid the housemaid, against whom the inquiry showed thero was not a little of evidence based upon even reasonable suspicion. Another points to an explanation of the robbery which I will not take the responsibility of repeating. It is, however, talked of openly in tho generous confidence of the dinuer-table, and points to a decidedly sensational episode. Some ono with a turn for statistics has estimated that within tho last fifteen years there 'has been a thousand new servants at JBrlnkynnlt. This apprehension of two on the oharge of thaft is, of course, Dot tho first time the public havo heard of Lord Trevor's domestic relations. Thero was the coachman's wife at the Police Court the other day, wanting to get possession ot some property which she alleged was held by her master's instructions. AN AMERICAN BISHOP ON THE LAND LI5AGUIS. New Yohk, Monday. Mgr. M'Quoid, Catholic Bishop of Rochester, New York State, preached a sormon yesterday condemning the Laud League and "No rent" dactriue. He said that between the revolutionists of the League and good Catholics the line should be sharply drawn. THil GOVERNORSHIP 0F NATAL. The Press Association learns that should Sir Evelyn Woqd not remain iu South Africa, the Colonial Office are likely to consider the claims of Mr Napier Broome, C.M.G., now administering tho Government of Mauritius, for the Governorship of Natal. " AN ISLAND SUBSIDING. . The island of Chios is sinking, and it is feared thai before loDg it will entirely disappear beneath the waves. Earthquakes are of constant and increasing occurrence," and hot springs are everywhere appearing. .- . , The Treaty of Commerce between France and Ported was signed .yesterday. HiprUKTHERN-CHDT TUESDAY, DECEMBER m TERRIBLE COLLIERY EXPLOSION. SUPPOSED LO'SS OF FIFTY LIVES. DISTRESSING SCENES. A correspondent at Leigh telegraphs last evening : -An explosion of a very shocking kind happened yesterday afternoon shortly after twelve o'clock in the Arlay Mine of the Abram Coal Company, whose pits are situate about two miles from Leigh. At the time of the explosiou over sixty men and boys were in what is known as the yard workings. In the Avloy Mine over 200 were employed at the time. Immediately the report was heard, many hundreds of men, women, and children hurried to the pit, and for a time the most heartrending scenes were witnessed. This wine, which produces perhaps the least coal of auy of the vast property, lies above the Arley Pit, whleh is 650 yards desp, in neither of which mines is powder used for blasting, nor is the' ventilation effected by means of a furnace, the whole being purely mechanical. The pit has been open about four and a half years, and is considered ono of tho safest in iho county. Wheu the explosion first occurred, the only intimation the mou in the Ai-ley fame received was a slight shaking; a large heap or dirt dividing the two workings. Tho uuderlooker, fiuding something was amiss, requested the men to keen .quiet, Tuev then hudrtlod memselves together to keep each other warm, kuow-n-U nothing of the actual circumstances. The lamps ot the meu still remained alight, and all they felt was a slight "sucking" or u sort of vacuum in the pit. Tha'ineu in the yard workings included Uiohnrd Crunshaw, sou of the ltev. James Orau-sli-.iw, who is learning the business of a mining engineer. ' . As soon as tho state of affiirs became known the manager, engineers, and other servants from tho neighbouring pits arrived, and exfdoriu" parties were formed; Medical men from Leigh, Hwdley, and the districts round about wero telegraphed for, and soon arrived on the spot. Iu a very short time afterwards their services-wore required. Of the men below, over sixty iu number, only twenty-seven were brought to the surface, and it i3 teared the remainder have all beeu killed by the explosion. Of tho twenty-seven brought np above ground, several aro badly burnt on viuioiH parts of the body. About live o'clock, the men in tho Arlev Mine were brought up, but it was with great difficulty that tne exploring party were enabled to get to hem on account of the huge heaps of debris blockading the way. Mr Hall, Government inspector, went, down into the . workiugs, and remained until a late hour superintending the work ot the explorers. The greatest excitement prevails. Up to tho hour of telegraphing (enht o clock), bus few of thoe in the Arloy Mine had been brought to the surface, and