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The Los Angeles Times from Los Angeles, California • Page 53

The Los Angeles Times from Los Angeles, California • Page 53

Los Angeles, California
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o5 CCttgcIcs 5imbatj CCtmcsv VI SUNDAY, JULY mi. LABOR How to Keep Out Undesirable Immigrants. By Brandenburg; brief space of time scores of families which Lad been 'ruined by frustrated crease the cost of a steamship ticket to an immigrant can tie met with a comparison of the trans-Atlantic rata schedule with that of the English Cape boats, in which 'closed cabins ar afforded the third-class passengers at a less rate proportionately than the trans-Atlantic third-cla3s now SURPRISING FACTS, The Results of an Exhaustive Study of the Conditions Under Which Foreigners arc 'Brought to this Country. to speak plainly in order' to prevent orphans and foundlings being brought info the country wholesale in the guise of families accompanied by parents and grandmothers and grandfathers. The accidental dUcloaeure of two or three cases ha revealed the plsn of this systematic shipment and dispersion of public incumbrances, presumably too young to betray their conductor.

The indications are that this practice is most frequent among Italians and Hungarians. The method is this; the institution or community which desires to rid itself of superfluous children will employ a man or woman to act as father and mother, or may even nse genuine immigrants with one or two children of their own, in which case the brood would be precisely and carefully mixed. After the passed -Ellis Island the man and woman travel from city to city in ths Eastern States and desert a child In each place, to be picked up by the police and turned over to the American charitable insti i tricts from which emigration is rare, I but from which, it is desired to draw good class 'of famlRes. Boards should bo prepared to furnish gratis Information as to the best opportunities for settlement of emigrants, and by the emigrants being assured before they leave home that they will not be denied admission, a fine class of people can be poured into the very ter ritories where people are needed and the great tide can be stopped from centering In the cities. In a few yeara it can be turned entirely Into the regions where brawn is needed in stead of Hungarian music and Italian shoe shines.

EXPENSES GREATLY REDUCED. When a steamer is about todepart, emigrants from any given section should be assembled by previous instruction at the most convenient center of the section, and be taken, in charge of a bonded eourier, direct to the port of embarkation and put on board the steamer without any stop in the port city. I estimate that this will save nearly 7 per person to the Immigrants, ordinarily expended in over charges, lodging-houses, short changing, unwise purchases of clothes and medicines, etc. If the 2 poll tax cow paid at the port of arrival should fee increased to a $4 fee at the communal examination, the money thus accrued will pay the expenses of the proposed system and the margin of saving to the immigrant in protection is still so wide that double the amount could be charged, and the Immigrant still pay less to enter the country than be expends at present Regulations should be made that no ship could land Immigrants in any American port without having compiled, with, following speclflcat tions: Closed-cabins for groups of six or elghti service of food In cabins by competent stewards and food inspection at each meal. These conditions to be brought about and enforced by two American officials, one male and one female, aboard each Immigrant carrying ship.

Any argument that this will in- Italian port must have a passport issued by the questura of the district in which he was born, and must have brought to the questura the birth certificate from the commune of his birth, which positively establishes identity. Since each emigrant's record is at hand when the passport is issued, no man can leave without 4 passport, and" yet as the criminals are flocking into the United States, it is proof positive that the Italian officials are leading themselves to this outrage against US. Many hundreds of large American firms canvassed uniformly admit that when they have occasion to employ cumbers of Italians, Lithuanians, Po-lacks, Croatlans, they do it by contracting with a banker or agent, who supplies the desired number. These bankers or agents "assist" the immigrants to 'enter the country on mere promise of work, contract being. I'll fill if U'rli I -3' v- I ft -t: I CURIOUS OLD CUSTOM IN IRELAND.

