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The Indianapolis News from Indianapolis, Indiana • Page 6

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Indianapolis, Indiana
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6
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THE INDIANAPOLIS NEWS Published Daily. iTxoept. Sunday. Tb Nsws building. Not.

wt S3 Wwt I Washington Street. Entered the Postofflce, Indianapolis. Secoed Claaa Matter. TELEPHONE" Jbvoth companies. Private branch tichintM.

Call for Tb News end for department wanted. NEW TORK rriCK TWbuns Building. Xa A. Carroll, Representative. Chicago ornca rirtt National Bk bvj.

W. T. Perry and K. Luts. Representative.

WAtHUTOTOM BUREAU Wyett Building, junta p. Horaeday. Correspondent. SCJbaCRIPTION BATES. Doroeetl lneloding yee Canada.

elaT. BO Mk 1 1 10 One month 45 1 Three months l. 1 ts Kour months in fclx month IM On year Subscriptions moat be entered for definite perled, end all instruction to be effective aa to changea address or order to Mop Tb New should be given lnv writing. The Nnri can not be rpcm(bls for errors mad IX In Dtructloiw are circa over tb telephone. MARINE CORPORATION" REVIVED A 'dispatch from Newark tell of the mod mcation or the order by which, a year ago, the International Mercantile Marine Corporation wti declared Insolvent.

Re organisation on a permanent basis is pected. This' means that the concern haa made enough fn the last twelve months to wipe out In 100,000,000 Indebtedness. The International Mercantile Marine Corporation was organised about ten year3 ago by the late J. p. Morgan to i wrest control of commerce from British hafada It was designed as a holding; cor poration, and even now It operates dl rectly only six vessels.

The plan was to purchase control of one line after another and thus establish a gigantic cor poratlon. Realizing the danger when Mor ran negotiated for the purchase jof the Cunard line, the British government not only lent the Cunard people money that was badly needed, but required the International company to write Into Its contract a pledge designed to keep British hlps within British registry. In this m'an r.er Morgan's chief aim was frustrated. All that the Americans did was to supply the capital while the British directors held the balance of power. Financiers prior to the war referred to the concern as one of the few serious Mistakes of Morgan's career.

Financially and commercially, the combination was a faHure from the beginning. It was financially water logged and on April I. ISIS, its many millions of outstanding se curities had a market value of only $23, Vti.Zn.. June .10, 916. the same securities had a market value of 1135,42.

In the corporation has changed hands, Frederick W. Scott, a banker of Richmond, Is said to be responsible for the successful reorganisation. He was the first to see the. opportunity offered by war freights, and it was not long before others notably the capitalists back of the American International Corporation Iftrame convinced of. the.

possibility creating an American merchant marine. The exchange of securities made necea nary by the war has thrown practfcally all the stock into American hands. It is now a Question of making American ad dltlons to the fleet and thus circumvent Ing the clause which bound Morgan to the British T.ag It seems that a splendid opportunity is offered "which includes neither government purchase nor sub vention. All that'is needed is to taka ad vantage of the gains afforded by the war. This will be possible through the liberal izing of American marine laws.

It Is the opinion of marine writers that, govern ment aid "will retard instead of hasten ing our progress." CAR SHORTAGE 1MMIXEXT At a result of the recent rail strike agitation Jhe country may soon witness a car famine. Such condition was expected to flevelop. later in the season, but the rall rolTd managers the interstate commerce commission relied on present ad. Vantages to prepare for it. The railroad" In.

'all parts of the country have been gathering rolling stock at points where it wouM be most heeded for the fall movement of crops or the Increase In traffic hlch eiMnes with the early winter "month. To some degree plan was sucresful, snd then came the strike crisis. The railroads declared freight bargoea. Although these lasted only a fw days, a large quantity of freight accumulated. Tho shippers felt that their urgent reeds Justified the seizure of available rolling stock.

In thla manner the comparatively few cars in reserve were absorbed and the railroads compelled to bogtn their work again. In one way it seem that actual good ha jrome out of the threatened strike. The danger, which the whole country recognized, was sufficient to direct attention to the problem r.f the railroads." The imminent car fam lr.e Increases the Interest. Generally ereaklng. railroad managers now realize that reguSatiou is necessary.

The demand is that regulation bo As Senator wUndj. pointed out the other day, there is iio sense in talking about government when government regulation ha not yet, been adequately tested. Ucogntilr.g that the railroad desire regulation, the Immediate concern of this country ehould be to provide interstate commerce with complete protection. IJeg nation can cover one feature and overlook others. It can not be blind, to in one quarter while pointing out In another.

The railroads can hot meet the demand for expansion unless trrre capital is forthcoming, and this capital can net bj obtained ezcept as a pay itnt Investment. We have been attempting to reguUte commerce for many yeara. but ef late congrees has been led into the bypath cf legislation unwisely based upon the commerca clause of the Constitution. WE0 OWNS THE RAILROADS, It In evident that an unsatisfactory truce In the railway wage controversy is not a settlement, and that, sooner or later, the whole subject must again be taken up. For this reason it Is well to consider the question raised by the brotherhood, a to whether the railroad themselves, and rot the public, are the real owners ot transportation share.

