The Evening Post from New York, New York on January 30, 1818 · Page 2
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January 30, 1818

The Evening Post from New York, New York · Page 2

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I. v. - f ,! (l , r; . ; ' ' 0 - I I , 5 . Vport U, U ward. tvws. and lot, hav. ' i - .s - .;iSUilhftHnctkouetioa. hoaiarar. ftfthoMDorltifincou - ' aiderabla, and probably U1 rasaain m for many year. - . - . ' AU wbxJik respectfully u omitted, WM. II CRAWFORD. .' Tmwrj Department, Jan. J 7, 1818. :v.; v. A. . ' 1 Sugar, ta canisters, 40 neb; teroona 8 patct ' Cocoa tn aeroou 0. ' "V ChYes in catkt IS. . In dijo in case 15. ' ; , .Twins in case 15. . .' ' J v ' o - v - - ' - .B - ' , - ' Tare allnttd ay . - ' Aknoad, bags, 4 perct. j frail 10 1 catkt 15. ' - Cassia, Chinese, bote 18; mat 6. Cimiaaauo, boxes 15. '. Cloves, cak IS; buffi 4. - , ' Cnrreat, cask IX; boxe 10. .' Fist,boxct I0 mauor frailt4. Gloe, cask 80 ; box 15. - . Lead, while, in oil 8 i dry 8 ; red 5. Mace, catki or boxe 18. . NuUnagi,caiki I2( 1agf4. ' - Ochra, yellow, ineil It: dry 10. Powder, gun, qr.cask 5 aUi i lialfhundred 9 ; ' srhole hundred S3. Ilambs, boxes 8 percent. r Prases, box 8. ; . Raisin, boxe 15 ; jan 18 each ; casks 12 per cents fraiU 4; drums 10. . Spanish brown, cask IS each.. thri kron.boxe 8. Tallow, casks IS per cant; stroons8: tub 15 Full, dry, cask IS ; box 12. SauB, catkt IS i boxes 15. . Almonds, caes 8. - Steel, cases 8. Spanish browu in oil and in kegs 8. Figs caries 12. ". AlBt,.tsrooas 10. , Fig, drum 8. July 85, 1804. C. - Amount of moneys eipeoded under the ap propriation of $260,000, for proTtdint; suitabk buiuimn lor tbe enstooj - boate at Boston, new York, c. Asaount of appropriatioa f 350,000. ' Expraditurr: ' ; At BotbHi 29.000: New - York 70,000; Phila del) hia 33,6fl0 50 1 balliinore 50,000. Total, f 182,600 50 ceuts. 1 Unexreoiled balance) $ 07,400 50 cents. ' Id cooiunrtioa with the aborementioned ba lance, it i estimated that theif will bo required th farther sum of $87,600 50 ur the following port, v : Baltimore $20,000 j Philadelphia $75,000 ; Charleston $60,000. v Statement of money expended aad contracted . te be expended under the appropriation or $50, - 000, V purrhajiDf or erecting suitable buildiug for cuftofli - hooxM and public wttif - boi , toe. At Portsuinnth, N. II. $H,(0; Providence 3,000; Ifaren5,000; Aortolk 9.000. Total jnOOO.. It h animated that, ia addition to the nncx - Deudrd balance) of the ahovrmentiourd apum - priatioo. Cm farther iim of teventy - fivo thou - sand dollar will be required lo accomplish the obj - et FRIDAY, JANUARY 30. The iiuptirtant Report tfthr. Secretary of he Trtmtwf and the Speech, of the Gonsrnor of tliii State, at the openib of the Lrgitlatnre, occupy so bach of our paper this evening as to exclude almost erery thf its else. They are both valnahle slate papers, and notwithstanding their length, eboold be read with attention. ALBANY, Jan 27, 1818. Lrgitlaturt of Xew - Fori. This day at 11 o'clock, a quorum of the two Houses of the - . . e .t. ...... 1 u - : Legislature OI niatc MjipcHrcu b lug t,pr toh oiul.fiedand took t! - e,r seats. The House immediately proceeded to the choice of a spenlc r. On counting the ballots, the Hun. David Woods was declared elected. The votes stood aa follows : For Mr. Wood 97 Ogden Edwards 3 Tlmmas Ry 1 Thomas J. Oakley 4 William A. Duer 6 Waller Patterson 1 John W. Wheeler 1 Gideon Tabor 1 Stephen Van Rensselaer 1 Joseph Kirk land 1 Tbiee blanks Aaron Clark, Esq. wis unanimously re - elsct - d Clerk. . Cdeb Benjamin was chosen Serjeant at Arms, in pUce f Mr. Donnelly, who has for several years filled that office, 62 to 4 1. Benjamin Whipple was re appointed Door - keeper. Mr Hackley and Mr. Morris, were appointed a committee to wait on His Excellency the Governor, and inform liim that the House were ready to proceed 10 business. At a f - w minutes before 2 o'clock the committee returned and informed the House that His Excellency was ple ised to say that he Would meet the two houses in the Assembly Chamber mmedialely. At 2 o'clock His Excellency arrived and o - pened the Sesion with die following SPEECH. Gentlemen nf the Senate and a the Auembly, Among the important duties enjoined upon the executive by the constitution, he it required to recommend such subjects to the consideration of the legislature, as shall appear to him to concern the g od government, welfare and prosperi y of the state. On this oecison I feel a peculiar gratification in the performance of this dutv, from a persuasion that I ad dress myself to a legislature, competent to distinguish, anil anxious to promote the true interes'.s of our country. 'As sericulture is the source of our subsid ence, the biiis of our strength, and the founda tion 01 our prosperity, it is pleasing to observe the public attention awakened to its importance, and associations springing tip in several counties to ch.cr.Ui it interest. Having received but a sm:dl portion uf direct encouragement fiom government, it has been left to its own energ is ; and supporud by a fertile soil, . icherished bs a btnigo cliin.iie, cultivated by industry, aikV protected ty liberty, it hu diffused its bounties over the country, and has relieved the wants of the old world. Uelyin; hitherto almost exclusively on the fertility of our soil and the extent o: our possesions, we have i:ol adopted lhoe improvcnenU which tbe experience of modern limes luu indicated. ; And it lias not been suffic'emly understood that agriculture is a se'ence, s well as an art ; tliat it demands the labor of die mind as well as of the hands ; and that its successful culti ration in intimately allied with the most profound investigations of philosophy, and the rnori elaborate em rti nis of the human mind. If not the exclusive duty, it is certainly the peculiar province of tliesute