none of the dead. A Bolton correspondent says the shock of the explosion was felt for miles around. Tbe scene ni the immediate neighbourhood ot the pit was of tho distressing, character familiar in the history of bucu disasters. . Women aud children, screaming frantically, crowded around the pit's mouth, and only .the kindly and energetic intervention of tho police saved many of them from being preoipuated into lb) mine. All tho aid that humau skill could render was soon available, and medical men, miueownere, and managers iiojked to the spot from all quarters. Nor was there wanting the uever-. ailing display of Uavcry on the part of the miners. Tuosi. who had beeu fortunate enough to escape, aud those who hud hastened iroui other collieries, voluutcored with tho greatest promptitude for foe exploring parties. by diut of their perseverance anil indomitable courage, several injured men woie speedily brought to the pit Dank, and restoratives were immediately i.puh;d. A cabin was improvised, in winch the wounded, some of whom had sullered terribly from lire-damp, were attended to The proprietors of the mine, J H. Johnson, W.. Johnson, a::d W. Uujgi, were early on the snot, and rendered moat cmcient service iu directing the operations of the rescuers and providing for the comfort of' thoso'wiio were brought to bank exhausted, yet living. Drs. Braytou, Paradise, and Evans worked with assiduity and skill in relieving the sufferer. By naif-past four tho labours of the explorers had beeu rewarded by the recovery of ten men brought to the surface. Extincteurs and restoratives were sent down the shaft, the latter being iustautly applied whenever a. re.cue was effected. IRELAND, A Dunlin telegram says an important judgment, governing about fifteen thousand cases, was delivered in tho Chief Laud Court, Dublin, yesterday. ' Counsel for Captain Cramsie moved on Saturday that the originating notice iu a case, inasmuch as it was served on the elerk of the laud agent, which it was contended was insufficient, should be set aside, au.l . tho case withdrawn. The Court now de-'iided unanimously ugHiust the motion, and refused an appeal. SEIZURE OF -AEMS IN DUBLIN. Patrick Whelan, and Daniel and Thos. Whelan, who were arrested iu connection with the seizure of arms, ammunition, and Fenian documents on Buuday morning iu Dublin, wore brought before the Southern Divisional Magistral es last evening. The police stated that from information received they visited tho houses 8, Urabazou-street, and 5, Cruss Keven-struet. In tho first-mentioned house they discovered 22 breech-loading rifles, 1 carbine 2 sword-bayonets., 4,600 revolver cartridges, 100 rifle cartridges, a casks of gunpowder, a canister of shot 1 pike, 12 hand grenades, and a number of documents alleged lo be connected with Feuianism. Iu Cross Ilcveu-strcet premises the found 17 sword bayonets, 1,500 pistols, 2 packages, of dynamite, a six-chambered .revolver, 28ibs. of gunpowder, and about, 1.0U0 blank cartridges, as well as SO rounds of rifle cartridges, 1 rifle, aud a sword. Prisoners are charged with having unlawfully conspired together for the purpose of distributing large quantities of arms aud ammunition to disloyal persons and other illegal uses iu a proclaimed district, in pursuance of a conspiracy. They were formally remanded till Saturday, when Mr Murphy, Q.C., for the Crown, says the case will assume a graver aspect. It is stated that tho police obtained their information throu"h a drunken quarrel amongst those implicated in the concealment of the articles, and that this information will lead to a number of very 'important arrests, and to the seizure of still larger quantities of arms. B EYE RE STORM AND FLOODS. Great destruction 'of property was occasioned iu Loudon and throughout tho provinces by the storm of Saturday and Sunday. A young woman named Cooper was killed in Clerkeuwell while iu bed by a stack of chimneys being blown through the roof and burying her. A sister who was sleeping with her narrowly escaped. A house ou Pentouvilje Hill, occupied by a person named Inker and his wife and six children, fell in, burying them beneath the debris. They were, how-over, rescued without any sorious injury. Several houses had the roofs aud chimney stacks blown down, trees were uprooted, and windows broken. A great number of houses were uuroofed, and several in course of erection completely wrecked. In all the