In the fiscal year ending June S3, 1S15, there were 8tf operating railroads of what re known as classes 1, 3 and in the Interstate commerce reports, that is, the major roups. These lines had a combined mileage of 2S7.SLL stock was tn Mhe control cf holders, including mm. women and children; national, state nl aavJnK 1 bank; life and fire insurance companies; 'railway and other corporations. Of the 441 nonoperatlng railways, it is stated that stock ownership wa vested In S7.O04 holder. The charge that railways are owr.ed by one another disposed of in a comparatively simple a of of an of fashion.

The total amount of stock of classes 1 and 2 railways outstanding on June 80. 1315. was par value. Sit hundred and sixty eight railways held intercorporate stock control to the amount of and this amount must be deducted from the total out i standing Issue. Of the remaining ownership was scattered among 607,630 stockholders.

A stockholder la not necessarily a man or woman, although many Individuals are represented. In the case of the American railways, the stock holders include financial institutions. More than 2. 500,000 of the stock publicly owned Is held by savings and state banks and similar organizations, which are re sponsible for. their operations to their de posltors.

Aa the bureau of railway news and statistics said: "Depositors In savings banks have an interest more vital than have those dependent on any other class of banks, because savings banks In a preeminent degree are investors in railway stocks and bond Every savings bank depositor has an interest in the investment made by the in stitutions. In a direct manner, therefore, depositors become part owners, of railway for it la their money which the bank invests. This Interest in the railways is entirely" apart from the concern that every citiaen feels for the successful operation of the transportation system of the country. The figures could be further analyzed to show the im portance of the railways to the bulk of the population. The brotherhoods have said that "the public" must pay, but they are in error when they persist In regard ing the railroads as not part of a public concern.

railroads are a part of the public's Investment. There are no doubt many railway trainmen among the ll.OOO 000 or 12,000,000 savings banks depositors. They, may make the discovery" that bus! ness today is a unit, and that government regulation of railroads has "progressed so far as to make it impossible for the rail roads to be affected without affecting the public at the same time. HOUSE FAMINES From many cities among them some in Indiana come reports of house' famines. Enlarged factories have brought into town great numbers of working families.

preparation was made for their care and a a result in at' least two places Flint, and Bridge port, Conn. thousands of people are living in tents or shacks, and many others have purchased flimsy. Insanitary and unsightly houses erected for immediate profit and without a thought for the future. Flint has a considerable portion of the automobile Industry cf the United States. Ita prosperity, says John Ihlder, in the Survey, is due to domestic trade.

Bridge port is the home of munitions factories, notably, the Remington Arms Company. Much of Bridgeport's present conges tion results from war Although some improvement may be expected at the close of the. war, Bridgeport people do not believe that the house famine will end with the cessation of military exports. Th Remington company manufactures many articles which depend on peace for their sale. Bridgeport has era ployed a city planner John Nolen, of Cambridge to suggest a remedy.

Mr. Kolen Cnds that the greatest obstacle to better conditions Is the building specu lator' Who builds carelessly without re gard to light, air or recreation. "The main emphasis," he says, be put upon the single family, self contained. entirely detached house or cottage, as on the whole most tlasirabJe." Bridgeport realizes the necessity, of municipal action, and accordingly has entered upon sort of co operative agreement with a housing company. So great has been the demand for houses In Flint that serious economic burdens have been placed on the whole community.

Subdivisions without regu lation have been put on the market. The building lots are being made smaller and smaller. Basements and windows 'have been dispensed and construction has become so "economical" that a shin gler fell through a roof because the usual timbers had been cut In two. The story told in the Survey indicates that the automobile men of Flint men who have been successful In business realize that the city can only be built properly under supervision. The building problem has literally been forced upon their CATS 8tIU the controversy wages as to whether the cat Is worth its keep.

Certain fan ciers who raise cats for the market, and numerous owners of remarkable cats. contend that even aside from the cat's value as a pet it more than justifies its existence by the number of mice It catches. They maintain, furthermore, that the cat is the Implacable foe of the English sparrow, and that unless Eng lish sparrows are slaughtered in large numbers they will soon become so nu merous that grain raisers will suffer great loss. Cats by the thousand were recently killed in New York aa a health measure, calculated to arrest the spread Infantile paralysis, and many, owners cats discreetly bid their pets until the first scare' waa over. Some have gone so far as to protect owner of cherished cats by licenses which testify to the owners' faith in cata.

On the other hand there Is being1 pur sued in all pa.rts of the country a vlg the protection of orous campaign for bird life. The governm tribute to reckless destruction of birds the present activity of insect pests. In an address delivered before the recent convention at Albany, K. of the state game protectors working under the conservation commission, Cassius A. Johnston, one of the division chiefs, declared that the protection of small birds was essential to the conquest, of Insect pests which annually cost the American farmer millions of dollars.