governments to superintend and advance Die interests of agri - ui.ure. lo tins CPU, tt 1 au ka9k to con at lute a boi.d, co mpose 1 of the m t experi - x erc. - daTl bet inforuied eric ntuxalis s. and to ri - ndcr it tbeir - luty to il.!i'.ie agricultural knnwle, jje; to coi respond, with tle coutury - aocie'jrs 1 to communicate to them beneftcia - dixc - rt'et - ies anl improvements; to int oduce "cfil seeds, plants, tre and ani'uals, imple ;d.u... to exp tSl I sdle observations and treatises 00 husbandry. hortioiltiire and rural economy. The county v - otirht to be enabled to distribjite ad equate - premium j and a proiessorsnip 01 agri culture conneciea wiin mo - the univenitv. mieht also be constituted, embracing the kuadred acienciet of chemistry and geology, mineralogy, botany and the other departments of natural history. By which means a complete course of agricultural education would be taueht. developing the pnn - rh.lr of the science, uluatraiinr tlie practice of the art, and restoring tbe first and best pur - suit of man to that intellectual rana; which 11 ought to occupy in the scale of human estima tion. Good markets fur agricultural productions are the vital incentive to agricultural industry t and nothing tends more directly to the promotion of these, than the establishment of chesp and easy modes of transportation, and tlie erection of flourUhinjr villages, towns and cities under the auspices of commence, trade and msnufacturei. As foreign markets are always fluctuating in their prices and uncer tain as to their exigencies, we must rely principal ly on oar own internal consumption for the stable - and permanent support or agriculture But this can only be effected by Uiu excite ment of other kinds uf industry, and the crea tion of a great manufacturing interest. Every frimd of this country must contemplate with regret the prostration of our manufactories. Tbe excessive importation or foreign fabrics was tlie signal of ruin to institutions founded by enterprising industry, reared by beneficial skill and identified with the general welfare. The raw materials of iron, woollen and cotton manufactures are abundant, and those for the minor - aetd auxiliaiy ones can in most cases be procured at home with equal facility. No'hing 1 wanting to destroy foreign com petit 1011 but the steady pro ection of the government and tlie public spirit uf tlie country. High duties s.vd proliittorv provisions applied to foreign productions, afford the most efficient encour agement to our manufactures, and these mea sores appertain to the legitimate functions of the national government. Hut much may be done by the state government by liberal accom - iiiouaiiuns, vj juuicious exemptions auu oy the whole weight of its influence, and much more may be accomplished by the public spirit pf the community For I am persuaded, that if every citizen who adopts the ubrics of other nations, would seriously consider that he is not only paying taxes for tbe support of foreign governments, but that he participates in un lermining one of the main pillars of our pro ductive sndustry, hr would imitate the honora hi preference which you have this day evinced in favor 01 American manufactures. Tht internal trade of a country is equa 11 y es sential to tbe profpenty of agriculture, of ma nufactures and of commerce ; for embracing ths otercsti ol all, It extcudt Us enlivening inOucnce o every important department of human indus try. But it cau never be advantageously nor xiatuiveiy pursued and cultivated without easy and rauid communications by water courses, roads and canals : and it is anions th first du - ics of government to facilitate th transportation of commodities, by opening and ameliorating all the thanacls of beueOtial intercourse ; for in peact or in war it is equally essential to oar cardinal interests. The removal of ths obstructions to th navigation of our princ'iad river. ha heretofore oc cupied the attention and received the auutaoce of the state. These impedimeats being principally occasioned by alluvial depositions and ex - utiug only at the head of the navigation, can be easily removed, if a proper plan he adopted But iusUad of on concentr&Ud "Sort, embracing the who! object and under th control of one board, several attempt have been made at different points and under different commissioners. And as they were confined to the improvements of particular parts, their effort have not been - tttended with complete succex. The unexpended appropriations, in addition to what has already been done, will go far toward accomplishing this important work. And it is a tuhject tvorthy of your particular attention and your munificent interposition. Th immense capital ' expended. In turnpike roail ha been very conducive to the promotion tf inland trade. But the statutes prescribing tne mode of constructing them, of inspecting them he lore tlie proprietors are authorised to receive toll, and of coercing their repair, are not sufficiently circumspect, in their proviiions nor euer'etic in their enforcements. The inspectors appointed to pronounce on tho completion of roads, are sometimes selected with an imperfect knowledge of their qualification, and without any information as to their connexion with th proprietor of the road to be examined, and their proceedings are conducted without the sanction of an oath, and are not restrained by any declared penalties. The statutes providing for deeping their roads 10 good order, have been in a (tat of inexeculion in moM of I lie counties, in con'equeuc of the new appoint tnent of commie - lioners. And it is not made the special duty el the ministerial officers of iiutice to complain when these communications are not maintained in good state. Owing to this combination of on - propitious circumstance, the condition of these roads Is a subject of general and well founded complaint, and call loudly for the