-M-. X-K I fSPClAL CORRESPOND, GALWAY, June 18. In the wilder districts of the west of Ireland, where old customs associated with the burial of the dead are still observed with jealous fidelity, one of the most singular is that which requires as an essential part of the funeral rites, the placing on the grave of the pipes that have been smoked at the wako, and filled, too, with fresh tobacco. The picture here shown illustrating this peculiar cere mony is reproduced from a photograph I obtained after attending the funeral of an old woman who died in the ancient and picturesque town of Clonbur In the county of Galway. On account of the strange use made of them these pipes are known as "Lord ha mercy's." They closely resemble the English clay "Churchwardens," except that they are somewhat thicker In the bowl and stem.

Before they are deposited on the grave of the person in whose memory they have been smoked, their long stems are broken off short I Up to about fifteen years ago they were regarded as sacred relics and 1 any tampering with them it was be lieved would bring evil upon the impious vandal, his home and his cattle, The spirit of progress however, played havoc with this latter superstition, and now, after the departure (Continued from First outrage as weil as an- ia Justice to the memittrs of tth -sociation whoti it is to therefore, "Be it resolved. That rifh -ber of this association one of his employes with tia filing notice, to wit: The Stockton Federated Trs which you are a ty a ation, having demanded ths cl certain members of the Rataii Clerk Union, with the sole object and i of Injuring the business of the -ployers of said clerks, you are by notified in the Inter fair play, your card as a memt i the union ia now called for by -employer, and that, from and this date, no employe" will be ret: in our employ holding any aff.H. i whatever with any branch cf i labor ACTION ENDORSED. A special meeting of the and Manufacturers' Association -zt then held and the action of the -b-associatlon was approved. Immediately a copy of the rjo-lution was served upon every clerk employed by members of tie Business Men's Association, and every union card was surrendered without a murmur; and now every dry goods, clothing, and shoe house in Stockton is an open shop, and will remain so.

The resolution has been declared to be the "hottest" ever adopted aui many have expressed their amazement at Its boldness, but racical measures were demanded. It is expected that other subassociatlong of the Merchants' and Manufacturers' Association of this city will lake similar action pnd they certainly if the Federated Trades makrs any trouble for them. a SUES FOR PEACE The Citizens" Alliance has assured the Association of the hearty approval of that body, whose membership now numbers nearly 1000. At the special meeting of the Merchants' and Manufacturers'. Association, held for the purpose of 'endorsing the action of the Business Men's Association, relative to the resolution, a letter from the president of jh Federated Trades was read; in it tie virtually acknowledged that ht side was in a "tight place," and suggested the appointment of a committee fro a ouu body to confer with a like ctuiir mlttee from that body, and an effiot be made to "draw up a treaty of peace" that would harmonize the differences existing -between ihe two bodies.

The communication was la on the table and the association would not consider it. "OPEN Employers Unanimous in Favor of ths Idea Strong Organization Among Laborites. rsi'Ecut CORBE.SPO.NDEXCE ob" Tna Ttsrs i CLEVELAND (O.) June 27. The situation in the labor and industrial field ehow little The chirf feature which, characterizes the condition and outlook from the employers' standpoint is the pronounced advancement of the "open shop" Idea and the unanimity of the employers in this direction. One very important fact is the relative activity and strength of the forces of organization in the ranks of the employers and organized labor.

The forces cf organized labor have 100 organisers to every ten employed by the manufacturers and employers. The trade-unions, separately and collectively, under the American Federation of Labor, spend more money per month and per year-for the exclusive purpose of. organization and maintenance' than the employers' associations do. TMx expense among the labor organisations mounts up Into hundreds of thousands of dollars. The labor organizations have a well-trained force of organizers and support an educational propaganda in the way of lectures and printed matter which will equal in its extent and cost, if it does not exceed, the work dons in this line by the employers.

sEvery local federation of labor ani every national and international union, as well as the parent body, the American Federation of Labor, hive their Secret service boards and their secret service workers, and the reports of field operatives show that some of these secret service agents are numbered among the so-called independent employers of labor who cater. to the unions in order to promote their own Interests as against that of rivals in trade. LABOR NOTES. Miss Margaret Haley of Chicago lu the arch-agitator among the school teachers for. affiliation with trades- unionism to compel school boards to submit to a combination of teachers and educators as to wages and tenura of etc.