And he further declared that the greatest foe of the small bird was what the New York Times call "the far from harmless and wholly un nececnary cat.V The spectacle of a farmer spraying his trees and at the same time harboring eight or ten cats la, he ald, a sorry joke. And the same fanner will often not hesitate to shoot a little screech owl, "though it destroys every year more tree girdling mice than do all his cats put together, and kills innumerable injects besides." Tha la only one cf the 1 observations by responsible persona which have lately served to make the discussion 'of economic importance. The admirers of cats must, if the cat is to survive, provide some genuine excuse for Its existence as economic factor in the life and health the community. It has been too severely condemned to make its fight for exjtence on sentimental grounds. There THE INDIANAPOLIS lEWS, THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 7, 1916.

la no desire to begin a campaign ot coldblooded destruction of cats unless the circumstances warrant it. No doubt there are a great many orderly cats which stay at home a seod part of the time and. have no incentive to capture birds, but they are In the minority. It is the gaunt young tiger which prowls through alleys and haunts country bams which causes the trouble. But unless there is a decided change in the present tendency of public opinion, the good will suffer with the bad.

THE MARION COUNTY BUDGET Though the county council made a cut of 133,723 in the estimates submitted to It, there will, nevertheless, be an increase In' the rate of taxation for general purposes from 1S to 22V4 cents, and in the sinking fund levy from 8 to 10. cents. The county auditor says that this lift of the tax rate is made necessary by increased expenses for the coming year, which is no doubt the case. The explanation, how ever. Is not new.

On the contrary, it is the one usually advanced. The question always is whether there is any real ne ce salty for Increased expenditures. It should, however, in fairness, be said that considerably more than $100,000, the pro ceeds of a bond sale to raise monev'fbr x.m of the state board of accounts, been spent. an4 mn and so this amount haa to be made good oy tne present county government. There i i lown.mp.

county ana school purposes. As a result the citizen of Indiananoils will ttw a I Panledt or immediately followed, by leg me citizen or inaianapous will race halation that would "safeguard the fu total tax of 165. Of course, this does not ture" by making a recurrence of the include special assessments, such, aa those ior paries ana oouievaras ana sxreei ira provements. And on top of it all cornel the federal taxes. It may be that the county council went! as far as it could in making reductions.

Jt, certainly was necessary to provide for new those for new roads. for Instance, But none the less the bur den of taxation 1 growing heavier almost every day. Part of the trouble is made I by the people themselves, who are all thejUvered by the President. It Is certainly wniie demanding that government under take new enterprises without stopping to count the cost, This is tru in city, county, state But that very fact ought to imnrees on nublio officials the necessity of the utmost economy in dmlnlstratton. There can be no doubt that enough money could be aavedjn this way xo inane any considerable increase in the tax rate unnecessary.

But business methods do not seem popu lar with those charged with the adminis tration of public affairs. It is easier to go on in the old way, and then to appeal to the taxpayer for more money. And the people are patient and very "easy." Per haps there is not even from them any very Insistent demand that economies be effected. But If things go on aS they have been going the people will, have to take some steps to protect themselves and their Interests. There are communities in Indl ana in which, the tax rate 1 4 per cent.

and over. bltlV The various bird protection organizations and scientific societies hope to protect birds, not only 'in "the United State and the Dominion of but In all the countries of Central and South America ana inu vvcsi. xnaies. Approval or tne bird protection treatyrby the senate yes terday has encouraged them to work for similar conventions with nations to the south. The American people have always been interested in the preservation of birds and frame.

The first special ward ens were appointed by Massachusetts in 179. It was several generations, however. before other portions cf the country acted. Now forty seven 'states and territories I have game commissioners or wardens. while on the federal statute books there 1 la the Mclean law.

deBlsmed tn Trrtr I imsrry liru. uulu me ra. I 1 A At cial machinery, there are state associa 1 tlons and many local organizations, Ing In activity as far back as 1S44. Each of these groups takes a particular In I as userw to agriculture. a similar situa tion prevails in Canada.

On August 21 President Wilson an nounced by proclamation the new regula tions for bird protection prepared by the department of agriculture. Successful enforcement will depend on local senti ment, uame irotectivel Association and the Audubon societies hope that people win acquaint themselves with the law. Only thus. It is believed, may the vicious practices of law violation I be ended. The American Rath Pmlr low wiiroratus 8ramnt wiin umaaa, snows now xarmerj, true sportsmen, bird lovers, conservationists ana others la bored for years in the Interest of birds, As a result of this activity it is asserted that the United Stites "now possesses the most advanced protection for wild on the globe." and effective legal Blfe of any country TSa ARKANSAS COAL CASES Ti Tj Tttifv T7a i sat" rm MnU4 the principle that the Sherman anti trust law tb ewv v' 1 ganisea laoor which seek to restrain orl interfere with the distribution of products! in Interstate commerce, and "jthat the members of labor unions are )labl for whatever Is done by their unloa through dat not f0rget that It was surprising as ueclslon Just rendered by the United LStatea circuit court of appeal in St.

i I'aul in tne Araansa coat case. explained by th Wall Street Jour I uai. w. iUDU tuted under the Sherman law by the I Bache uenraan coal companies of Arkan I as against th United Mine Workers of 1 America and certain affiliated local unions for treble damages, amounting to more than 1.220,000. A suit of similar character was filed against the United Mine Workers by the Pennsylvania Mining Company for xwo.oro damage.