application of Ificaciou correctives. I congratulate you upon tho auspicious com mencement and lucccssful progress of the ou - emplated water communications betweeu the great western and northern lakes and the atl antic ocean. Near sixty miles of the western canal ha been contracted for to bo liuiihe J within the present year, and it is probable that the whole of the northern canal will be di?po.ed of in tbe same manner before the ensuing spring. Notwithitauding the unfavorable eaon, the inexpericoc of the contractors, and the lata commencement of operations, it is understood that work to the extent of 15 mile ha already been done on tlie western canal And it i con fidently believed that the aggregate expence will be within the estimate of the commi;rioucr. The enhancement of th profit of agriculture, th exciUment of manufacturing iuduMry ; the activity of internal trad ; the hcuefits of lucrative traffic ; the interchange of valuable commo tio ; the commerce of ferule, remote, and wide - spread regions ; and the approximation of the tost distant part of the union by the facility and rapidity of communication that will result from the completion of these stupendous works, will tpread the blesann of plenty and opulence to an immeasurable extent. Th resource of he state ar fully adequate without extraneous aid : acd when w consider that every portion of th nation wiU feel the animating spirit and vivifying iofluenct' f these great works; that hey will receive the beoedictions of posterity and command the approbation of the civilised world, we ar required to persevere by every dictate of interest, by every sentiment of hooor, 7 every injunction of patriotism, ana oy vry '.oroideration which ought to influenco the councils and govern the conduct of a free, high - mind - d, enlighlenelan4 maguaninious peopl. Ia 1815. aa act was pasted for incorporating a company fo' o;niog tb navigation between the head waters of the Seneca lake and the Che - mmur river. nd m March hut a law was enacted by the legislature of renniylvania, anthor - iaiog tb appointment of comaiivoner to view and cxaml'iA the root f a contemplated canal to connect the waists of th tenant Lake and Tioga river, and to report bo the pmctirabUitv. importance and probable exrne of tnakiug and fpea listing it. In pursuance of whch, coramis - nntr hav own appoint e - J, hav mad th re - iniiilc cia.,r''r,a'JrriLndi hiri? .rr - .. - ,.'Tv r. Jilt to SaUJXof CoJdIL , transportation of commodities from this to neighboring states, yetfrom a fall persua - una thai cia nrosoerjtv of our counirrwui l" best advanced by snaltiplying the markets for our productions, and by intimate and beneficial conn lion between the different members of tb confederacy, I consider it our incumbent duty to overlook local considerations and geographical distinction, and 'to afford our cordial co - opera - Tbe fund appropriated to school con sists of about one million of dollar, and eighty thousand acres of land. The income for distri bution this year is 60,000 dollars. Having participated In the first eUblihsnent of lb Lan castrian systeaa la this country, having careful ly observed its progress, and witnessed its bene fits, I can confidently recommend it as an invaluable improvement, which by a wonderful com bination of economy in expense and rapidity of inttt acbca, has created a sew era in education and 1 an desirens that all our common schools should be iupplied with teacher of this description. At this system operates with the same eiScacy in education, that labor - saving machine ry does in tb useful arts, u wui 0 reaauy perceived that it is peculiarly adapted to this coun - try. For if by its means, one teacher can per form the functions of ten, and if a popd can learn in one week as much as be would in one month in the common way it is evident that more wealth, more labor, more time and more inaus try can be devoted to the ordiuary occupations of Ufa without interfering with the dispensation of knowlecL;e. Wherever it has been attempt ed it has succeeded, and several part or tne state have experienced if benefits. Competent teachers can be educated for this express pur pose, and in tufficieut number to supply all our common scools, by tending intelligent young men to the Lancastrian seminaries in New - York, where they will be instructed gratuitoudy and where in the coun of a few months they will acquire a sufficient knowledge of the system. Appropriations for this purpose by tbe several common schools out of their portion of the gene ral fund, under th direction of the superintend - ant, will defray the maU expense attending the attainment of this important object. 1 he flourishing condition of our higher semi naries of education is a pleasing demonstration of th increasing progress of mental improve ment, as J a powerful incentive to liberal dispen sation of public patronage. Under the auspices of learned and enlightened inrtructors, our col leges ar constantly increasing in students, auj extending lu usefulness : ana the intermediate seminaries between the common schools and col leges, have alto greatly diffused the blessings ol education. Funds to the amount ol $750,000 have been granted to the three college, and a bout 100,000 dollars to the thirty - eight incorporated academies. While this liberality of pa tronage reflects honor on the state, it cannot be too forcibly inculcated, nor too generally under stood, that in promoting the great interests of moral and intellectual cultivation, there can be no prodigality in the application of tho public treasure. The olleres of physicians and surseons are eminently deserving of put. lie coniidt ration. Tbe increase of the institution in Mew - York in be number of its student, in the amplitude of its iccommndations, and in the respectability of its character, has kept pace with the science and celebrity of its prolewors. And the