This is the limit! The open shop movement, says the New York Times, is really a move ment to assert and defend the supremacy of law. The effort to resist it ia futile; If persisted in it will wreck the unions and send to prison a great many men who could be better employed in honorable industry. The advocates of this suicidal policy do not represent American labor. They, may think they do, but they are mistaken. If all employers would adopt the stand taken by R.

Wallace Son- Mfg. there would be "open sho-s' generally. They posted nottees follows: No man in the employ this company need fear discharr cept for bad conduct or poor This company will not permit interference with its employes, employes must work subject to i rules of this company and no ott-: Some' 1500 union men in recently rebelled against the establishment of what is known as sisn-dard time in wide belts between fied merldlajis. They insisted r-nobody had a right to overrule or, Ignore the sua dividing time. Thy said standard time In Jackson wa not the same as "sua-vlme." They did not seem to know that sun, time and tru time there are not together sear often as a watchmaker's wooden atg i is right.

They' inssiiifed on and end'nt Ir time by sua. time. and whpn thfir employers dpMjjitM proposition they struck, nrt fws-trt sf t'liimni emigration. Assured by steamship brokers, sub-agents that they would pass the Inspection, they sold their property, both real and personal. abandoned positions and opportunities, all at a considerable sacrifice, and sailed for America, only to catch a brief glimpse of the serrated skyline of New York office buildings or of Bos ton Harbor and then to be denied ad mission ana sent oacs, rrequentiy so wrecked in.

life -that they never re cover. The pitiable spectacle of these dia- appo.nted returned ones has eueet of deterring that class of emigrants who have something to lose, and so It is a recently Inaugurated practice of tne fkcamshlp companies to gather the returned emigrants into groups et the port of return and reship them to South America or South Africa at the companies' expense, rather than allow them to return to their native villages to discourage others, for one immigrant who has failed can stop three hundred from trying. Emigrants en route suffer without expressed resentment or any effort at retaliation maltreatment and deprivation at the hands of officials, thieves, boatmen, lodginghouse keepers and steamship crews from the moment they leave home until they are safe in American official hands. To retaliate, they believe, might embroil them and prevent their getting into America, This same fear of being denied admission makes them an easy prey to parasites who have advice, medicines, guides to evasion of the law, worthless letters of recommendation, fraudulent naturalization papers and every sort of underground assistance to sell. The overcrowding of steamships, dispensing of improper food, lack of water for drinking and washing," due to the failure of the government to regulate the transportation and care of human beings coming at the rate of twenty-flve thousand a month to-be part of the bone and sinew of our masses, CONGESTION IN EASTERN CITIES.

The terrible congestion of aliens in the poorest quarters of the large Eastern cities can only be prevented by deflecting, them Into the undeveloped West, Northwest and South. That can be accomplished only by Influencing their ultimate destinatjons before they leave home, as they will not changi their destinations after arrival, the cx St Ail perimental efforts of railroad agents, and philanthropic and religious societies having proved this beyond a doubt i The first comers barely went beyond the landing place to settle, and all of those who have arrived since have come to join their friends already tnere. Only the overcrowding of the first localities of settlement caused what slight dispersion there has been, aided by contract labor drafts into the Interior. Thus, taking cognizance of the pro vlously stated facts, it is obvious that our present system is a laiiure in grappling with the problem; first, be cause the American officials have only the well-conned lies of the immigrants and their friends on which to depend in choosing immigrants not obviously diseased, and, second, because the torrent Is not walled in nearer the source. It should be taken in hand at the very outset not at the port of arrival, not at the port of embarkation, but In the home communities is the truth accessible.

