Globe-Gazette from Mason City, Iowa on January 11, 1944 · Page 12
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Globe-Gazette from Mason City, Iowa · Page 12

Mason City, Iowa
Issue Date:
Tuesday, January 11, 1944
Page 12
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12 Tuesday, Jan. 11, 1944 MASON CITY GLOBE-GAZETTE MIRACLES IN FAROFF WAR FRONTS BECAUSE-- Rationing Calendar H*w **U*:. Brown meat stamps R, S, T. Book 3. Spare stamp No. '2. Book 4, good for S points ol fresh pork and Bvuaje. Green stamps D, E, F, G. H, J, Book -4. Sugar stamp 29, Boole 4, good for 5 pounds: Shoes. Stamp 18, Book ). and Airplane stamp 1, Book 3, good Indefinitely; Gasoline 9-A- coupons good tor 3 gallons; B and C (Issued prior to Dec. 1) good {or 2 gat each: B2 and CZ (issued after Dec. 1) good for 5 gat. each. · Fuel oil. new season's Period X. 3 coupons good tor 10 gal. each. lu. U: Sugar Etamp 2V, Book 4, expires. Ju.U: Spar* meat 1arap No. 2. Book 4. Red Cross Was Preparedi-Evans . Jam. II: Brown, meat aUmp U valid. Jaa.3*: Green stamps D, E. F expire. JM.S1: Gasoline. 9-A coupons expire. Jaa. tS: Fuel oU period 2 coupons expire. It*. !»: Brawn meat stamps B, S. T. U expire. . . . F«».. 1: Fuel oil period 2 coupons expire. Vek. M: Green stamps G, H. J expire. r«».**: Fourth Inspection period.. Class B ration, expires; rifth inspection period. Clasa C ration or bulk coupons expire. . : ' : · " - . Mxrck II: Fuel oil , period 3 coupons expire. " March' 1: Tnlrd inspection- period. Class A ration expires. Commercial vehicles: Every 6 months Connor Given 20 Year Pin at Annual Meeting The effective work of the Red Cross in ministering to the needs of fighting'men all over the world isn't just a happenstance. It's due to the fact that the Red Cross was prepared o f work o f * * * * * * * * chapters as or every 5,000' miles, · whichever' occurs aooner. . Late applicants lor war ration Book 4: Apply in person at your local board and present-Book 3. Mason City Calendar 4*sv r II--Conference on education for post-mi adjustments: 2:30 p. m.. rural conference at Music hall; 8:15 p.m, ' ^ a t bithr^cljool aduitori- urn, ProL Floyd W. B«ves. University ' of CHcaco,' apeaker. ' - Jaau U--Annual-Girl Scout mectinc. 7:30 at P. G.-it EL auditorium. Jaa. U--Graham Hutton, director ot British-Press t Service office in Chi- cuo'to addreac-Clamber of Com- merce-Serrica club iSScbeon at Hotel ' ' Hanferd · · '* l ' Jaai-^JS^-Doctor. Henrjt W..Crane in -tat ol t teminari on peace at First Metnod- Ut church at ft p. m. . Jam. M^-Annual meeting of Wlnnebago council of Boy ScouU at Hotel Hanford. ·' - , . ' · Jaau n--Special : election ." on abandonment of city manager form of government' in .Mason: City. . . . Jaa. t«--Annual meeting ol V. W. C. A. Movie Menu CECIL--"BMlBg 'BlgV'- n«w showing. "Gereranuat :Girl". starts Tbursday. PALACE ---*!H«staKea" -and- . "Harvest . MelMy?' end To«d.r- "Mapdcr on Ihe · Waterfrvnt" 'and "Girl lr»m 'Monterey": start Wednesday. · " (JTBAND--"gBsrl'ion" , and "Man el Cenrare" end Wednesday. STATE--"Bedhead'(ram Manhattan" and '"Cilery;Queen"and. the Perfect Crime" end Wednesday. LAKE -- "OklaJunu, Kid" and · "The Dtvll With Hitler" end T fan rid. T. Parents-Wives OF MEM AND WOMEN IN. THE {SERVICE OF THEIR COUNTED J, Your help 1 Is-needed-in compiling the World war II history. of Cerro Gordo County men'and women. The, only way the FRIENDS OF . LIBRARIES can get this -vital information Is by. you procuring one' of. the questionnaires for each one of your family in the' service, fill' out as many of the Questions as you know and mail or bring it to the Mason'City Globe-Gazette, from where it will be forwarded to the through years thousands such that in Cerro Gordo county and the establishment of emergency setups at danger zones in farofl places; : . The result was that when war came the mighty efforts of a large army of Red Cross workers went into operation as swiftly and as smoothly as it had in handling *reat disasters at home. That was the story presented by Albert Evans, assistant to the manager of the midwest office of the: American Red Cross-in St. Louis, to several hundred. members at the annual meeting- of the Cerro Gordo county chapter at the