recent addition of distinguished teacher to (be establish ment in Fairfield, places it on high ground, and io the road to prosperity and nseiuloeis. The ap - 1 propriation to Medical education do not exceed 60,000 do'lar,a sum by 00 means commensurate wi'h the importance ol the object. Every well educated physician becomes not only a conservator of health, but a missionary of science. Wherever he establishes himself, be will convey and communicate useful knowledge. Two tun dred of our youth annually diipersed over tbe country, instructed in medical knowledge and its cngnati sciences, will in the course of a few years effect an augmentation in the state of general information equally honorable and beneficial to the community. And no measures cau he more conducive to the prosperity of our medical institutions, to the respectability of the profusion, and preservation of the puhlic health than a law rendering on attendance upon lecture in the university, aa indispensable pa' port to medical practice. The principal (orlelies devoted to literature, science and the arts in the city of New - York, bave by tbe liheral patronage of the municipal authon iic been collected in a (pacioua and accommodating edifice, under the denomination ol the New - York Institution. Theie association are forming extensive and invaluable collection of the works of the fine arts ; of our nnimal, vegetable and mineral productions, and of books and' maDutclpt illustrating our civil, ecclesiastical and natural history, our gengraibv, antiquities aad statistics. They are also se.tlously fti.gugf - d in exploring the extensive fields of science ; in developing the prior iples of political philosophy, and in exalting the literature of our country. Whenever snch institutions appear, they are entitled to the countenance of government, for there will ever l nn intimatu and immutable alliance between their advancement and tlie glory and prosperity of the state. The state ofeur finances demand your mature contideration. It apppars that the funds nf the state amount to about $4 500,'JOO And that the debts of the state amount to 2,710,082 50 Composed of the following spe cifications : Stock, bearing 7 percent inter est $1,106,397 50 atoci, oeariug 0 per cent inter est, 777,000 00 626,685 00 Debt to the bank or York, bearing an interest of 6 percent. 2,710,082 50 It further appears that the sum total of eipi - nditure for fortifications arsenals, snagatines, ordnance, arms, aniniuniiion and other warlike stores ; for the pay of militia, tea fcncibles, and volunteers, i $346,350 83 That the amount of direct tax es of the national government, as - sumed and paid by this state, 1 1,1 13,12b Si Making iu the whole $1,99,477,06, of ad', incurred hy the state in consequence ofit patriot 11 exertions for the public defence, and (or the paymentnf which a tax of two mills on a dollar has been iiuosed. It will he observed that we pay a war interest of 7 tier cent, for a considerable part of this debt. At tlie stock is redeemable, it will heeay to pay itolfhyanew loan of six per cent. It will be advisahle to dispose of the three per rent stock, and to apply the avail to the reduction of the debt '1 hese proceed together with $26,XH) of the revenue of last year, and a new loan 01" 1,000,000 dollars of six per cent will extiuquish the whole of th! preitnt stock in May or June next, and h - nve about 150,000 dollars applicable to extraordinary purposes. Tlie canal stocX it not included in the statement, because the finances ol the work are to be kept distinct from the ordinary revenue of the ttate. If this plan should le adopted, our debt would be reduced to 1,900,000 dollar. I also recommend the reduction nf the tax to 1 hnll its prrsent amount. 1 he an jal revenue will still be about 600,000 dollar ; end ns our per - mameot expenses, including the interest of the public debt will ootetred 140,000 rlollart, there will reoibin a furrlu ol'CO.fKXl d - liars applicable toextradinary ohi - cts This rum may he :n - crested to upwards of 100,000 by financial im prwmentt The fund nf Ihe state will be aiiif 1 : , r .p; inmicii uy tuc .iiut;uiui iuc uem uue iron oe United - States, whi - .hhas not yet been adjusted; and great and useful accessions may he made in otliee respect I he imposition of auKion dutiet in lieu of those of the United S'ates, lately with - taru 1 of to . orawo wut pnueci our rrguiar traders, anoro , w - - " c...rSC fund for internal smprovemont. The wtoa from escheats properly collected, would be con - liderable, aad much greater tarn may he ra.aed .n..,u. k. m. .ij. ..!..: 1 k - annually by the lotteries already authorised by law. And it man be proper to oherve tbat our n 3 - 'Jli2Xlti?r un 5 x facilitated, byjhg y J; tablishinent pi aa otfic for the transfer of ttock ia the city ol isew - iora, wmcu iau without any expense. . ... m i. ..w m nur finance is certainiv cuiuuib - tinc - show thai our ocdi may ue &"j la. - ot ihatnnr taxes mar be dimimtbed one half; that all our eontempialea improvemeDis may be executea, ana mot xrras mnu i far all h beneficial ohiects of society. tv,. Lihlic lands have not been comprehend ed in Uiiseiposilion of our resources Including the town - lots, the islands and onr rights of preemption, together with the detached parcels and lurte tracts, 1 consider them fully equivalent in vqIim n the whchi debt against tbe state. Tbe immense fund appropriated to schools and acade - i.. ! iIa luen kent out of view, because I deem it a sacred provision for the education of j th nresent ana all iuiure venerations,. nun.u ought neverto be dist'irb'd, diverted or impaired With respect to the debt w hich will be incur red in the prosecution of internal improvement. there can be no doubt but that light lolls on our own commodities, aud higher transit duties on foreign productions will in a few years notonly accumulate a fund for its