open, spaces round London the gale tore up hundreds of trees, in some cases almost demolished houses, dud in others partially uuroofed them. The .wind at times was almost like a hurricane, while the rnin descended in torrents. At Hastings two houses were blown down by the force of the gale, and in parts of Warwickshire tho floods are very extensive. At Wondlebury, near Bicester, the main street was three feet deep in water, whilst at -Rochester,' Strood, Sitting-bourne, and many other places, considerable damage has beon done.. A GIRL KILLED M A GUNSHOT AT 00 N SETT. :Lato -on Saturday night, a girl, named Tom-perloy, aged 15, living at Oonsott Park, was accidentally shot in tho face by her cousin, William Temperley, who was in the act of taking the gun from the ceiling. Keath.was instantaneous, THE MISSING BALLOON. A telegram from Bridport last evening' states that nothing has been fonud in the bay of the lost balloon, although search parties have continually watched the coast since Saturday, and the coastguard has beeu doubled. The reports irora Spain were not at all relied upon from' the first. - A Brighton correspondent telegraphs : ,A bottle was picked up last evening on tho shore containing a note purporting to be written by Mr Powell, and thrown from the balloon, stating that he was suffering great privation, but was about to pass over Spain at great altitude. The handwriting aud phraseology of tho note throws doubts nil tt-a rraiminnnnnn DEATH OF Sill WILLIAM PAINE GALLWISY. Yesterday morning, after a short illness, Sir William Gallwey breathed his last at his residence," Tukkleby Park, near Thirsk. Sir William, who was a Couservative iu politics, represented the borough of Thirsk in Parliament for twenty-eight years, and only resigned his seat when failing health compelled him to take the stop at the last General Election, when the borough returned another Conservative in Colonel tho Hon. L. P. Dawnay. Sir William during tho last few years of his- lifo conferred , a lasting boon on the poor of Thirsk and Sowerby by the erectiou of some scores of cottage-houses, which wero let at low rents. The deceased Baronet, who i3 seventy-three years of ago, was born in 1S08. The Baronetage was created iu 1812, and Sir William succeeded to it in 1831, "and iu 1817 he married Iwmly Auue, third duughter of Sir Ilobert Prank-laud Russell', of Chequers Court, Tring, and lhirkleby Park, Thirsk. . He was a deputy-lientoimnt for the North Hiding of Yorkshire, and a major in the army, aud loaves behind him a family, his heir being his son, Bulph William, born iu 18-18, who was educated at Btou. Lady G-allivey survives Sir William. Sir William, so late as Thursday, was out shooting iu the parish of Bagby, aud in crossing a.turnip field fell with his body ou to a turnip, sustaining severainterual injuries. All that medical aid could do was done, but with Sir. William's failing health he gradually sank, aud died, as stated above, about ten o'clock yesterday morning. FAILURE OF A M1OULISSBR0UGH SOLiOITOn, LIABILITIES 50,000. Yesterday, a well-known solicitor, Mr Bobert Gill, of Middlesbrough and Saltburn, filed a petition for liquidation iu the Middlesbrough County Court. Mr Gill had au extensive practice, and his liabilities are estimited at 50,000, but it is stated that nearly the whole of tho creditors are fully secured, i'or many years past Mr Gill has advanced large sums of money ou the security of house property in tho Cleveland district, aud during tho protracted depression this class of property has considerably depreciated in value, many of tho houses being unoccupied for n, long time. Until quite recenily Mr Gill was solicitor to the Middlesbrough,.. I-.edoar, Saltburn, and Cleveland District Building Society, and till lately he was regarded as being a man of means, A few' years since a relation bequeathed him a large fortune. i'EES YA LL E I KAIL WAY. At a meeting of the shareholders of tho Tees Valley liailway, held yesterday at Barnard Castle, it was agreed to sell the undertaking to the North-E istern Itiilway Oomoauy, 77 10s to be paid for each 100 share. 