The Atlanta Constitution from Atlanta, Georgia on September 1, 1942 · 14
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The Atlanta Constitution from Atlanta, Georgia · 14

Atlanta, Georgia
Issue Date:
Tuesday, September 1, 1942
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t-'arze Two B THE CONSTITUTION, ATLANTA, GA., TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 1, 1942. The South' Standard Newspaper granges, lawlessness and the final triumph of democracy. Its columns give a true diary of the south we know today and a vivid description of events recorded for school children in history books. Those dusty files are a veritable ;gold mine for the historian, the ; publicist, the economist and the sociologist. This is the history of The Con-; stitution, founded during the dark days of 1868 to lead a beaten and "bloody south back to its rightful ; place in the Union. The Consti-; tution first appeared in print when politics was a maelstrom of ; bitter passions and honest states-; manship was scarce. Its pages embalm the fierce and fascinating struggle for a new era of justice and constitutional righteousness, f The Journalists. From out of the ancient Constitution files step such men as Colonel Carey W. Styles, the founder, a former Confederate of- ficer whose brilliance on the field '. of battle was equalled only by his ; eloquence with words; Captain Evan P. Howell, who helped make journalism what it is today; Henry : W. Grady and W. A. Hemphill, to - name a few. Little did General Sherman EH to LM1 m SCIENTIFIC GLASSES FOR GLARE II IfORGLAg fgf I Sun and artificial SfV light glare are pro-frfjL' tcctcd against with scientific lenses that ThJ preserve the vision. UlAl T i.. WA. 998? j realize the weight of his words when he said. "War is hell" dur ing his paralyzing Georgia cam paign. Blood ran red in Feacn- tree creek during the siege of At lanta, but the tragedies of reconstruction which followed were equally productive of sorrow and loss. President Andrew Johnson stoutly resisted the announced policy of Thad Stevens in- 1868 to treat southern states as conquered territory. For this resistance, President Johnson was impeached and put on trial before the senate lor high crimes and misdemeanors. Johnson's trial was a terrible ordeal for southern people, for they knew with his conviction would come the rule of Ben Wade, of Ohio, a vindictive south-hater, who was next m line for the presidency. Conviction Fails. Thanks to the integrity of sev eral fair-minded Republican sen ators, however, the conviction failed by a single vote. ! That ordeal over, the Republic ans in convention at Chicago nom inated General Grant for the pres idency. That, nomination met with the approval of many southern men, who trusted to Grant's known desire for peaceful condi tions in the south. ' Early in June bills were passing congress for the readmission ol southern states, including Georgia. With the assurance that southern states would have some voice in the national government, even though upon terms dictated by the north, there arose a demand lor press leadership. And the answer to this demand was the establishment of The Atlanta Constitution on June 18, 1868. Hostile Powers. The new paper was not immediately received with open arms. The powers prominent at the time were sure to be hostile and unscrupulous in oppression and suppression, and threats were voiced that the newspaper would be quickly strangled. Such bleak prospects doubtlessly would have bluffed a man of less business caliber and patriotic dar ing than Colonel Styles. President Johnson himself, whose chief obsession was the sancticy of the federal constitu tion, suggested the newspaper be named The Constitution. Colonel Styles stopped in Wash ington to pay his respects to the President while on a material pur chasing tour. Johnson suggested his name for the paper would be both timely and would help ad vance a theory of grounding the -, I . J A i r mJ THE LATE CLARK HOWELL. 3 Safeguard Your Right s Re-Elect A Faithful Servant I l He Has O ABILITY COURAGE O CHARACTER O EXPERIEUCE O GOOD RECORD Your Courts are one of your most important institutions and you should study carefully the ability of the men who preside over them, JUDGE IIATIICOCK has demonstrated that he is capable, fair and impartial. He is painstaking and courteous, yet firm and courageous. He has presided over the Civil Court of Fulton County in a kind and dignified manner. HIS RECORD IN THE APPELLATE COURT is your complete assurance of his knowledge of the law. THE COURT OF APPEALS and SUPREME COURT HAVE APPROVED 84.6 PER CENT OF HIS DECISIONS! KEEP A MAN IN OFFICE WHO HAS PROVED FAITHFUL TO HIS TRUST. "Reward Faithful Service" Re-elect Judge T. 0. Hafhcock TO THE Civil Court of Fulton County Your Vote ourf Influence lVfH Be Appreciated (Paid Political Advertisement) government once