establishment, but be a prolific source of revenue for the general purno - se of government. And this subject nay in other reipectsform the basis of important arrangement io cur system of political economy. It may be rendered a powerful instrument for encouraging nur own manufacture, aud tor restraining me oernicious use of foreign commodities. The best systems of finance are however vain and illusory without tbe practice of economy. Parsimony ought lo be avoided as well as profu - on. but all srovernments are 100 prone iu eivc in to wasteful extravagance, Appropriations of public money should be cautiously made, ana u einenditures carefully watched. The accounta bility nf public agents should be enforced, and the ordinary forms of legislation ought never to be waved unless in eitreme cases, vrim me ou - servance of these salutary precautions; with tbe application of a well - regulated economy ana me adoption of proper and judicious retrenchments, I feel a thorough persuasion that the flourishing condition of our finances may be completely restored ; that all our improvements may be successfully executed : and that this state, rich in her resources, public spirited in her objecls, wise in her deliberations, and determined in her purposes, mav attain unprecedented prosperity.. Although - the cultivation of the blessings of peace is most congenial with the spmt 01 our government, the precepts of religion, and the maxims of sound policy, yet tbe seeds of war and controversy are planted too deeply in the consti tution of human nature for us to eipect an ex emption from the common fate of nations ; aud the experience of the t'nited States utterly forbids the hope. Since our existence as a nation, besides the war of the revolution and contests witb the savages of this continent, and the Bar barians ol Africa, we have been engagea in Hostilities with France and Ureat - Britain. We are in the ncitflihourhood of British and Spanish pro vinces. Our enterprising spirit of migration and commerce will bring us iu contact with the trading and colonial establishments of Russia. The West - India islands owned by different sovereigns may in the course of time be a fruitful source of controversy t and our extensive commerce will often render it necessary to vindicate our neutral rights against tbe aggressions of tbe belligerent towers of Europe, tven at tnis present perioa, the nalriotic strueeles of the people of Spanish America for emancipation from the restraints of commercial monopoly, and the shackles 01 colo nial subjection, may compromit our pacific relations. Whatever may be the cause, the time must arrive when it will become necessary 10 ap peal to the sword, and this appeal ought never to be made without finding us in a state of ample preparation. Permit me then to recommend to your atten tion tbe revision and amelioration of our militia system. me statutes relative to tne munia were noi revised in 1812. and it is now necessary to com bin them into one law ; to reconcile their different positions.' and to engraft tucb amendments as experience has shown to be protier. It is believed that essential improvements may be made in the organisation, dress, and discipline 01 tbe militia; in the imiiosilion, coiieciion, sum disposition nf fines ; in the promotion of military instruction, and in the encouragement 01 meruo - .ious service or distinenished skill. In con sequence of the imperfect state of some of the returns, the precise number of our enrolled militia, cannot he ascertained, but it may be safely estimated at 120.000 men. This immense physical force properly organised, arranged, armed, and directed, may defy the efforts of any enemy. But it ought not to be concealed, that not one - third of our militia is armed and equipped ; aud that too in a very imperfect manner. This state does not own more than twenty thousand stnnds of arms. The act of Congress of 1803, for arming and equipping the whole body of the militia, however well intended, is - totally inadequate to the object. Our militia increase more rapidly than the supply, and even if our population were stationary, it would take near half a century lie - fore ample provisions could be derived from that source. The constitution of the State ordain that the militia at all times, as well in peace at in war, shall be armed and disciplined, and in readiness for service, and that a proper magazine of war like stores proponionaie 10 me numuerui 11111a - bitant, shall forever at the expense of (he State and by acts, of the Legislature, be established, maintained, and continued, in every county. Although it has not been practicable to comply with these injunctions in their strict sense and to their full extent, yet it is certainly our duty as well from reverence for the Constitution, as from regard for the puhlic safety, to replenish our arsenals and magazines, and to give our physical force all the advantages of energetic arrangement and complete equipment Tbe system of criminal jurisprudence which was adopted in 1796, has not realized the expectations of benevolence. Tbe expenses of this establishment to the first day of 'the present month, amount lo the enormous sum of $976,157 44 - 100 of which the following are the principal items : For erecting the prison, inclnding the site, .... For the support of the institution, exclusive of the condensation of the officers and guard, For the salaries of the officers of (he prison, exclusive of the guard For pay of the guard, including their arms, clothing, he. For transportation of convicts to 243,346,00 374,846,70 155,324,43 134,660,16 The s'ate prison, since 1312, inclusive, being before that year, paid by tbe agent of tbe prison, - - - 67,980,15 976,157,44 The efficacy of this system in reforming offen ders, has n - t stood the test of experiment ; and ., . j:,r,.,i. ,,. ' , 1 Af ii. - .,;.;.,.:... i ,l. n ., . . in my power to