1JU .IU AM MINERS AND SLIDING SCALE. THE At a council meoling of tho Durham Miners'. .Union yesterday, it was resolved to recommend to the co downers, at a conference to be held at Newcastle this week, several changes iu the present sliding scale, which expires early uSxt year. THIS OIiEVEIjAND IRON TRADE. : Tho business doing over. the last few davs has been of a very quiet chnrauler as far as regards p'g Iron, but this is only what we might look for with Christmas so near, and the holidays aud stock-taking time upon us. It is satisfactory to note the small effect the fluctuations of the Glasgow market have upou prices here they certainly do not advance when Glasgow is declining, bin they donot follow in anything like the same ratio that thoy have generally done hitherto, and we may attribute that to the greater stability that the trade of this district poseosses. There is some legitimate business done, and less of the speculative clement is experienced. Scotland, we see, though having reduced the output 12Jr per cent. is yet unable to bringdown the stock's; on tho contrary, thoy still increase, while Cleveland tho other party to the restriction arrangement could have douo without it altogether. The moit important matter which the trade have now to discuss is tho announcement that one of the leading Cleveland firms of pig iron makers aud one which can afford to pay. for carrying, out the experiment intends lo revolutionise their mode of disposing of their pig irou. They will sell it by auction, and this, there is no doubt, will bo a fairer test of the real-conditiou of the market than tho present method is. No doubt, if it is successful, it will materially ailect tho position of the smaller merchants aiid brokers. The change made iu 1877, wheu 'the Monday payments were made tho rule, had tho effect of weeding, out a lot of small merchants, who "nourished " whoa tho monthly payments were taken. Now the selling by miction will bring the producer and consumer uearer together in their transactions, to the advautuge of each, it is said. Certainly novrnore important step has baen taken lately iu the irou trade, and its result will be awaited wiih great interest throughout the trade of other districts as well as this. TUB SUNDERLAND 'CONSPIRACY CASE. Wo have tho authority of Mr C. Marshall Dix solicitor for tho prosecution iu this case, and of Mr W. M. Skinner, solicitor for the defendants for saying that the statement is absolutely untrue that the North-Eastern liailway Company will not offer any evidence for the prosecution and that the presiding judgo will be requested to discharge Ihe accused. :It is rumoured that M. Tricoa will be appointed Consul in Tunis iu tho place of M. Roustan. The Mansion House fund iu aid of the defence of property in Ireland amounted last e venin" to over 3,000. It is stated that Mr W. L. Christie, tho Conservative member for Lewes, intends to resign his seat at an early date. - Yesterday afternoon, Boberts, jun , won the billiard handicap in Argyle-street, Loudon, beating Mitchell by 318 points. Renewed Arab ogitatiou is reported towards the southern frontier of Tunis, and is stated to be assuming serious proportions. The body of the late Captain Trelawny has been cremated, and his ashes placed in au urn upon the tomb of Shelley at Borne. By an extensive landslip near West-street Wesleyau Chapel, Leek, yesterday, eight cottages fell. The ium'ates narrowly escaped. Tho steamer Europa, which is conveying frozen meat from Melbourne to Loudon, left Suez on Saturday with her cargo in perfect order. A diver star has been fixed in the floor of the station of the Baltimore and Potomac Railway to mark the spot where General Garfield fell when shot. In addition' to his annual address to'his constituents on January 3, Mr Bright will on January 5 meet the various Liberal ward centres of the town at a soiree, and deliver a political speoeh. .ibout 1,800 has been already received towards the Stanley ffdnd. It is requested that all contributions, however small, may be sent to the Dean of Westminster. A report is current jn St. Petersburg that another mine assassination plot has beeu discovered at Gatchiua, the present residence of the Czar and his Court, and that several officers have been arrested. At Clerkenwell Police Court yesterday, William Staines (26), seaman, was remanded ou a charge of attempting to murder Thomas Smith, gold and silver refiner, by shooting him with a revolver. The injured man is not in danger. 