Radio chapel Monday eve- nine;. . When war came the nation as a whole was still in a smug complacency in the face of evidences everywhere that she was going to be attacked, said Mr. Evans. When Japan's attack came on Dec.'7, 1941,'the Red Cross was ready. Starting in the spring of 1941 the training of 3,000 persons had got under way in Hawaii ready for possible emergency. Similar* preparations were made at Manila. In India and China, where Mr. Evans spent 18 months in charge of operations, centers and outposts were established to meet the peculiar needs there. Because it was ready, the Red Cross for 4 months was the only source of medical supplies for this area. Not only medical supplies, but tons and tons of food were shipped into -China through Shanghai and Hong Kong before these ports were closed. As the Jap invasion closed these and later, the Burma road, supplies were flown across the Himalaya mountains. The Chinese got so they depended on the Red Cross workers for the solution- of every new problem, he said. When the Japs Friends of Libraries files City library. at the Mason You'may receive the'questionnaires at the _, Globe-Gazette or the Mason City Uteary. Get yours now. fill it out and send it in. You want the record of your .son. husband or daughter in this Cerro Gordo county history that is being compiled now. SERVICE CLUBS, LOCAL CHAMBER TO HEAR BUTTON 180 Reservations in . for Wednesday Noon Luncheon at Hanford The Chamber of Commerce reported 180 reservations already in Tuesday noon to -hear Graham Hutton, director of the British information service office in Chicago, at a join meeting oE the chamber and the 3 service clubs Wednesday nooii. ' The reservations must be made before 10 o'clock Wednesday morning, the sponsors warned, i£ the listener wishes to attend the luncheon. -At that hour the-Hotel " Hanford must ,be notified- how many plates are to be-served. : The'Englishman has a wide-acquaintanceship . among the key men on the present world scene and is an economist and barrister as well as journalist. He intersperses a large amount; of information concerning the world problems' with .numerous humorous stories and quips. Mr. Hutton will be introduced by W. Earl Hall, managing editor of the Globe-Gazette. M. C. Lawson, chairman - of the Chamber as this here at home has'been and board, will preside and presidents Rilea Doe to Address Rotary Club Members Monday Noon Californian Named on Relief to War-Affected Rotarians Committee Rilea W. Doe, Oakland Cal., vice chairman of the committee on relief to war-affected Rotarians, 1943-44, will be the speaker at the regular meeting of Rotary club Monday noon at the Hotel Hanford. Mr. Doe has been associated with Safeway Stores, Inc., since 1919, and is now vice president in charge of public relations with headquarters in Oakland. He was born in Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, and was graduated from Iowa Wes- leyau college. For many years he has taken an active part in the community life . of Oakland;'ins president of the? Oakland 1 Commuriity Chest, and also .director- ot the Oakland Chamber of. .and ,the Oakland Chapter of the American Red Cross. He is a member of the Agricultural Committee of the Na- tional'Association of Food-Chains. - A member and past president of the.Rotary club of Oakland,-Mr. Doe was last year named governor of District No. 105 of Rotary International, and, for 1943-44, he -is vice chairman of the committee which supervises relief activities for Rotarians in war-stricken countries. RILEA W. DOE HERE IN . MASON CITY Sweetheart is good bread. Bay your J. R. Watkins Products at 404 6th S. E. Mrs. Mae Fordi'4379 A regular meeting of B. P. O. Elks Mason City lodge No. 375 will be held Thursday evening at 8 o'clock, according to Paul D. McAuley, exalted ruler. . Wallpaper Specials 25c a bundle and up. Boomhower Hardware. : A son weighing 9 pounds 1 ounce .was born to Mr. and Mrs. George ·H. Krieger, route 4, at the Park hospital Monday. Gladys Wearda, a beauty oper- 'atbr at Glen's Barber and Beauty 'Shop, will be back in the shop this ·Thursday. Phone v 4616. John Cordle, 1420 Harding S. E., is at the Mercy hospital where he was taken Sunday after he suf- .'fered