stMe witb certainty, whether crimes have increased under the new, becau. - e in order to arrive at a fair result, if is necessary to com.iare the convictions and tbe ponulation'un - der the operation of both codrs ; but I am induced lu believe that in this momentous respect, it has not answered our wishes. It is with inexpressible regret that I am compelled by an iin - peiioui sense of duty, to make this communica - tion I have done it, not with a view of re - intro - during sanguinary ptinishments.which are as ab - 1. ....... - ...i:.. i . . l 'iiiu ui, iwihi ns mcjr wi: 10 me poncy good government, but to attract your attention this inijmrtant subject, and to solicit tbe full exertion of your faculties in it investigation. I persuaded tbat (he penitentiary system bas not been suhjectel to a fair experiment, and that unP. g proper arrangement, and a virfuout and adminidrati ou, H will answer .11 the end. Lr,,.. , ' a. , . . "'"C'l 'tl"U, burden on the state. . It is reasonable to impute our disnppointment in t considerable degree lo tbeJncoronetnry of the meant provided for executing the system on . ssnt & .a L.a tasm an extensive Kale, inewanios hostile to discipline, injurious to ludusiry, ana productive of heavy expence ; ana wneu u State undertook to carry on extensive manufac - .nna n.niuim it herame liable to losses In IM...... ., - , - every stage 01 weirprogrcM uuw - . tbe raw material to tn sale 01 me wrouRui nn. Th lnl,,Hii - irii organization of the board of su perintendence ; the repeated changes io that body ; and the unavoidable frequency of pardon hava ainA nroiincea aemmeuisu ruccia. mnklniramiile allowance for all these disadvan tages and comparing our Penitentiary witb those of other Slates, I cannot resist the impression that there has been tome radical error in the general management. It behoves the represen - iuti.'. nf Ilia innln tn Institute a solemn inflUI - ry ; to ascertain tlie causes of the failure, and to apply the appropriate remedies. The efficacy of the Penitentiary System might be signally promoted by the erection of solitary cells in the several counties for the punishment of all offenders below the degree of Grand Lar ceny, and by doubling the value of the property stolen in order to constitute that crime. Solitary confinement is, next to death, the most appalling phi being ; and the expence of erecting their prisons and 01 maintaining me convicis win ue very inconsiderable, when compared with the import ance of the obiect. Under our present code, the pardoning power bas been frequently exercised 111 a salutary manner by prescribing a a condi tion that the convict to whom mercy is extended, shall depart from the State and never return. This is in substance the punishment of banishment, and it would be well to fortify the efficacy of such pardons, by imposing severe penalties for their violation. At connected generally with this subject, it is proper to mention tbat the disensation ot criminal justice it attended with heavy, aqd it is be lieved, with unnecessary exience ; and that great benefits might probably arise from some improve ments in tbe system, and from a new arrange ment of (he Court of Exchequer. In tbe case of creditors and debtors our law has departed from iu general policy, and has authorized tne lormer to wieu me power 01 pununinem ny ue imprisonment ol the latter lor a default in the pay ment of debts, without considering wbetlier tbe fail ure be inimitable to misfortune or to fraud. Within a lew years this rode ha been relaxed, and the debt or has been liberated from close incarceration, and admitted to the benehl of extensive limits on giving eeuritv that he will not depart from them. Tbe conse quence is that it entangles and holds only tbe poor and lorlorn, while those favoured with friends or opulence escape from its severity. If the legislature shall consider it expedient to chance the preseut system and exempt the unfortunate debtor from the penalties of imprisonment, rigorous provisions ougni 10 ne adopted for tlie punishment of fraud, and the rights of creditors should he fortified by the terror of criminal pu - uishment. But if it shall be deemed unadvisahle to proceed 10 that exteut, die poor debtor confined with in the walls nf a prison ought at least 10 be supported by bis unrelenting creditor, and the repetition of scenes at which humanity shudders ought no longer to disgrace our countfy. Our statutes relating to the poor are borrowed from the English system. And the experience of that country as well as our own shows that pauperism increas es with the augmentation of tho fun 's applied to its relief, this evil lias proceeded lo such au alarming extent in the city of New - York that the burdens of heavy taxation which it has imposed, menace a diminution of the population of that city, ami a depreciation of its real property. The consequences will be very iniuriou to the whole stale ; for the decav of our great market will be felt in every department of productive labour. Under tlie present system ihe fruits of industry are appropriated to the wants 01 idleness ; a laborious poor man is taxed for the support vf an idle becgar ; and the vice ol mendicity, no longer consi dered degrading, infects a considerable portion of our population in large towns. 