188IY THE FARMERS' ALLIANCE. FORMATION OF A SOUTH DURHAM AND H0IITH YORK BRANCH. MEETING AT DARLINGTON. SPEECH BY MR JAS. HOWARD, M.P. Yesterday, a large aud representative meeting of the farmers of South Durham and North Yorkshire was held in the Mechanics' Hall, Darlington. The object of the gathering was to form a branch of the Farmers' Alliance for the above district. It was, a3 will be seen from onr report below, a complete success iu every respect. The audience was not only numerous, but-was composed of men who thorougty understood the business in hand. Mr Theodore Pry, M.P., the member for the borough, presided, and. was supported by Mr James Howard, M.P., the president of the Farmers' Alliance, -Mr C. Coates (Cleasby), secretary 6f the local branch; Mr Samuel Kowlaudsou, Neyvton Mor-rell ; Mr J. Smith, Burrill ; . Mr 3: B. Backhouse, Middletou-Tyas ; Mr Thos. Bell, Hedley Hall, Gateshead ; Mr G. J. Bobinson, Northallerton ; Mr John Smith, High Burton; Mr George Lancaster, Murton, near Northallerton ; Mr R. Tweedy ; Mr G.Elwiu, Mayor of Darlington; and Mr Philip Wood, M.A., headmaster of the Grammar School. Mr Fuy; M.P., who was received with loud applause, said they were all well aware of the objects of that meeting. They were to hear an address from Mr James Howard, M.P., the president of the Furmers' Alliance, with a view to the formation of a branch of that association. It would little become him (the speaker) to take up a great deal of their timo, for various reasons, one of which was that he professed to but & very limited amount of knowledge of farming. To say anything on tho subject to the practical men he saw before him, who thoroughly understood their business, would be to take up time which might be better used by Mr Howard and those gentlemen who wore to follow him. Every one who had paid any attention to the land laws must have felt that there were certain points which had great claims for alteration. Up to this time no definite movement had been made by the farmers to bring their wants before, the Legislature. Although all other classes had had their special unions and associations to ventilate their grievances, with a view to their being remedied when circumstances would permit, there were many grievances under which farmers laboured, and to remedy them it was that thoFarmers'AUiauce had been formed.aud they were fortunate iu having its President with them that day to explain its aims. The land of this country might he said to. ha a huge monopoly. Tho total number of acres in Ibis country was thirty-seven millions ; and no less thau two-thirds of this large number of acres in Eugland, Scot-laud, aud Ireland was owned by 12,o00 men. One person in Scotland owned 1,260,000 acres, which was a very large quantity to be iu'the bauds of oire man. Some who were opposed to alteration told Lhem thoy wanted to take away from the owner that which he at present possessed ; but nothing of the kind was the case. The Liberal party only wanted to make the transfer of land easier than it was at present. (Hear, hoar.) The land was hampered in various ways, and it could easily be seen that, so long as it was lied up, it could not be properly cultivated. One great object of the Farmers' Alliance was to remove from the land those legal restrictions which prevented its being bought and sold freely in this cauulry. It was not only the farmers who had an interest iu the laud. Every man, woman, aud child in the United Kingdom had an interest in the land being cultivated to the highest possible extent. (Applause.) Tho Farmers' Alliance, therefore, had a claim upou the country far beyond the class that he saw represented iu the meeting before him. They wanted the tenant to feel that he, too, had an interest in the soil as well as the landowner, and to be encouraged to put his own capital into the laud. This could not be done without security, or so long as the tenant kuew that the landlord had power to take his capital by closing his lease or turning him out. of his holding with a year's notice. They wanted the tenant farmer to have a definite legal security for the capital he expended on his farm. Alter alluding to the unsatisfactory nature of the Agricultural Holdings Act, and pointing out that the next measure would, be of u very different character, Mr Fry introduced Mr James Howard, M. P., president of the Farmers' Alliance, to the meeting, Mr James "Howard, M.P., who was received with cheers, said the prospects of the farmers were so gloomy, the sky was so overcast, and the clouds wore :-.o dark aud lowering, that ho confessed it required no small amount of courage to stand upon a platform to talk to farmers in auy part of the country upon remedial measures.