more upon con' stitutional principles. This blessing The Constitution has never violated. Colonel Styles active brain and unfaltering courage injected spontaneous life into the infant newspaper, which, in turn, somehow gave new hope to Georgia and the Southland. Colonel Barrick. Burdened with the business and policy of his new venture, Colonel Styles began looking around for an editorial writer. He "discov ered" Colonel James Russell Bar rick, a highly educated Kentuck ian, who divided his time between operating a small drug store on Whitehall street and penning, vig orous prose. Colonel Barrick accepted the post and for 10 months The Con stitution fairly bristled with his verbal broadsides about the wronged south. His poems, too are glorified in both southern and northern anthologies. In less than a year, however. death ended what promised to be one of the most brilliant careers in American journalism. The presidential campaign of 1868 was filled with excitement for it was the first national cam paign after the Civil War in which soutnern statesmen were per mitted to take part by electing electors. This election also was the first real test for the new Constitution Opposing: Candidates. uemocratic candidates were Horatio Seymour, of New York, and General Frank P. Blair, of Missouri, opposed to Grant and Colfax, the Republican candidates, Those who doubted the courage of the new Atlanta publication to speak for the rights of southern ers, had not reckoned with the stubborn doggedness and fiery temper or Colonel Styles. Due largely to The Constitution leadership, the doubting Demo crats of Georgia .rallied jto their candidates and gave them a clear majority ol votes. Louisiana and Kentucky were the only other southern states with the courage to support Seymour and Blair. - The votes of Alabama, Arkan sas, Florida, Worth and South Carolina, Tennessee and West Vir ginia were all cast for Grant and Colfax. Achievement of Paper. That Georgia "went Democrat ic" in the face of undisputed Re publican control was the first major achievement of The Atlanta Constitution, which, by this time commanded a widespread circula tion over the south. Meanwhile, things were hap pening which editorial writers could use to rally their readers into line for spirited opposition to wnat they believed was unconsti tutional aggression. General am nesty by President Johnson July 4 helped tremendously, for it took away from thousands of southern men the terror of federal prosecution for treason because they served under the Confeder ate flag. August of that year records the death of Thad Stevens, of Penn sylvania, leader of the radicals in congress and the most bitter foe of rehabilitating the south. He the character "Stoneman" deDict ed in Thomas Dixon's novel, "The Clansman, and in its moving pic ture outgrowth, "The Birth of Nation." The death of Stevens sounded the starting gun for-ihe disintegration of the alliance south-haters who had ruled legislation since the war. Rufus B. Bullock, of Augusta, a man of northern birth, who had come to Georgia before the war, was declared Governor. Persistent Prober. Quite naturally, The Constitu tion attacked every feature of the proceedings that framed up the defeat of General John B. Gordon, the Democratic candidate. And from the very inception of the Bullock regime, the newspaper became the persistent investigator and publicity herald of the administration. Bullock had the co-operation of several prominent Georgians who had professed to be "reconstructed" and to prove it had indorsed the nomination of General Grant It was the work of these men that brought the defeat of General Gordon and plunged the state into four years of secret graft and open robbery. Election returns showed that in the first house would be a very narrow majority of Democrats and "conservatives ' leaders dan gling between "the powers" and the people. The organization meeting broke out into, actual fights between factions and final ly military powers came to the support of the radical group the crowd that finally prevailed. New Crises Develop. Hardly a day of 1868-69 the birth year of The Constitution passed without the development of some new crises affecting the domestic or political life of Georgia cities. The Constitution faithfully recorded each event, always taking a firm stand in the inter est of its constituents. In the face of the "Black Fri day" panic, when gold reached 164 on Wall street. Colonel Styles decided he could no longer finance the newspaper and transferred his holdings to Colonel J. H. Ander son. Colonel Styles died a few years later. Colonel Anderson brought in as his partner his son-in-law, Colonel William A. Hemphill, a brilliant Confederate artillery officer, who wore in one cheek a deep scar as a symbol of how nearly he came to giving his life for his ideals dur ing the Civil War. Colonel Hemphill