1 am persuaded that lbs sooner a radical relnrm lakes place, the oetter. lite evil is cnntacioui. and a Dromnl t - xiimalion can alone prevent its pernicious extension, the inducement re pauperism may be destroyed hy rendering it a great er evil te live by charity lhau by industry : its mis - chieis may he mitigated by diminishing the expenses of .our charitable establishments, and by adopting a system of eocrciv labour ; and it causes may be re moved ny preventing intemperance aad extravagance, and by intellectual, moral and religious cultivation. It is ihe decree of heaven that our lives should be spent in useful or active employment. " In the sweat of thy face shall thou eat bread, till thou return unto the trreund," was tbe declaration of the Almighty lo our first parent ; aad a course of blind iuditci .minm - ing prodigal heuevoleuce deieats it owu object, by attempting to counteract tint laws of our nature and the design of providence. Charity i aa exalted virtue, but it ought to tie founded on reason, aud regulated by wisdom. W liile we must consider a woruiy ol all raise and patronage religious and moral societies, lundav, free, and charity schools, houses ol industry. orphan asylums, saving banks and all other establishments, which prevent or alleviate the evil of pauperism, by inspiring industry, dispensing employment and inculcaliue economy ; by improving Ihe mind, cultivating the heart ami elevating the character, we ar equally bound to discourage those institutions which furnish the aliment of mendicity by removing the incentives to labour, aud administering lo the blandish - ineuts ol sensuality. 1 lie indiau' in our territory are experiencing the fate ol all savage and barbarous tribes in the icinity of civilized nations, and are constantly deteriorating in character and diminishing in number ;and before the expiration of half a century there is a strong probability that they will entirely disappear. Tbeir reservation amount to aoout uu.uuu acres 01 excellent land, nut as the greater part is within the cession to Massa chusetts, the itate ha but little interest in tbe pre - emption. It is understood that the western Indians are desirout that ourt should emigrate to an extentive territory remote from white population, and which will be granted to them gratuitously. At this will preserve them from rapid destruction, a it is in strict unison with the prescriptions uf humanity, and will not interfere with tne Diening 01 reiigtoui instruction; and at their placet will.be tuPDlied bv industriou at.d useful settlers, who will augment our population and resources, it is presumed (hot there can b no reasonable objection to tbeir removal. This however ought to be free and voluntary on their part, and whenever it takes place, it it our duty to ee that they receive an ample com pemation for their territory. At the present lime they are frequently injured and defrauded by intrusion upon tbeir land, and tome of tbe most valuable domain of the itate are subjected to similar cetriiuent. It is very de. - ir ble that our laws should prcvide adequate remedies ia these cases, aud that they thould be rigorously enforced. The evils arising from the disordered state of our currency ,hare been aggravated by the banking operations of individuals, and the unauthorised emission of small note by corporations. They require tbe immediate and correcting interposition of the legislature. I also submit it to your serious consideration, whether the incorporation of banks in places where they are not required by the exigencies of commerce, trade or manufactures, ought to be commenced. Such institutions having but few deposits of money, must r. - ly tor their prouts principally upou the circa lation of their notes, and they are, therefore, tempted to extend it beyond their faculties. Their bilis are diffused either in tlie shape c f ", or uj appvuiiiuc touui'.euurti unuu 10 e cnang i them lor those of other estcUisfcoieiiU. liut the former inndn being conducive to profit, is at first generally adopted, nnd ui the early stage ol their operations, discounts a r liberally di - penvd. This produces aa apparent activity of business and the indications of prosperity. but it is all fictitious and deceptive, resembling th hectic heat of ronjuuuiig disease, not the genial warmth of substantial health. A re - action soon takes place. Their bills are ia turn collected by rival insiilutiou, or pas to tbe banks of tbe great cities, and payment being re uired, the only resource l"ft is to cdl in th - ?ir Jett, a;id exact partial or total return, of Ih'ir l'Mn. The continual struggle between conflicting isU - blifhrnenfe to collect each juW note, occasion toU ant apprehension. Th sphere of thtir operations is narrowed. Every new bank contracts th area ol their papor ci - C'jlatijn ; and after uldecUcjf tlie communities within their respective sobers of operation to the perniciou vicis - sHnde of loans at out period profusely grantee, and at Soother parauhotiiously withheld, they finally settle down into a tlateof torpid inaction, and beconV mer condultt of accommodation t afewindivtdualt. The legislature are then solicited to apply a remedy by th corporation of other banks, whereas every new oue of this description, utiles attended bj peculiar cir cumstances, paralizes a portion of capital and augments, the general distress. The banishment of luetalic money, the loss of commercial confidence, ths exhibition of fictitious capital, tha increase of civil prosecution, the multiplication, of crimes, the injurious enhancement ol prices, are among the mischiefs which flow from this state of things. And it it worthy of teriooi en. quiry, whether a much greater augmentation of ' tucb. institution may not in course of time pro. duce an explosion that will demolish the whole tyttem. Tb slow and periodical re tarns of iu. ban dry being incompetent to th exigenciti of banking establishments, the agricultural ister. est is the principal sufferer by these proceedun. And it is with deep regret that I feel constrahed' to mention that some practitioners of the law. regardless of the high respectability of their po. fession, have added to the distresses of the cam. try by buying up notes in order to obtain e:or bitant premium and th costs of protecuton. Tbe fate of the manufacturing interest, then. cetsive consumption of foreign commodities, tjj the introduction of the wide - spreading luxiry and wide - wasting extravagance, hav had a nt , pernicious eflkct