It was! alleged that the union had attempted to prevent the operation of open shop mines In Pennsylvania. West Virginia and Colo I part ct a genera. monopouw lntertate trade for union coaL The plain tiffs charged that, in furtherance of this I plan, the defendant sought to keep nonunion coal out of Interstate commerce by hindering Its production through "strikes, threats, violence, moba, riots and the act.ual destruction py nre of railroad cars and all facilities and structures essential to mining operations I In the district court th damage suits! I ll circuit court decided favor of the plain tiffs charged, that, in furtherance of thla two questions of the utmost Importance. The first is that a labor union, though 1 unincorporated, may be sued in its own name under the anti trust law. The second is that any attempt on the part of labor unions to restrain interstate trade by interference with the production of articles of Interstate trade constitutes a violation of the federal anti trust law.

Section 8 of the Sherman law reads: "The word 'person' or "persons" whenever used in this act shall be deemed to Include corporations and associations existing under or authorized by the laws of either the United States, the laws of any of the territories, the laws of any state, or the laws of any foreign country." It is said that whether associations were suable under these provisions had never been decided. The United Mine Workers contended that their organization was not liable. The circuit court denied this and said: "Srich a construction of the law would relieve labor organizations generally from all llabilitr. Wer do not think it can be said that the defend anta. United Mine Workers of America, and the local unions, are not asssocla lsting under or authorized by law i within the meaning of Section 8 of the Sherman anti trust law." I Not only in his address to congress, I but also in his initial appeal to the rail road manaaers.

Mr. Wilson laid the ut I most stress on the fact that his proposal I tor a settlement without arbitration or investigation was based on the double I consideration that there is now no legal i provision for that roc ess. and that tne pre9ent Bettieraent "would be the last of (the kind, because it would be accom Vo i oL The only bill of benefit to the public proposed in the President's nrosrram was the arbitration measure providing for the settlement by arbitration of all inter "tate commerce labor disputes in the luro Juasms oy tne expressions or om e.r Pmpr and those of individuals. the country 'has paid a high price for the trainmen's eight hour settlement. The Promised comnnnnatlon baa not been de doubtful if the arbitration bill can be passed hereafter when there is no longer the pressure of political necessity to I command the attention of.

congress, I The Public is beginning to realize that it ha8 haa th Privilege of looking for a "L.V!. ljust analV8ig only gold brlck ita i pocket. M. Briand. the president of the French council, is credited with the possession of a wonderful memory and with a ready grasp of the sense of any matter that may presented to him in which he.

quickly disposes of useless verbiage and arrives at the facts. "His rare gifts of improvisation," says Le Cri da Parts, "are (most happily allied to a remarkable mem orT Touring the meetings of the secret committee of the chamber of deputies and ine senate ne aoes not nave a imgu note under his eyes. His dates are precise. All the chain of events Is unbroken. He can cite from, "memory all the figures rel atlve to the progress of the manufac ture of our cannon a.nd our munition.

When he mounts the tribune to speak he may not know the first phrase that he Is Pronounce. Ho never corrects the Proofs of his discourses before; they ap Vf" not his discourses before they are printed, and he doeB not ftVen hav. the read them in. the Official." The theory of the congressmen that the Incumbents of newly created places should not receive more salary than the eon gressmen Is thoroughly congressional. Special fitness or natural ability is, of course, not taken Into consideration; neither is the kind of work that is to be done.

Likewise do the congressmen for get or Ignore the lack of extras attached to such places. Such things as allow ances for secretaries' salaries, etc, add rat charm to the congressional lime Ugnt, consldarlng the fatalities that has undersrone Senor Villa. aMMtrentlv con ltlnues to be one of the undeadest men that ever dodged In and. out of the first page vn tht rr AkMl iMt hi. Ran fva, jobi maybe Mr.

Ford could fix him as pastor In ordinary at the Detroit works. Cheer up! Maybe we can forget our other worries. A shortage of sauerkraut Is staring In. the face. There are lots of other, fellows that are not going to get cut of the trenches by Christmas, either.

The postmaster general aaya that no more postofflce nominations win to sent to cnTess this session. An.n uonl.r We may as well brace ourselves for what may happen. The state water chem list is goli.g to analyze the water of White river Preventing a street, car strike is getting to be a pretty steady Job in New Tork The official suppression of Count von Reveutlow, naval expert of the Berlin Tages Zeitung. Is a great loss to con 1 Kf.1?,?" 11 Z2 countrr. i Ee i patient? Tn a few days now your congressman will be back to tell you how lt 1 liaPnea Tn rflarrlhittlnr iluu vhr, A may oe ai r.

vuuop wnose obiection blocked th passage of the little graft by which capltol" employes were to take a trip nom at government ex Pns' Certain senators should not allow them to become too Indignant in their opposition to the corrupt practices bllL Such an, attitude may excite the sus i plcions Of their constituents. Nevertheless. If Mr. Schlosser expected to keep his wishing record clear It would hav been safer to stay out of politics. xiao to prevent the way of the fair vis iters, and state fair visitors, from becom Ing too monotonous some flat wheel street cars have been introduced.