came to The Constitution from a teacher s desk His resourcefulness and business ability piloted the newspaper for more than 30 years over financial shoals and kept The Constitution well away from the notorious At lanta "newspaper graveyard." Anderson Retires. . After the retirement of Colonel Anderson left Colonel Hemphill as the principal owner of the paper, he employed on the editorial staff Colonel Isaac W. Avery, who had served as one of "Morgan's men" during the war. Later on. Colonel Avery turned to other business engagements, and Colonel Edward Y. Clarke purchased an interest in The Constitution from Colonel Hemphill and became its managing editor. In 1871, the Republican machine in Georgia began to crumble. The finances of the state were in serious straits and on the last day of October The Constitution pub lished the startling announcement that Bullock had resigned, fleeing the state and leaving his office in the hands of Benjamin L. Conley, president of the senate. That debacle was a great tri umph for The Constitution, for the paper had bitterly opposed Bui lockism, had worked diligently to expose the dealings of the Bui lock-Kimball-Clews ring, the railroad bond indorsement frauds and other vagaries of the regime until the demand for criminal actions against the leaders had grown statewide. Bullock Acquitted. The flight of Governor Bullock was accepted as "confession and avoidance," although he was sub sequently arrested, brought back to Atlanta and upon trial in Ful ton superior court was acquitted He continued to live here, and held several high business and civic positions before his death. In 1872, the Democratic ticket, headed by Colonel James Milton Smith, of Muscogee, a rugged and incorruptible patriot, swept the state. The scalawags and carpet baggers aske'd for terms of surren der, or fled back north. From political perils, The Constitution entered a fierce competi tion era from other newspapers that had sprung into being over the state. The competition was especially strong in southwest Georgia, since railway schedules out of Macon made it impossible for Atlanta morning paper to get I: - .-.w:-x J ; .;.;.'.v.v-".' v' CLARK HOWELL. r 1 i, i A.n iiMirlcnti MttsHiutiatt SincolVSO FOOD STORES HI 112 Modem Food Stores Operating Under the Atlanta Branch into south Georgia before night trains of the same day. To meet the challenge, the At lanta morning papers hired special trains an engine and a car to carry their papers to Macon on a fast run, so they could be placed on morning trains to southwest and southeast sections. Thrilling Stories. Many thrilling stories developed out of the race to see who would be first to "get off the press" and get the first train started south Ferhaps the most thrilling story. however, was the "daily, scraping in each office to get the money to meet exhaustive railroad charges for the extraordinary Services. In the end, The Constitution won out One of the contributing factors to The Constitution's victory was the advent of Colonel N. P. T Finch, of New York, an abl journalist and a brother of the author of "The Blue and Gray" poem. Colonel Finch bought block of stock in the paper and remained as chief editorial writer until after Colonel Clarke sold his interest to Captain Evan P. Howell in 1876. In 1877. Colonel Finch sold out to Henry W. Grady and retired, Captain Howell, returning from the war, became city editor of The Atlanta Intelligencer, then the city s only daily, and later be came solicitor general of the cir cuit and state senator. Forces Reorganized. When he took active manager ship of The Constitution as presi dent and editor-in-chief, Captain Howell began a thorough reor ganization of its forces. He ne gotiated the purchase of the Finch interest by Grady, whom he had brought over as a special writer, Grady already had acquired fame in Georgia by his connec tion with other newspapers, nota bly the Atlanta Herald, as co partner of Colonel Robert A. Al ston and of A. St. Clair Abrams He possessed one of the most fer tile and versatile minds ever pro duced in the south. For many years, Grady used the columns of The Constitution with tremendous power to pro mote the Atlanta spirit, to make Georgia a mecca for capital and enterprises, to vindicate the loy alty of the people of the south and to put them in line with cosmopolitan patriotism. In all of his remarkable cam paigns, Grady had the wise and sympathetic co-operation of lap tain HowelL who was pre-emi nently astute in political matters and had an acute judgment over men and in every field where his paper exerted influence. Other Stockholders. Several other persons purchased financial interest m The Consti tution during this period. Albert Howell Sr., brother of Captain Evan P. Howell, acquired stock which he later sold to Sam and Hugh T. Inman. Clark Howell Jr., a son of Captain E. P., bought several shares of the finch stock The yellow fever epidemic on the coast in 1878 caused Joel Chandler Harris, then employed on The Savannah News, to seek refuge in Atlanta. Harris had been associated in Savannah with Colonel W. T. Thomson, the au thor of the famous humorous ad ventures of "Major Jones." 