V'v THE NEW PLAN OUTLINED." Tnerefore the writer outlines the following plan for a revision of the system: Until such time as treaties can be concluded with the emigrant producing countries, examine the would-be emigrants in each home commune Under the official Shelter of the American consul of the district Examinations should be advertised lor each commune one month in advance and should be made by an itinerant board of not less tuan three bonded, American-born civil service chosen inspectors. One should be a surgeon of qualifications equivalent to those of a marine hospital service surgeon, and at least one, preferably more, should be able to speak fluently the language or dialect of the people exaniintd. Declarations should be taken on all desired points of restriction, and after being verified by examination of the commune records, which will show paupers, criminals, prostitutes, political disturbers, passes with non-duplicatable photographic identity slips should ba issued, good for use itbin not more than twenty days. No undesirable person could avoid de tection when any suspicious cases might be subjected to a neighborhood examination of witnesses. The apportionment of the boards goograhically should be made on the basis of the present immigration statistics, one board to cover a large dls-" triet producing, few emigrants, two boards to six xoa)rrmn po-Ittclng fosir ButKlfed a week, for in- IkmnJa sbauid bo establlubed i dia-: pays for the present bestial accommo dations.

-s LISTING SOLDIER IMMIGRANTS, Ellis Island and other immigrant stations should be continued in all their functions except that of the ex amination on the registry floor and the housing of the excluded. Examination should be afforded immigrants from those districts in remote countries where Immigration is too scant to make a board of inspection practicable. in addition to the pres ent card system of recording immi grant arrivals a record should be kept of all men who enter the country who have had military training, It be ing estimated that there are 1,200,000 men under thirty-seven at present in the United States who have been well trained in the various large armies of Europe. Immigrants should be required, as part of the grounds for admission, to report to designated Federal judl-. clal district authorities their residence, state of health, occupation, nntil such i time as they aave been naturalized.

Commission of crime should be followed by punishment and then deportation. Deportation is more, dreaded than a ten-year sentence at hard labor. The effect of the compulsory reporting system would be to encourage naturalization, to prevent fraudulent naturalization, to retard temporary immigration, to destroy the contract labor and padrone systems, prevent changes of identity and in general in duce good citizenship. The writer firmly believes that such a general plan will meet all the evils of immigration and turn them to good, and if safeguarded from "graft," as suggested, will be a national benefaction of a scope no one can fully comprehend- fcNCB OF. THE TIMES.

purely private character It was, of cdurse, impossible lor mo, a stranger toi Clonbur, to attend It On the following morning the body was conveyed In the coffin by some neighbors to the pretty little church of St Patrick, at the end of the town, where high mass was recited for the repose of the soul of the deceased. It was an exceedingly Impressive ceremony, conducted by the venerable I parisn priest and, eev-sn assistant clergy. In the Interval which had elapsed between the celebration of the mass and the starting of procession to the historic graveyard of Clonbur, three-quarters of a mile people had flocked from mountain-aide, from moorland, and from lonely cabins in the fields into the town, and as the cortege started on its way they silently and reverently fell into procession, behind the bearers and their burden and slowly followed it on Its last Journey. There is an oriental legend that every tear shed in memory of the dead washes away one sin from the pages of the great Book of Life kept by the recording angel, and this idea seems to permeate the minds of the peasantry of. Western Ireland.

As the cortege entered the graveyard; the coffin and mourners proceeded to the grave side, where a Latin service was read and the eofiln was sprinkled with holy water, Then those who had followed, as mark of neighborly respect, visited the resting places of their friends and families and at each grave they set up a loud and sorrowful "wirra! wlrral wlrral" To a stranger viewing the performance of this weird rite for the first time, as the "wlrras" with their mournful cadence rose and fell it was infinitely pathetic. It was impossible, too, to doubt the sincerity of those who were walling for the dead. Men and women alike were weeping copiously and were exhibiting every sign of genuine grief, and as they sat or knelt at the side of the graves swayed themselves backwards and forwards in order to give greater force to their wailing. The most mournful part of the funeral was right at its conclusion. Immediately the officiating priest had pronounced the benediction, four female relatives of the dead woman started up from behind a tombstone and commenced calling her in many endearing terms at the top of their voices.