- In passing through Loudon last Friday he met a Northumberland friend of his, who said " I see you are going down to Darliugton on Monday next, but you must take care what you talk about, because tho farmers of the North are a very shrewd, hard-headed set of men." (Hear.) He replied that he thought itbehoved every public speaker, whether he was addressing the hard headed Northern' or the softer headed Southern farmers, to take care what he was talking about. He confessed to them at the outset that, if they were to be visited with a succession of the terrible seasons which they had experienced of remedial measure would suffice in restoring prosperity to agriculture. Take all the items in their programme, and, indeed, if they had all to become law to-morrow, he could see nothing before the British farmer but universal bankruptcy with the continuance of the seasons they had gone through. Every trade had had cycles in past time3 of disastrous seasons, and they had been succeeded by a long run of equally favourable seasons ; so therefore lot them gird themselves together and hope for better times. The present condition of agriculture and the future of the farming of the country was looked forward to with no little anxiety, not only by tho two classes directly interested, the landlords and the tenants, but the whole country seemed to be joining iu the inquiry us to what can be done to restore prosperity to this the greatest of all the industrial pursuits. (Cheers.) Uutil recently the general public had no idea of the importance of the agricultural Interest of the country,! The very first meeting of the Farmers' Alliance which was held in the provinces was held at Birmingham and he remembered wheu he stated that the value of the annual produce of tho holds aud the homesteads of Eugland amounted to thelargo sum of 250 millions sterling, and that the valne'of the agricultural and pastoral land of tho Kingdom amouuted to no less a sum than 200,000 millions sterling, the stalement was received with tho utmost astonishment aud surprise. Ari-culture unquestionably was the most important of all their industrial pursuits, and further, it was the most essential. (Cheers.) He thought they would all agree that agriculture was far too inlportant an iuterest in this great country to be made a shuttlecock of by either of the two political parties of the State. (Cheers.) When they looked at tho magnitude of the interests involved, it behoved all who preached remedial measures to do so with the utmost caution, aud altogether aDart from party views or political feeling. Further, ho held it was desirable that those .who wore striving to briug about a revival of tho prosperity of this great interest, should give each other credit for sincerity of purpose. (Hear, hear.) To impntu motives to those from whom they differed as to the remedies to call each other hard names, as had been done in a portion of the local press of that neighbourhood aud a paper had beeu placed in his hands since he came iuto that room was not only unwise, but more it was supremely silly. (Loud cheers.) His object in coming there that day was to explain the proposal of the Farmers' Alliance, and to define the programme which it had issued. He might be asked, and he had been on many occasions, ns to the need there was for any association, seeing so many already existed. His answer to" that, question was twofold. Not one of the agricultural associations which existed had carried.out the. objects set forth in their programmes ; aiid further, that they never attempted to carry but what they regarded as the 3 most important of them. (Cheers) Still further, not one of the existing agricultural associations was charged with the special duty of looking after the interests of the tenant farmers oe the country. (Benewed cheers.) A great deal had been said and much had been writtem upon the objects and the motives of the founders of this Alliance, but in both instances much of it was by people who were altogether ignorant o the subject upon which they attempted to en-iignten other people. (Hear, hear.) Aud he said this specially applied to a portion of the publio .press of this neighbourhood (cheers) that was, if ho was to judge by xhe iguoranca displayed m an article which had beea put into his hands some ten minutes ago. (Laughter and applause.) Notwithstanding