oh. well, suppose the tax rate does JwJ( from J3.53 to J2.65? Isn't unparal leled prosperity smeared all over the place A notable, and perhaps historical Incident, occurred In Detroit yesterday. An attempt to rob a bank failed. Wlth th present brisk demand for labor ther(J are probably lots of better job than that of being king of Greece Just now. The automobile show; is a bit confusing ll mSk.

a' chplc among so many thoroughly satisfactory cars. But tna equation would be a whole lot worse for you. of course. If you could afford 'to buy a car. I PHILIPPINE DYESTUFFS The bureau of science, in Manila, has prepared a report on dye materials to be found In the Philippine island.

Prot. ably more than 100 species of, plants containing valuable color principles are found in the Philippines, and i.tany more undoubtedly could be readily cultivated. In many cases the colors produced are inferior in quality, being either fugitive or not clean. As the plants that yield dye materials grow wild and often are widely scattered, the supply is unreliable and insufficient: Little has been done toward developing the manufacture of local coloring materials, and until there is an intensive cultivation of the necessary plants, and the capital necessary for the enterprise can be obtained, there Is little prospect of commercial success. Only two Philippine dye plants are comme.

clally important. These are indigo and sappan or slbucao. Others are used locally, but scarcely enter Into domestic commerce, much les Into the external commerce of the archipelago. Indigo has been in the past extensively cultivated In some parts of the Philippines, and the prepared product entered extensively Into the export trade. With the development of the coal tar dye Industry and the manufacture of artificial Indigo, however, the cultivation of in digo as a commercial crop in the Islands practically eease 1.

It is atill cultivated on a small scale in some parts of northern Luzon" but only to supply a lim ited local demand for blue coloring matter. The extraction of natural in digo might be profitable at present, but the rehabilitation of the Industry would take time and a considerable Investment of capital In extraction vats, with the practical certainty that at the close of the war it would suffer from the com petition of coal tar products. Sappan or slbucao la a shrub or small tree, and is widely distributed In the settled area of the Philippines, at low and medium alti tudes. It Is not systematically cultivated. yet In a few districts, such as Gulmaras Island and parts of Panay, It is found In great abundance.

In general, it appears nnlv aa a wldelv scattered tree. It has valuable properties and yields a red dye The wood is i annually exported In considerable quantities to southern China, Brown dyes are obtained from numerous plants, chiefly from the shrub or small tree known as bancudo, or nlno, certain of the mangrove tree, such as ceriops and brugulera, the bark of xylo carpus Ctablgue or nlgui), and from num erou others less important. Many of these barks are useful In tanning as well as In dyeing. Black dyes are obtained from Herltiera lltorall a common coastal and frdm some species of Hibiscus, Sernecarpus. Terrolnalla, and The determining character In most cases is the presence of tannin in large quantities.

Yellow dyes of minor importance are obtained from the seeds of achuete; from the wood of bancal; from Cartha mus tinctorius which is occasionally cul tivated a a dye plant; from the bark of the common mango; from some species of molave; and from ligtang, a woody vine having yellow wood rich In berberine, Berberine Is found in several of the 'Philippine Islands. Cloth dyed with it does not show as bright a yellow as that dyed with turmeric, but It has the virtue of being much faster to TAUSSIG ON THE CRISIS In a letter to the New Tork Evening Post, Professor F. W. Taussig, the well known economist, says: With profound rert and disappointment I enter a protest against the way la which President Wilson, and apparently congress, fol lowing the President's lead, deal with the rait road strike situation. I proteat bocauao the policy is one of rar render.

ar told the business of the coun try must go on, that arbitration has failed. that such a situation must net be allowed to develop ajraln, but that now we are helpless. what does this mean? rnat a body of men may call on society to stand, and and that oclety mufct submit. This Is a. cowardly attitude, and moreover one that invites con tinued recurrence of the t.sme fatality.

The men will naturally smother or put off the measures designed to prevent recurrence; they will ketp themselves tn the same dominating position, A machinery for arbitration Is in existence now. It has been very lately remodeled In accordance with the very wishes of the railroad brotherhoods. But they will not allow it to be used, nor will they to any other that Is The same attitude is sure to be taken in the If submit to the threat of ruin now. may be certain that tha same threat under the same essential conditions will be enforced again and again; and not only by these men, but by any and every body of men who hsppen to be stationed at vital industrial points. The Justice of the mvn'e demands Is rot ma terial in such an emergency as the present.

Nobody pretends that there is any obvious cry ing Injustice, any intolerable evil which can not be endured for a moment. My general sympathy la with the eight hour movement. Whether this particular demand for an eight hour day, for these men under these proposed conditions, ought to be granted. do not undertake te say. It la precisely the matter on which impartial investigation is needed.