For a few minutes past -the "whirras" of the walling In the other portions of the ancient graveyard had died down possibly because the mourners were a little weary with thair exertions but as the four voices broke on the air they wore renewed afresh with redoubled force ami vhi'W, and then t.i'1l?nly dif-l any; Hi'iii to 0 a scosu an iciri as It was pathetio, 5 THE newest and most direct lnfor mation oa the great question of immigration comes from Mr, Broughton Brandenburg, who went with hlawife to the emigration center of Europe after living for long time In the foreign quarters of New York, and after studying the conditions abroad returned to the United States as an Immigrant and paused -through Ellis Island on October 14 last. The United States government has taken cognizance of his work, and he was asked by the Commissioner General of Immigration for details of discoveries and for suggestions. In return he made the suggestion of new and quite revolutionary plan for the control of immigration. This plan met with favor at the hands of Secretary George B. Cortelyou, of the Department of Commerce and Labor, in which department immigration matters fall, and Commissioner-General Frank P.

Sargent, with the result that a bill is to be framed, and presented to Congress. new plan is here outlined for the first time in public print. MR. BRANDENBURG'S PLAN. That' the present system of handling European immigration to the United States, both in admission and is a lamentable failure is a statement which no reasonable patriot, with even a limited knowledge of the conditions, would presume to deny.

The conditions that exist are acutely menacing, and they are not the fault of restrictive legislation, that is not sufficiently restrictive, nor of the administration and enforcement of the existing laws. The system is wron" impractical in prlnciole and application, and to permit its continued use is gravely inimical to the country's future, as well as outrageoU8-ly unfair to those on whom its first keen wrong falls directly, the inadmissible Immigrants. Subsequent to a rehearsal of the conditions, both those generally known and those of which the mass of the people are ignorant, the wrfter. presents tne skeleton of a plan for a new system, a revolution of the present devices, which obviously fulfills the desired end a large volume of desirable Immigrants to serve as raw material, distributed ao as Jo assist: in the development of the country's vast untouched resources and given over to those influences which will compel speedily genuine and beneficent assimilation of their masses into the body politic. INFLUX OF FOREIGN CRIMINALS.

Prison statistics, police court records and secret-service operations show the country to be thickly infested with dangerous representatives of the criminal classes of Europe. Of the prisoners serving sentences for violations of Federal laws, for instance, one out of every eight is a former immigrant, and State prison records for the five States hcareit New York ehow a larger percentage tan that. Added to this is the notorious difficulty of securing convictions of foreigners owing to the unwillingness of witnesses, due to lack of respect for American laws and the dread of vengeance po informers at the hands of members of the small criminal bands which operate under the dreaded name of the old Mafia and kindred societies. The criminals are here and are rapidly increasing in numbers and power. There is no Mafia now, but the up-r pf oeity of fcvtsii attribute is a certain consequence Jn America of the continued existence of the scattered bands of desperate men.

More must be stopped from entering the Country and those already here must be deported. ITALY DUMPS CRIMINALS INTO AMERICA. Th district police chiefs of Italy. Austria and other South Eurppean States, la order to rid their districts of erlnilnils and disturbers and thus tnelr own reputations for efficiency by being able to show a quiet tffri.M, are forcing and aiding their criminal Into emigrating as rapidly as rj, The UkitPd Biatea is the f-und. In Italy I foimd meh mw mat possession, th mtU- -d Imical.