all that had beeu said and all that had been writtea about the Farmers' Alllntio lia l,ni;,, association which was ever formed had a mora simple, a more natural, and a more worthy object than this Alliance. (Hear, hear.) He said a more natural organisation and object, because it would be remembered that iu the spring of 1879, owing to the agricultural depression, there was a very widespread feeling of alarm both, m the minds of landlords and tenants, anil a number of meetings were held in various parts of the country, and particularly one meeting in London. The whole country'1 seemed to join in an iuquiry as to what was the 'Cause of that depression, aud what was to be the remedy. It would also--be remembered by many tbat there was a very widespread feeling of 1 dissatisfaction and disappointment that a Government which had boen iu power for six years, and which had been returned to power mainly by the support of the tenant farmers of England, had failed to deal with these grievances and to remove those difficulties of which tho tenant farmer had so long complaiued. Wha6 was the attitude of the existing agricultural-associations at that particular crisis? AH: that they had to recommend was tho appointment of a Boyal Commission to consider the circumstances of the country. (Hear, hear.) He said that the existing agricultural associations remained inactive, and that all the Government of the day had to propose was the appointment of this Boyal Commission recommended by tho existing agricultural associations. (Cheers.) Well now, some foresaw at all events they thought so that a large proportion of the tenant farmers ; of the country would pass through the bankruptcy court or have gone the way of all .flesli before this Royal Agricultural Commission reported. (Laughter and applause.) It so happened that Cardinal Manning made a speech in. London mi n vni'v ditfprmil-. cnivtaif in i.rt r.v,: ot 189, which at the time made a great impression. uiiuu. xc was upon me water supply of the Metropolis, aud it was proposed that that subject should also be referred to a Boyal Commission. That ecclesiastic said ho had been a diligent observer of public events for a great many years, aud he had always observed when the Government was in difficulty it got the subject referred to a Select Committee of tbe House of Common?, and that when it was a subject they wished to relegate to the far future they -got it submitted fn n Rwal n.-mmii.c;. m, : A few who had been for many vears in favour of agricultural reform thought tho time haS come for the establishment of a more active, a more nroj?ressn've. nhd n. mnw,;.-..;) cultural association than auy which had existed ui w iiej-iou an association wmeu, snoukl advocate reforms from the tenant farmers' stand-poiut, and the result was the formation of the Farmers' Alliance and the promulgation of a piuramme w'mcu ne mignc say ttad met with, the assent ami the approval of a great majority of . the farmers of the emintrv. fP.lii-o Ho COUld Oulv sav that a nrnnt m.iiivtt'n- of tho farmers of the country had joined the Alliance, and that the programme had Commended itself to them ! nnd it nrn vmmo.,J iug itself more aud more, for they had just had an accession ot 2,000 members from across the border fvnm RnfloTK-t TwMr, l,rt i aspect of the (luestion, just once for all he might say that at their first meeting there were present a great many men of both political parties, hut some abstained from attending because their nnltt.!r.l fatAinrr nx-ov-vnrlo tlin!.. i.-,fni.n- : r .. w.y,. ivuv vuw& AUt,OiGEjU IU ajJU- c.nlt.nrfl. Thp.u wnnl1 nof TrtiT will. , i. . ., vu.i. a.uu iun IJLltJU 1YUU differed with them in political sentiment, but ha believed this that there were many who had livOll .fTVl-. tlloil. Oltlrt,. .t. 11. - effect and influence which the Farmers' Allianca naa nau upon me public opinion of the country. The Farmers' Alliance had no more idea of defending the political interests of either of the two great political parties than they had in brine- lug about a reform iu the eovernnifliit-, nf f-ha Cniuese Empire. (Cheers) Their sole object ..jjuvuiuuto, UUU. UJ benefit the tenant farmers of the Kingdom. He wouiu asic mom 10 uismiss lrom their minds anything which they might have heard or read to the prejudice of this movement, and, to depend upon their own judgment, aud their own judgment only, whother tho programme of the Alliance was worthy of their support or not. Cheers. 