But one's attitude on the eight hour question Is not material. Th essential question Is: Shall any body of hin be permitted to secure their demands by threatening society with a complete breakdown of. Industry? I say permitted shell they be encouraged; The attitude ot th government ha been one to encourage the. policy of rule or We are told that a crisis of this kind must not be allowed to come again, is an admission that It ought not to be allowed to come now. rrrsiaent iion a wise course would have been to urge the men, as well as the railroads, to get together: to tell the brotherhood leaders, not that the country was helpless before them, but that he would pub licly urge their members to remain at work, and would 'call on th entire community to stand by them in fulfilling their duti.

and a "board of arbitration, or a congreaaiona I commission. or congress itself, could and trusted to consider their demand. with equity, Ne one can predict with cer Ulnty effect such a course would have bad in heading off a striae, or in preventing It from atrasgUng the country If not headed have been consistent with the principle of ar i bitratlon to which uch unqualified adhesion is given. told to quota from the mes aaga to cocgreie that the eight hour principle la on which "society lteeir or any arbitrators who represented publla entimnt'. would be likely to approve.

Then why not urge it on Z'Y'i" JJ ,7 or the arbitrator to approve and enforce, with deliberation and with careful consideration of th method of It. appucation to th parUcul.r Tny organised body of men Is likely to pres. tr advantaae. reaardleee. or Ignorant, or wnai 11s aeiaaa aciion entails on th community.

No body of men can be trusted to set a Judge on their own de manda. bold no brief for tb railroad, and would iKt be supsoeed i indorse all tht their representative have said en thla contro versy. UI jney una now a aouna principle, and the men stand for an unsound principle. And that principle, stripped of all inessentials Is; We should not grant the demands ot any set Of men merelr because they threaten great damage If we refuse. Night Life lOhio State Journal! A farmer and his wife moved to to city for a few weeks of metropolitan life." They got what they went after.

They stopped with their whose next door neighbor waa a Bohemian sort of fellow, and who frequently gat net ed to hi bom, after the theater. aon ef tha tr iu and Uietr friends, who talks, ate. sang, la ghed and kept up a lively and chei tlm tut early morning. Tb farming pair endured It for a while, and then packed up their thing nd returned to their, rural home, where the wicked ceaae from troubling and the weary are at reat. and "where there ain't no night life," which quoted clause contains tb whole purport of thl incident.

"So night Uf.w There is a blessing in the very idea. Night Is all right for study, but there la toe much ef it for fun. and when you Snd a people addicted to this night life they art not sound and solid enough to found a civilization upon. SPORTS AIMID WAR "If you have been squatting on the sea bottom not a mile from Helgoland for two days, and have been fired at and chased and otherwise inhospitably received, you naturally crave for some form of recreation." writes a correspondent of the London So he tells how a signal was sent from the 77 to H. M.

S. Outrageous a challenge from an officer In the submarine to one In th larger ship to a game of A cutter took the two ashore. "An extraordinary thing is this craze for strenuous amusement possessed by the average Briton." continues the correspondent. "On the way up to the first tee the golfers passed a football ground where twenty two brawny matlows' were sweating and puffing in an endeavor to force a ball between two upright posts. Yesterday most of these men had come tearing through the Cattelgat with an excellent chance of striking anything from a mine to a boat on the.

run. They had had but little rest In the last three days, and normally they would have been sleeping the sleep of the just. It Is the same behind the lines In France. The natural antidote for hard work and overstrained Is hard play, and so these men who should by rights turn Into their bunks and hammocks directlv they come back to don flannels or shorts, and spend lavishly all the energy that has been left to them after a week of watching in North sea weather. As our two golfers tramp, the links the commander of the Outrageous' is.

stretched full length amongst the heather lining the bank of one of the highland streams ten miles away. Below him In a deep brown pool I uch a trout as will make hi reputation In the ward room for all time, and he Is painfully wriggling to a position from which he can lob his fly gently Into the ripple The golf game Is described, but there is an interruption. "At the sixth tee a perspiring orderly appears," continues the story, "with a message. The submarine man reads It and groans. 'I'm he says, and off he is.

leaving 'guns' to finish his game alone. "Well out in the North sea an ugly craft wallows In the swell. She has an assignation with a small black funneled destroyer that presently appears. Bashfully 'the submarine sinks below the waves, like some coy maiden discovered bathing. Her alone remains above the surface.

The former golfer is standing. with his eye glued to the lens of the gratleuled periscope sight. He is satisfied and suddenly there is a thud and a rush that tells that a torpedo has started on its way. The tanks are filled, and the boat submerges completely, waiting for the concussion of the water that should follow. She stays down the allotted time for the range, but nothing happens, and slowly she rises again to the surface.

As the periscope prism get above the 'water and catches the target In Its the golfer looks disgustedly at the smudge of smoke that marks the retreating destroyer. A 'Sliced, he says, and gives the order to return to harbor." WILSON'S SPEECH The New Tork Post commenting on President Wilson's speech of acceptance praises highly the form and quality of the latter, but concludes as follows: Wbea one reads this speech one can not but regret all the more that Mr. Wilson has not lived up to the promise of four years ago. Had he but remained true to the prlnctplea he had so often avowed, his re election would now be a moral certainty. Far more than the criticism of his adversaries, Mr.