on the public welfare. Bt( felicitate you on th prospect of better tints. The blessings ol Heaven hay visited ths labui of the husbandman during tbe last year, and he products of another season will in all probabiM . create a balance in favor of the country. - Pib - lic attention it awakened to the encouragemot of the useful arts, and to the diffusion of ke light of religion and knowledge ; and w art 1 hope, returning to those habits of economy aal those observances of republican simplicity, whih are demanded by the voice of patriotism, 1 - 4 the genius of our government. And when te compare our actual and prospective itate wih that of other nations, we have every reason o be grateful to Divine Providence for the exaltd destinies of our country. I shall now lay before you a letter from tie governor of Pennsylvania, respecting thecgt.i templated canal between the Seneca Lake arl one of the branches of the Susquehaimali rivet - . a communication f rom the secretary of slat enclosing a representation of the minister if Great Britain respecting the statute of ths state " to amend an act entitled an act relative to the pilots of the port of New - York " a re quest from the engineer of the United States, who superintends the erection of the important works at Rouse's point on Lake Champlain, for further cessions of soil and jurisdiction cer tain proceedings or the states or Kentucky, New - jersey and Connecticut, respecting a - mend menu to the national constitution r and sundry papers relative to the demand of this state against the United States. AU these subjects will require your attention in tbe course of the session, but the last, from the circumstances of the case, ought to be immediately considered. I fchould do injustice to my feelings, were I not to exprest my grateful and respectful tease of tlie coufidence reposed in me by the people of this state. Conscious that I ought to be judged by my conduct and not hy my profes sions, 1 shall wave the usual ex press ions oa these occasions, and shall only declare that in the proper performance of my official duties I rely upon tlie cordial concurrence of the co - or dinate authorities, and the magnanimous support of the people. And I humbly implore the blessings of Almighty God upon the faithful execution of our high responsibilities, and up on our zealous cooperation with the national and state governments, in all wise and patriotic measures to promote the happiness, to advance the honor, and to perpetuate the free, domofthe American peopl & l)Z WITT CliXTO.V. Albany, January XI, 1818. " . Sailed yesterday, ship Perseverance, Hodgson, of Salem, for the East Indies. Arrived at Boston last Tuesday, ship B rani in, 160 days from Calcutta, and 70 from the Cape of Good Hope. A brig from Salem touched at the Cape about two months before, to land tlie crew of a French ship which bad been destroyed at sea by aqua ibrtis which she had on boaid. Brir Union, Bronhton, Bristol (C.) 54, Mil - ford Haven, 46. Sailed from Bristol Nor. 21, in co. witb brig Standard, Cork, for Cadis, ana in cooteap.ace of a gale put back the 29th. Sailed again Dec. 3, in co. with ship Baltic, Coffin, for N York. Put into Milford Haven 6th, and sailed 10th. Briar Stodard not into Ilfracumbe. with her foretoptail tplit, and bowsprit sprung. ling fanny, Merrill, Rotterdam 0 days. ailed from Brielle Dec. 11. in co. with brir Gtfl Stark, Coffin, forlsl of May, and sen Superb, Freeman, for S. York. Spoke the formes in lat 47, long 11 30, 2 dava out and saw the latter 4 days out in the channel. Left at ( Rotterdam, ships Oryra, Auld, for Savannah, waiting a wind ; Victory, Taber, for Isle of May, do ; Clara, Parker, from Baltimore disc 1 brig Mars, Hall, for Savannah, waiting a winds brig Lady - Munroe, Diamond, for Baltimore, do j being all the Americans in port. At Amsterdam, ship Maria - Tufton, Kennard, fur N. York, and several others did not learn their names. ' Ship Laura - Ann, Farnham, was at the Texel, about 15th Dec. for N. York, waiting a wind. DiedT Lait evening, Mr. James Cave, aged 57 years. LftXrUVQ POST MARWE LIST. CLEARED, Ship Frances, Swift, Eatt Indiet Smith & llubbell Calcutta Ilkk), Jenkint k Co. Dublia Edward, Macy, Neptune, Field, T S Walsh Newry Dnalap & 'Grant Charleston New - Orleans McCrea & Slidell Savannah Havre D G CiUies Emulation, Jenkins, Brig Atlantic, Bailey, Charles, Wibray, Amelia, Mott, Schr Spartan, Johnson, Columbia, Josselm, Charleston . Burrill & W. Cahoooe ARRIVED THIS tVREfOOI. Brig Carolina, Monroe, 19 day from Havana, with molasses and cotree, to J D' Wolfe, jr. Sch Gould Hunter, Bunker, 2 days f. - om Bridgeport, with wood, to Smith ti Nichols. Sloop Eliza, BurtU, 5 days from Providence, with flour and merchandiie, to Dunham and A ucli'mcloss, W S Mctt. and othera. On Sunday, off Stonington, saw abrig from Matani bound to Boston. Sloop George k Man - , Waldron. days from Newport, with rum, "to Burrill & Cahoone. Sloop boston, Ripley, 6 day s from Boston, with beef aid plaster, to A Rogers, and other. Came passengers from Edgartown, Mr. at Mrs. Fuller, Mr. Cox, J. Youdea, and J. Harrington, from the brig Prince 'ieorge, from Lor.Aon. Sloop Spartan, Brooks, 2 dayt from Bridgeport, with sugar and bides, ti Mr. Flemming, and others. ARRIVED LAST EVEXlfTG. Shrlp Vv inniinsl, GeUtco, in GO day from Amsterdam, m ith drv gojtls, iie. to Levi Caldwell, owner, Ue Rhrun'k UcUsert, J. C. Zunmerrn", C. It 11 H. Mair, II A.iiJ.O. Cotter, G. k X. Meyer. I'ierlet k .lantin. J. fc'Cracken, J - f - V" inx J, Jac. Morm F. k F. DeVrich, D. A Chtrk - son, Marx k Liitftev, Le iiov, Bayard U C,V2" kiwi. rgc. SmedVs it Cauticiil, F.GebbMJ. Vasque. Meiiroo it Cteman, fchipmui it Lord, JJ - Craves.R llarruoa, J. A. Willink, Bogert1 land, U. W. 1 aibot, F.bA. Bnmeli, and others. Passenger, Mr. It Mr. Motcbel, T. Etswsin, j II ui

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