a stroke. - Supper at the Grace Evangelical -Church, corner of 14th and Adams : N.'W.,Thursday the 13th. Serve .from 5 to 8. . dropped old rags to spread fleas and disease, it was the Red Cross that provided the quick, effective means of combating this menace. Millions of quinine were flown in to cope with disease. The result was the building of tremendous good will for Americans. The capacity of the Red Cross, its unique ability to get results swiftly without delays, its willingness to face any danger and any problem, its devotion to the service of mankind continued to amaze, the speaker declared. But, he pointed out, the job was a hundred times more difficult than coping with disasters of nature back home. In the field keeping up the morale of men in the service, the Red Cross does another effective job. A flyer was worrying about his wife, who was to have a baby. He didn't get any news. In 36 hours the Red Cross got the information to him that he was the ·father o£ a 6 pound boy. Such services are '-·"--' -- " thousands. is on .the job, Mr. Evans stated. Supporting ' Mr. Evans' statement that local chapters are an integral part of the world wide program was the report of activities given each person in attendance. The local chapter in 1943: Assisted 713 with problems relating to communication between servicemen and their, families. Assisted 6? World war II veterans with claims and case work problems. Provided direct relief for 81 families of active servicemen and 21 · families of veterans received medical care. Made and filled 921 comfort kits, issued to men going overseas with such articles as soap box, soap, playing cards, cigarets, shoe shine cloth, pencil, envelops, paper, shoelaces, razor blades, small story book and sewing case. of the 3 service clubs ·wiU.-linake announcements for their/respective organizations. 251 Phones Installed in City in '43 During 1943 the Northwestern Bell Telephone company installed ArdiurWilliamsPiehn Rites Held; Burial at Elmwood Cemetery Funeral services for Arthur William Piehn, who died.suddenly Wednesday at his home, 325 3rd N. E., were held Friday afternoon ,,,,,,,_,, ,,, UJ ^ .,,.»,_ ,,,. ..,,. ^,,^ at the Patterson funeral home, j f h 'e"y e a r ' 7,200,"" with'' pracUcaUy with the Rev. E. Ray Dugger, pas- no new construction work done tor of the First Baptist church, of- on acc p u nt of shortage of ma- ficiating. . " . . · · · ' Pallbearers were cousins, Louis, Oscar, Aimer and Arthur Heinold. Burial was an Eimwood cemetery. The Patterson'funeral home in charge. 251 , telephones in making the total phones in use here at the end of Mason City, number of Hunt to Head Musicians of Local No. 230 Earl Hunt 'was elected presi dent of the Musicians Local No 230 of Mason City Monday eve ning at the annual meeting Labor hall.. Other officers elected wer Bobby Griggs, vice presiden' Ralph Kelso, secretary-treasure: arid Elmer True, sergeant at arm: Elected tp the executive boar were Gordon Leach, Everett Me Sweeny, Mabel Kelso,. Gordo Koch and Earl Cawley. Members of theunion voted 1 purchase a $100 war bond. Fo: lowing a regular business meet ing,- the members were serve supper at the Covered Wagon. Buy Wai- Savings Bonds an Stamps from your Globe-Gazet carrier boy. Junior Red Cross shipped 150 Christmas members boxes to multiplied by the The first Negroes were ·ported to America in 1618. BEST NEWS TO MILLIONS , about aspinn is the fact that St. Joseph Aspirin brings them .both quality and low cost. You can't buy better aspirin . than this world's largest edler at 1W. And jwn get36 tablets for 2W; 100 tab. lets only 3». Boy St. Joseph Aspirin. Sometimes it takes only some little thing, some reminder of America, some evidence that something American has been salvaged in faroff places to raise a soldier's spirit. Take for instance the .work of Bee Lynch, the Cerro Gordo chapter's contribution to work in India. A soldier walks into the recreation center. "' "Hi soldier," she greets him with her ingratiating .smile. "Hi Iowa," is the answer. There follows some chitchat about things back home. The soldier is a different man when he walks out. That isn't all. There are ambulances, stretchers, h o s p i t a l s , wounds, blood, tears, suffering, sacrifice, but through it all the Red Cross is ever on the job. It is on the job because such chapters children in foreign lands, made 6,- production articles. , Enrolled all the Cerro Gordo county schools in junior Red Cross. Raised $50,590.90 in 1943 War Fund campaign. Organized nurse recruitment committee to promote the recruitment of nurses for the Armed Forces in 10 counties. Conducted a home and farm Acc i d e n t prevention instructor's course. Produced 388,140 surgical dressings for the army and navy. Motor corps members drove 13,000 miles during 1943. Home nursing and nutrition classes continued. Sent 4 to national aquatic schools to become water safety instructors. Knitting and sewing volunteers worked 28,634 hours. Camp arid Hospital committee, through the efforts of the community, has contributed generously to military .requests. . A most effective presentation was made by sixth grade pupils of the Washington school under the direction of Miss Cecelia Volkman hi songs and a unique exercise, 'America Is." T. L. Connor, chapter chairman, Civilian Instructors Have idle to-Play in Air Attack Those Who Get Flyers First Into Air Have Toughest Assignment While headlines are telling ratifying stories of how the nited States Army Air Force is pping apart the axis, there is anther story-not told in-the head- nes, but on the other end of the airline to Berlin and Tokyo. It is the story of the heroes ithout medals--the civilian in- Tuctors in the primary flying chools and in the college training etachments of the AAF Training lommand. Without these men, of whom Mason City has furnished Us fair hare, the aerial offensive would ,ve been delayed many months-meaning the loss of thousands of American and allied lives. And Mason City's ace instruc- or, Sylvan O. Hugelen, operator jf the Mason City Air Activities airport, is responsible for starting most of these flyers on their way o successful careers as instruc- ors. He has beeii .flying in these parts /for many years, being a stunt''flyer before taking charge ot activities at the local' airport. Hiigelin frist came, to the local airport in the spring of 1937 when he began instructing these men. It was primarily the reason he started in the flying-business here, flugelen spent his boyhood at Leland, north ot Forest City, but had resided in and near Forest City before coming to Mason City. Mason Cityans who are serving as civilian flying instructors are Walter Jensen, William B. Hathorn, William F. Evans, Wilhelm Winther, Wendell Liittsch wager, Ernest Meyer, Max Major, Kathryn Sauerberg, Wayne Vawter, Burton Bohlen, William Oliver, Maurice Jensen, Bill- Daley and Ross Martin. At the training detachments, where aviation . students first learn to get airplanes, off the ground, and at ' primary schools air flying instruction is supervised by civilians on contract with the government.-Not until the cadets get into the more "military" type of flying in the basic or secondary fe itage of training do they receive instruction from army, pilot*. . Civilian instructors have, takin a tremendous load :off tne:ariny nstr uctors. They have - assumed he all-important chore of ^introducing the airmen, to the air: AAF jilots are free to concentrate · on i j l he advanced phases.''. ;1 - "· «'' The civilian instructor's job, is probably, the .most difficult and . ierve-wracking .in all · of-.flying i :raining. Nobody knows what ao young student will do the first few ' times in the air. The civilian teacher must be constantly on the alert for any sudden error on the part of his student.. ' · "-.These are the heroes without medals. P fe : ;f iim TAKES CADET COURSE : Riceville -- RobertrStephenson, 21, has arrived at the University of Alabama at Tuscalposa for a . course as^an aviation-cadet in the \ army, air forces training com- j mand. Upon completion he will be ! classified as a navigator, · pilot o r j bombardier. . · ' · · ] Buy War Savings Bonds and Stamps from your Globe -Gazette carrier -boy. ' 4 Forums on "Peace" Are Planned Here Doctor Henry Hitt Crane of Central Methodist church, Detroit, will open a series of 4 forums Wednesday evening at 8 o'clock at the First Methodist church. The. general