1 Their nrtiurummfl pmh,-ana finuA subjects, aud, taking the last first, they would find that it was with reference to the mainten ance oi enecuve regulations m respect to eattla disease. Ho would ask thorn Could there be a subject of more immediate importance to tha tenant farmer than to watch over the progress of that dirft rrmlmlv wlnnli bnrl iMfiir.l-,.,1 ..u --t '-. - .uu.uuv.l OUUU grievous losses m times past ? The hou. gentle- iuixu cAjiumcu ma auuuu oi cue Alliance in this direction, and went ou to allude to tha ' railway charges in connection with farmers. The goods manager of ono of the largest rail-' ways iu England had told him that ho was present when Professor Hunter was examined oil behalf of the Farmers' Alliance, and he expressed his opinion that it would be very difficult, if not impossible, for the railway companies of tha Kingdom to rebut the evidence which he gave. (Applause.) The Farmers' Alliance had given notice to the railway companies that they would not be allowed in the future to charge for tha carriage of English, produce more than their legal fares, or to carry foreign produce at smaller rates than English produce. (Applause. Perhaps no man rendered greater service before the Baiiway Commission, no man threw greater energy into the work, than their friend Mr Bowlaudsou (applause) aud if the farmers of that district had not recoguised the debt of gratitude which they ' owed him they' would do so when thoy knew alt the facts. (Applause.) If the Farmers' Allianca : hud done nothing more than set on foot that' inquiry into railway rates, he maintained it was : worthy of the support of the whole of the farmers of the Kingdom. There was another poiut in the programme that came home to every tenaut and occupier in that room, and that was the question of local bur--dens. (Applause.) On that question they"! had not acted as some other associations had done. They had not met year after ' year to pass abstract resolutions and then ' fold their hands and do nothing. No ; the AUianc6 had gone to Ihe Prime Minister, and had' told Mr Gladstone (cheers) how heavily these local burdens pressed upon the tenaut farmers. He remembered during the interview a Quaker farmer there were not many Quaker farmers they generally selected some better business' (Laughter). Well, this Quaker farmer from' Essex related to Mr Gladstone how rate after rata had been piled upon him, until the Premier started in his chair. (Applause.) That he made an impression was evident, for a few weeks after, when he was replying to Colonel Harcourt on the question of the road rates, he suggested that tha landowners should tako tho burden upon their own shoulders. (Applause.) In- the Landlord and Tenant Bill, which the Farmers' Alliance had laid before the country, they had goiie further aud proposed that three-fourths of the rate should be paid by the owner and one-fourth by tha occupier. (Applause.) There was no principle in a half and half rating, but there was in a three-quarter rating. Bates wore said to be taxes upon capital, and if the owner paid three-fourths ha paid in a proportion approximate to his portion of the capital which was invested in the land. He maintained that there was a principle involved in this ; but they went further, and said that when three-fourths of the local rates rested upon the shoulders of the landowners they would show much more iuterest aud anxietv in getting that great question of local burdens placed upon a proper basts. (Laughter aud applause.) With respect to tithes, it was proposed in the bill he had alluded to to place them upon the shoulders' upon which they wero intended lo rest. (Applause ) When the Tithes Commutation Act was' passed the tithes were abolished aud the tithe rent chare instituted. The very term expressed the iu tension of the Act, that it should bo a uhnrpo upon Si0 ? ' nnd uot lll10n tl18 occupier. (Applause.) Ihe Tithe Commutation Act was passed in tho interests of religion, to dissociate the pnver from the receiver anil the parson from his parishioners. No sooner was it passed thau numljcrs of laud-owners shifted the burden from their own shoulders to the shoulders of the tenant. (Hear.) He had never heard a singio fair-minded man object to the proposal of the Farmers' Alliance that these uurdens should rest exclu-

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