record a cf tv- Eaci "ft embarking el an (I rT tutions or to be cared for by hearted people into whose hands they may fall. copious fraudulent navuK-: aljzation. Through the political 1 Influence vhich gang leaders In the foreign quarters of the principal American cities exercise, naturalization papers are issued wholesale before each election to aliens who are sot entitled to vote, and after they have repaid the gang UBJlfiDIDtl TKJ- leaders by casting one or more rotes as directed, the naturalization papers are sent la quantities to Europe, where they are ''farmed" out to emigrants who dare not attempt to pass the immigrant inspection or wno have been buncoed into paying $10 to $25 for the rent of a certificate of naturalization and the necessary fraudulent identification. By the expenditure of a small sum of money each, any party of emigrants ao matter from what disease smitten centre it may emanate, can sail without having its baggage disinfected, as the author proved by the experiences of his own large party at Naples. There is an acrimonious discussion over the illiteracy of the present flood of Immigrants, 185,000 of more than: fourteen years of age who were unable to read or write being admitted last year, and this is a point for consideration though in the opinion of the writer Illiteracy does not militate against an immigrant being good raw material, and his experience has been that the is more tractable, learns English easier and is in general more easily assimilated than the man who can read and write.

He is able to cite numbers of cases where Italians have committed mild crimes and pleaded giillty In order to be sent to prison and to be maintained while they learn to read and write English and acquire a trade. The above Btated conditions are the principal reasons for considering our. system a failure, ao far as our own protection is concerned. The othr aide of the failure is ths wrongs to which it exposes the immigrants. OUTRAGE OF DEPORTING The wrHer found ia Europe ia a (r J- v- 4 A LITTLE ft "v- A A -Bm tp Office i a- ski' i mi9, a in itw AiuuyuwufliJ Pipes as Mournlnff Emblems on an Irish Grave.

unnecessary and inadvisable, as the average non-English apeaking laborer Is to be likened to the dumb driven ox until he nas been in the country long enough to know his opportunities and assert himself. When he can escape from the vampire clutch of the banker or agent he does so, either by striking out for himself or returning to his home country, his place being speedily filled by another I estimate that more than twenty, one thousand Italians alone passed Ellis Island in 1903 answerable to the alien contract law. Each and every man had been diligently coached right up to the moment he appeared before the inspector to deny that work was promised and to meet the severest cross-examination. i irrrnw 1 ftitooled Ott ADMISSION. Hebrew communities which consider themselves overburdened with paupers (which on the continent means too old, too sick or too young to beg) organize bands of all those who have a chance of passing the inspectors and after providing each group with a good leader and coach in the tricks of the proes, ship them via the London "Poor Jeiys' Temporary Shelter" in Whifchapel and other similar institutions where they are doctored and bolstered up.

It is believed an act of charity to send them where the prosperous American Jews can share their plenty Too clever practice of unscrupulous temporary have forced immigrant inpctor to question evffn chtldrrt r.f nch j'rg that they are isot yet able of a funeral party, sacrilegious youth of Clonbur freely help themselves to the tobacco In the bowls of the "Lord ha' mercy's." The pioneer of this practice, so it Is related, was frequently warned by his grandmother against sinful interference with' the pipes and -told of the dire misfortunes that would befall the members of the household if he yielded to the temptation. "Sure, Granny," he remarked one day, after receiving the oft-repeated Injunction, "ye've met no great ill luck in the last eight years? have ye?" "No, praise be to God an' the pigs, that pays the riot," answered the old dame with pious fervor. 1 "Faith, thin," retorted the i young sceptic, to her great horror and disgust "I'm thinkln that touchinV thlm pipes don't give the divll any grip upon yer at ail, at all, for sure I've been afther emptyin' thlm for the lasht -eight years." The old woman whose funeral af forded me such interesting glimpses of Irish mortuary customs was held in high esteem as one of the oldest inhabitants of the town whose wealth, amounting, perhaps, to something like ft thousand dollars, conferred greet distinction upon It "Sure, sorr." said my informant, ut'll be a cheerful wako she'll be afther bavin an a gran' bs-ka5 the was beknowa to th" wholo The wake being a feathtrit-; a.

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