forum subject is "What Price Peace?" Doctor Crane's address will be on "Clear Thinking in Confused Times." Prior to the outbreak of the war, Doctor Crane spent 14 months traveling in more than 40 countries, meeting important world figures and gathering impressions and insights which give his message authority. ' One of the first Americans to go overseas in World war I, his experience intimately forced him to believe in the.futility of'war, and he became possessed of a consuming passion for the cause of peace. Doctor Crane is considered a dynamic speaker by those who have heard him. At the close of his address there will be an opportunity for questions and dis- terial. Mason City has an average of 40,000 calls daily, according to the year-end report of the company, and during the year there was an average of 1,400 long distance calls daily, which is a considerable increase .as compared with a year ago. The increase in telephone usage, especially on long distance calls, is due' to war activities, according to the report. During the early part of 1943 a nationwide program was initiated to reduce long distance usage. This was necessary because of heavy demand by the government, armed forces and war industries. An average of 128 employes was maintained by the company throughout the year and it was estimated .that 600 information calls were handled daily. PRELUDE TO THE 4TH WAR LOAN TDTRITTl? TYV · · · - . · . i-lUJU l£j lU Sponsored by MerkeVs and The Saturday Evening Post received a 20 year service pin awarded by the American. Red Cross -tar outstanding work. The presentation - was · made by Vice Chairman F. W: Osmundson, who pointed out that a little over 20 years ago Mr. Connor completed his first course in life-saving and first aid. Since then, he said, Mr. Connor "has done about everything in every branch- o£ the service except perhaps sewing and knitting," Mr. Osmundson stated. Mr. Connor was re-elected chairman for the 4th year. Re- cussion. The meeting will be open to the general public. An offering will be taken to help defray expenses of the series. BUEHLER BROS 214 SO. FED MARKET PHONE 916 NORTH IOWAS L A R G E S T M A R K E T "FORFEITS BOND Edward Heizelman, 804 Jackson N. W., forfeited a S10 bond Tuesday before Police j^udge Morris Laird on a charge o"f speeding. Police arrested Heizelman at 9:40 p. m. Saturday in the 2,700 block on N. Federal. He was alleged to have driven 30 miles an hour through a 20 mile zone. Mrs. Mannens Rites Held at St. Joseph's Catholic Church Here Funeral services for Mrs. Valentine Mannens, 67, who died Friday evening at a local hospital following a lingering illness, were held at St. Joseph's Catholic church Monday, with Father P. J. Behan officiating. Attending the services were Mr. and Mrs. Hector Mostaert and Mrs. Albert Mostaert, Wheatland; Iowa, and Frank Mostaert, Lost Nation, Iowa, besides numerous friends and relatives of Mrs. Mannens from Mason City and surrounding communities. Pallbearers were Charles De- Rock, Fred Heddens, Lyle Hill, Mell Van Hicks, Jack Herzog and Raymond Jensen. M. C. Coughlon and Tim Phalen were ushers. Burial was at Elmwood Cemetery. The Meyer funeral home in charge. Nosh's Foiger's COFFEE Ib. 28c Meaty SPARE RIBS P . , t l7c POINT FREE MEAT ITEMS SPARE RIBLETS .............. Ib. lOc NECK BONES, PIGS FEET ...... Ib. 7c PORK TAILS, KIDNEYS ....... Ib. 15c Tender Beef 4 Points. .Ib. 18c Roth's SJked Mulberry BACON »!.. 21C 4-rWtd Box BACON 4 Points. eo. 75c Tender PORK CUTLETS 5 Points. .Ib. 30c elected also were Vice Chairmen Syd Thompson and Mr. Osmundson; Mrs. J. E. 