Wilson' own shortcomings nd compromises have today put many thousands of his former supporters In a quandary as to whether tn voting for Mr. Hughes they wlU not, after all, be choosing the lesser evil. From this quandary th President speech, for 11 its power, will not re lease them. Richer for the Red Men Leslie's The Osage' Indians are the richest, people in the world, and soon they are going to be even richer. Their wealth Is registered at $20,000 per capita at the Indian office.

Secretary Lane, of the Interior department, recently gave hi approval to new leases running for Ave years, whereby the Osage Indian rent their valuable oil lands in Oklahoma to some of th big oil companies. Tbi will Increase th average annual Income of the 7.000 Osage Indian from t00 to (1,000 per annum. The leasee will cover about 680,000 acres. It is estimated thst the annual Income of th Osage tribe under the new leases will aggregate at least 2.600,0:o. In addition to the $3,233,000 received In casb at recent sales, as against about 1500,000 here tofore received annually under th old 1 which expired last March; J.

Bedford No premium on th cofri you name. O. O. City The poem asked for may be ea th city library. T.

F. W. What 1 meant by th ppl of the eye7 HOW Ola me epi means the pupil of the eye, the little round opening In the center which contracts or expands under the Influence of light. The expression la of ancient origin and 1 ued a figure to indicate sometmng very worn or highly prised. It occurs several timea In the Bible.

How mny Vnlted States senators Tnrtiana had who wer ntlv Hooler? Please give th nationality of all from the be rlnnlnr Indiana naa na ki.im nators who were natives of the state. Th following shows th period of service and nativity of each ene: James Noble, 111! to 1831 Virginia: Waller Taylor. 1S18 to 1825, Vir William Hendricks. IlKS to 1837. Feuiwyl u.

iui to 1S32. Soutb Caro vania; rwi" ltna; John Tipton. 1S3I to iver H. Smith. 1S37 to IMS.

New Jersey Ae, S. White. 185J to. ihs. asw iw, Hannegan.

to 149. Ohio: Jess D. Bright. 1MS ,0 1863. New Tork: Jsmes Whltcomb.

1S47 a Its. Vermont: Charles W. Ct heart. 1S53 to ml I.lanof Maderla: John, retit. 1S5J to 1SS5.

New York; uranam H.nrv t. Lane. 1S1 to 187, Ken tucky; Joseph A. right. 1 to vania: P.vld Turpie ml to n1r, 0 M.S nS 1OT to lMi VrhielTlw? toS 18SS.

Ohio; ranlel W. Voorneea. 1S to isw. OI; Charles W. Kalrbanka, 1W to 1805.

Ohio: AUert 3 Beverldg. 1W 1911, Ohio Jame. A Hemenway. 1 to Shivelv. 19W to MM.

Indiana; John W. K.rn, Ikl InTrhoma. Taggart. 191.. Ireland.

Civil War Soldiers. Marlon Will you please rlv om information about Indiana votnrin th fleM during th civil war. tat to whether any effort wM made by either rty te allow tiem to vote in the field Tbe state, determine the qualifications tor voters and the methods of voting, and hence during the civil war th matter wa in the hands of the state. Bme tate arranged to take the vote of their Soldiers in the field, and the government issued elaborate regulations making for fair voting and safeguard ng the ballots But Indian made provision for taking' the vote her cltisens In the field. Those who wer St home on furlough were te vote, ana ll is reueutT inw tered in.

IndlanapoU and composed enUrely Masaacnuseiis is 1 of cttls of Massachusetts, east a heavy i several precincts about Jndianaoolle. And it 1a said that little effort was made te atop soldier hom on furlough from voting for a few of their comrade in th field. But was not sanctioned by law. (2) What political party gave soldiers living la national military homes 4a Indiana the right to vote at general elections, and when was the law passed? Th only person who, having satisfied th requirement of th state law in regard to sex." residence and age. are or ever have been disqualified front voting are convicts "undergoing a sentence of Imprisonment on conviction of any felony or misdemeanor." See th stata Constitution and th acts 1SSL QUESTIONS AUTUMN AND HEELS The spring may play strange tricks with our fancies, but they are as nothing compared with what the autumn does to our' heels.

Tou must know yourself how it is. The spring sets you dreaming, but the autumn sets you tramping, and you tramp away into strange and lively adventures. Of course, the adventures do not exactly belong to your beela In the heels have little to do with them, for there are places where your heels can not go and things that heels can not understand. It Is, however, your beela that primarily responsible. There is a springiness tn them these fall days that wtll not be denied, and the springiness seems to get Into the rest of you.

It is so contagious that it actually affect your way of looking at thing and people. When the autumn first gets Into your heels you are pretty sure to take to the country roads. The morning Is the time for that, the morning when the dlstrnce is wrapped In haze and the nearer is clean and the sun and Wind are gay. The automobiles have not begun to stir up dust, and you have thing pretty much to yourself, although as far as that is concerned, your heels can find many a path along the river and many another through the pastures Where th automobiles never go. You hustle along out there with your heel pounding merrily, and there Is no time por desire for loafing or dreaming by the wv.