'Tradition has it that Captain Howell was strolling through the corridors of the old Kimball House when he happened to look at the register and saw an entry "Joel Chandler Harris, his wife anH two measly children." "Who is this man?" Captain Howell demanded. Within a half hour, he had met the writer of "Uncle Remus" and the next morning had him signed up for The Constitution. And it was in this newspaper that Harris lm mortal "Uncle Remus" sketches first appeared. Captain Ilowelt Tribute. Terhaps the best tribute to Captain Howell was paid by Alfred C. Newell, who joined The Consti tution editorial staff in 1894, serv ed for several years, and then en tered the insurance business: "It always has been the purpose and plan of The Atlanta consul' tution, since its inception, to de velon individual talent, vvni other newspapers were allowing their staff men to sink into the anonymity of the mass, The Con stitution was the first publication in the country to develop colum nists and stars. Captain Evan P. Howell, the father of Clark Howell Sr., could recognize genius at glance. "Captain Howell hand-picked Joel Chandler Harris. He hand picked Henry Grady. He snatch ed up Frank Manton from the wire grass. In the same way there are other men of national talent who were developed under the tutelage of Captain Howell. The Consti tution has been the cradle of lit erary genius. Clark Howell consistently carried on his father l policy of the development of indi- oli n:irl T7:.w1 Constitution Faithful Lighthouse of State, Nation for 75 Years Yellowed Files Are Gold Mine to Historian, Publicist ; For three-quarters of a' century, The Constitution has been the faithful lighthouse of the people of Atlanta, Geor-Cgia. the south and the nation. I Its yellowed, bound files tell ex- citing stories of days gone by; the -terrible reconstruction days, the carpetbaggers, the terror of "There was Ed Bruffey, the first real sports writer in America. There was Maude Andrews (Mrs. J. K. Ohl), the first among woman writers to develop the personal society department. "There was 'Bill Arp, the phil osopher from Cartersville. - There was Ed Barrett, whose brilliance as a Washington corre spondent gave greater color to Cleveland's regime than any other writer. There was Montgomery Fol- som, a singer second only to Frank Stanton. There was Wallace Reid. the erudite. There was Orth Stein, the terious and iridescent misanthrope. "There was Gordon Noel Hurtel, whose darkey stories of 'Judge Andy's Police Court' made him national in fame. Lucian Knight. lnere was Lucian Lamar ruugnt. "There was the brilliant! r. ratic Remsen Crawford, scion from uie aai-K corner or Lincoln.' who later became a star of the Satur day Evening Post. I here was Sam Dibhlf. rti. uriai sage. .there was the Isma Dooly, and her sister, Louise Dooly, worthy successors tn Mauri Andrews. There was J. K. Ohl. who aftpr- wards became Bennett's right hand man on me old New York Herald. fcrnest Wilkinson. There was Ernest Wilki the first cartoonist of the south) tnu jus associate, w. iiender son. mere was Lewis C. Gregg. wnose cartoons won national ac claim. "There was Bobbv Small iihn A. P. achievements, suhspnnont his journalistic birth nn Th constitution, still are related wnere newsmen gather. Ihere was John Yonnir i? a . . . ungion, wno established the Alka- nesi. There was Jim Holleman. rnn. stnictive and far seeing. inere was Pierre Van Paassen Since its incention. Thf rvm. smuuon nas been able tn waiir and labor hand in hand with the people or Atlanta and Georgia, all ucm on me same purpose the de velopment of resources, the build ing of men, and the support of all wholesome civic endeavors. Clark Howell, throueh Th rvmstitut has always been a builder, not a' aesirucior. a southern ontimist not a fault finder. Hp ha s ai wave iieipea, never ninaered. Gains Constituency. During the first 30 years of its career, the paper had gone through first one crisis and another, slow ly gaining a constituency that was national in scope. It survived while other newspapers came and went. Older Atlantans mav reran fhi death of the old Intelligencer, con- auciea Dy uoionel Jared I. Whita-ker, a journalist of the state ante- Deuum days. Then Colonel Sam Bard, an emergency Republican. ex-governor of the territory of iaano ana Orant-appointed post to That Farming Is Fun BOSTON, Aug. 31. (INS) Reading, 'riting and 'rithmetic is all right, but a fellow has to think of his carrots and spinach, too. So Boston school children are taking the hoe by the handle and developing an abandoned planta tion