'McDonald, secretary, and Roy B. Johnson, treasurer. These and the follo\ying make up the executive committee: Rabbi David Herson, Mrs. Earl Dean, Ralph Lloyd Jones, W. Earl Hall, Leo J. Skyles and Mrs. Harry Sondergaard, Mason City: Mrs. J. H. Woodstock, chapter chairman, Clear Lake; E. B. Stillman, Clear Lake and Mrs. Elmer Christenseri, Thornton. On the board of directors are: Ralph Lloyd Jones, W. Earl Hall, Mrs. J. E. McDonald, D. H. Fitzpatrick, Mrs. Earl Dean, Mrs. Floyd Johnson, Syd Thompson. Enoch A. Norem, Rabbi David Herson, the Rev. Alvin N. Rogness, Earl Walters, Roy B. John- FORFEITS BOND Audrey Leese, 610 Delaware N. E., forfeited a $10 bond before Police Judge Morris Laird Tuesday on a charge of intoxication. She was arrested by police at 1:50 a. m. Sunday in the first block on West State street. Women pilots were first employed by the ferrying division of the air transport command, army air forces, in September, 1942. son, T. Sheldon, L. Connor, Mrs. J. J. Dr. T. A. Nettleton, Marion E. Olson, Dr. R. E. Smiley, Lester Milligan, C. E. Cornwell. INCOME TAX Service Bureau 213 FIRST NATIONAL BANK BLDG. TELEPHONE 1026 the Rev. Francis Churchill, Mrs. Hugh H. Shepard, Miss Hazel Thomas,' L. J. Skyles, Mrs. Harry Sondergaard, L. L. Raymond, F. WJ Osmundson, Mason City; Tom Sawyer, Rockwell, Mrs. Ernest Buss, R. F. D., Clear Lake, Mrs. George A. Reynolds, Plymouth, and Mrs. Ben Skadland, R. F. D., Clear Lake; Mrs. J. C. Davenport, Clear Lake; Mrs. J. H. Woodstock, Clear Lake; E. B. Stillman, Clear Lake, and Mrs. Elmer Christensen, Thornton. The report o£ the nominating committee was made by C. E. Leffler. Other members of the committee are W. Earl Hall, Dr. T. A. Nettleton, W. H. Rees, Miss Laura Walpole and Mrs. Earl Dean, Mason City, and E. R. Boyle, Clear Lake. The business session included the report of Treasurer Roy B Johnson and the reading of- the minutes of the 1943 meeting by Mrs. J. E. McDonald. The meeting opened with invocation by the Rev. Alvin N. Rogness. Chairman Connor presided. Walter T. Forbes Dies- Rites in Minneapolis X o r t h w o o d--Walter Talcott Forbes, former resident of Northwood, son of the late Attorney and Mrs. Frank Forbes, early residents here, died in Texas, Dec. 30. He had made his home in Minneapolis the past 20 years where he was city editor of the Tribune. For several years he was connected with the Globe-Gazette in Mason City. He is survived by his wife, daughter, a son in' the navy, and a brother, F. B. Forbes, of Redwood Falls, Minn. Funeral was held in Minneapolis Tuesday. Tuesday Is Czechoslovakia Day Tribute to Unconquerable. Czechoslovakia HILL MAKE SURVEY Garner--County Engineer Wil- :iam Henschen has been appointed engineer to make a survey and report on the feasibility of a clean- out petitioned for by Willie Helm and others on joint drainage district, Hancock 31 and Winnebago 36. Today we pay tribute to the fighting spirit of Czechoslovakia--to the courage of a magnificent people who have continued unconquered through a nightmare of untold suffering. K EEP backing the Attack! With these fighting words the U. S. Treasury Department opens The Fourth Wai- Loan on January 18th. As a fitting prelude, leading up to and into this great victory effort, Merkel's is proud to present Tribute to the Unconquerables -- a nation-wide War Bond drive, co-sponsored by The Saturday Evening Post, which began January 10th. This coast-to-coast drive is inspired by Poet Joseph Auslanders magnificent Open Letters to the Unconquerables, which millions have recently read in The Saturday Evening Post. . Auslanders Letters have brought home to the people of this nation the vivid, stark picture of the sacrifice made by tens of millions in the ravaged, war-torn lands. And the purpose o£ this drive, and The Fourth War Loan, is to impress ouv people with the great need for sacrifice now--to keep the attack rolling--to release these nations to fight--to speed victory for all. See our dramatic window displays honoring Greece, Czechoslovakia, The Netherlands, Poland Norway, France, Belgium, Yugoslavia, Luxembourg, Denmark Electric Motor Repairing By Experienced Men NEW AND USED MOTORS BOUGHT AND SOLD ZACK BROS. ELECTRIC CO. 3*2 SecM* S. W. Plwne 977 FREE TO BOND BUYERS AT MERKEL'S THIS WEEK O Each Bond buyer will receive 1 A set of five full-color prints of Joseph Auslander's Open Letters to the Unconquerables will be presented to you when you purchase a $25 War Bond or more at Merkel's. 2 Important and interesting literature describing activities in the various occupied countries will be presented · to you when you purchase a $25 War Bond or more at Merkel's. graphical sketch of Joseph Auslander, and the story of how. the Open Letters to the Unconquer- came to be written. _---_______^ ,,,,,.,; :_/L._

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