in near-by Woburn and Bur lington into a thriving farm. Hundreds of pupils congregate at Boston city hall every morning and go by bus to cultivate their assigned plots of from 15 to 25 feet. Others under 12 years of age are transported at half fare by the Boston and Maine railroad. The students look forward to the day in the week assigned to them and, according to four agri culture teachers directing the project, weed, plant and till the soil with gusto, giving nary a sign that they are "city boys." Mixing business with pleasure, the students take time out at noon for a picnic with lunches they carry with. them. master of Atlanta, published his New Era until he was separated from the federal pay roll. ueorgia s pouticai status was hanging fire in Washington, and that aroused the ire of Alexander Hamilton Stephens, former vice president of the Confederacy, who had been refused a seat in the United States senate. Accordingly, Colonel Stephens founded The Atlanta Sun and be gan to lambaste the radicals edi torially. His lengthy editorials, signed "A. H. S.," soon became the temporary wonder of the state. His money soon failed, and so died his paper. State's Standard Paper. Then, in varied succession, some of the most versatile "trained journalists" of Georgia and the south entered the field with The Constitution, that by now was acknowledged to be the standard daily of the state. Some of these were the Atlanta News, by Alex St. Clair Abrams The Atlanta Herald, by Bob Als ton and Henry W. Grady before Grady joined The Constitution staff: The Daily Capital, under Charles S. Atwood; The Post Ap peal, by Colonel Marcellus E, Thornton and later by David E. Caldwell, and a flock of other pa pers, such as Telegrams, Evening Heralds and Gazettes. Under the guidance of Captain Howell and Grady there was born on The Constitution a new type of journalism. They worked on the theory that the prosperity of the people to be served must be the basis of the paper's own prosperity. Faithful Friend. While other editors were grind ing out behind closed doors lengthy, poinUess editorials. Captain Howell and Grady were busy among the people who were bringing things to pass. They went out among the railway men and boosted whatever they were doing that would help the farmer, the manu facturer, the south and Atlanta in particular. At the same time, they wer equally as quick to jump upon an injustice in railway rates or man agement. They attended county fairs, state fairs and farmers' con ventions. They made The Constitution the alert and faithful friend of the farmer, and were pioneers in recognizing the importance of regular farm news. Nothing of interest to the peo ple was ever alien to Captain How ell or Grady. In 1877, a constitutional conven tion was called to Atlanta to revise and amend the Constitution of the state. Mer-bers of that historic con vention included: General Alexander R, Lawton, Congressman James L. Seward, Nelson Tift, The Rev. George F. Cooper, of Americus, the real father of the Georgia railroad com mission: T. M. Furlow and Joshua Hill, both candidates for Governor against Brown in 1863; Charles J. Jenkins, the "Old Roman," whose act as Governor of carrying away to Canada the great seal of Geor gia to prevent it falling into the hands ot General Ruger, the mili tary governor, will live forever. William A. Little. William A. Little, later attorney general and justice of the supreme court; Pope Barrow, who succeeded Ben Hill in the senate; Robert Toombs, the Cato of the Confederacy; Nathaniel J. Hammond, ex-attorney general: Judge James R. Brown, Judge John Collier, who framed the first charter of Atlanta in 1847 when the name was changed from Marthasville. Porter Ingram, who served as member of the Confederate congress from Georgia; Colonel L. N. Trammell and Colonel A. W. Hol-comb, both of whom had been members of the constitutional convention of 1868, and General Augustus R. Wright, of Rome. Realizing the importance of th situation. Captain Howell ordered a skilled stenographer to take a verbatim report of the proceedings to be printed daily in The Constitution. Such a task had never been tried before outside of the national congress. The next adventure championed by The Constitution was the first Continued on Pace 3, Column 2. MARIST COLLEGE A Military Day School . 335 Ivy SU N. E. . Thone tt'A. 9139 or WA. 039S JUNIOR and SENIOR HIGH Term Begins September 8 THE PEOPLES BANK 0trr'"" ' ' '1"U1 in iiiini, ; ; ipj ' 'it . , si! VAi - f ' M fe t t,. '- j i s" OH SAVINGS PAY by CHECK t , 20 checks for $1 no other charges no minimum deposit required monthly statements rendered. $50 to S3.000 On signatures, endorsements, furniture, stocks, bonds, real estate (first and second mortgages), etc. 20 Years of Successful Banking in Atlanta 'WW.iiiii' Via m f oj 1 Ff j

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