Home how you are glad when trer is a hill, for It I a marvelous tfclr.g the way those heels take to It, and it a though you could go swlcgleg alor.g ifce wfcl country over, and the tprinrle get Into your vol and into yowr ttjmjgUut and into th very trt Xvj. As a matter of fact, yaw fci tit at all particular wh tey ld yr. They can er.Jcy th fcewsi a a the country a Ur.s a thy fi th springiness In tfceev ws.d a Ux nxVxs bllea and street car. yaf many a small trt ivti vt A.rm that the folk li) IM ayj street cars know nottl; lit tle about. Perhaps tha I tie best time for trmf1r.g tKoee queer little streets, the evenfog wfcT the lights are being retectanCy In the smalt houses where the that work are at supper, atsd in th liiU shops where men and women are counting their floor profits.

The advehtsrea do not sound so Interesting or Strang after' all, but lt is your heels that we are talking about, and the livelier the heels th livelier th Imagination. If you let the autumn get into your heel you will find an adventure behind every door and window along the way. GRAND CANYON GEOLOGY United State GeolNglcISurveyJ Th walls of th Grand eanyoa in Aiizor.a form a great natural geologic section in which each layer of reck la in Its original position relative to those above and. below it. In few other places, however.

Is tb story ot the upbuilding cf the earth's crust ac plainly and Impressively told. As a rule the geologist who would decipher th records of th rocks must get a bit her and a bit there. II may find the edge of some beds exposed In a river bluff and others sticking Out on a steep noun. tain He determine by fossils or other mean the order in which the bed wer deposited, and by putting all his Information together he constructs what he a columnar section for the district In which he is working that la, a section showing the order, thickness and character of beds. Such a section discloses the strata that form the upper part of the earth's crust at that place.

Just as a slice of layer cake shows at a' glance the various layer of which It, Is composed. After a number of district in a region have been studied and their general columnar sections determined, the geologic history of the region can be learned by comparing these sections. Jost as th engineer who. 1 drilling for low grade copper ores compares his drill records end thue learns the outlines of the ore' body. Such a comparison of the beds at one place and another shows how certain beds change In character and.

thickness from place to place or even thin out and It enables the geologist to draw some conclusions as to the former distribution of land and sea. to distinguish the deposits laid down in deep water from' those spread by rivers over flood plains, and to reconstruct ln imagination the course of events at a tlm long before th beginning of th Grand canyon. Loans to Allies INew Tork Post Th amount cf loan whl the French government as been authorised to make lnc war began, to tb weaker allies, now foots up 775 000.0O0. The British government a. iTSns allies and to it dominions new exceed it.OH 000.000.

Reader, Martinsville Th Spectator, front which Th New quoted recently. Is a weekly paper published In Londiai. England: price by mail, 14 cents a number. Dally Header. Ulddlesbore, Ky.

The law regarding the lntereat of a second chfidleas wife In the estate ef her husband whea children by the first wife are living was explained here on September J. Is H. Why some state hav representatives In congrvss and some delegates What Is the difference between thera? States have representatives and territories have delegates, though only on to a territory. Tcrrl torll delegate receive the same salary as iuu neaea members, aut have no vote In the house. At prenx there 'Is oae delegate each from Alaska, Hawaii.

Philippines and Porto Rloo. City How did the ugly weapon called bowie knife, get Its name? Was It evf used as the weapon In a duel It ot Ita name tram its inventor. Bowie, a native of Tennessee, and later resident ef Texas. Ia early times when good hunting knives wer hard to gt, Bowie had on md by a blacksmith from womout la. Of good length, well sharpened and fitted with a banriie.

It made a formidable weapon wnica manufacturer afterwsrd Imitated, adopting the nam Of it inventor. From being used a a hunting knlfs it tecome deadly weapon in personal affrays. Bowie himself used It In a fight in which he killed his antagonist and afterward sent the knif to a manufacturer to be used a a sample. Eowle reported a saying "it la a mor trustworthy weapon In the bands' of a strong man than a pistol, for it will not snap." Bowie assisted In gaining the Independence cf Tesas and was killed at th battle of Alamo in along with David Crockett and many others. There Is a Bowie county tn Texas, iwmd for him.

We do not know that th bowls knlss "waa ever used in regular dueL. but It has figured in many affray. W. R. M.

To settl a dispute, did President Lincoln, at any time during the civil war offer to take back the seceding states, and allow them to retain their slaves, snd re ente. the Cnkm If they would give up th struggle? did not make uch aa offer and could not nav a one so without authority from conrrru but early la the war he mad it clear that bis main object was to preserve or restore the Union, whether with or without slavery, in hi annual message of December, issi. after the war bad begun. Mr. Lincoln expressed bis purpose "to keep the integrity of the Cnlon viwiiucni mm uia i onim rr Tear.

xn a rem ia i hnu wim policy la ISC be said: "If tnere be those who would not serve the Union unless tber could at the same tins save slavery, I do not agree with them. If there be those who would not erv th Union unless they could at the same tlm destroy slavery, I do not agree with them. My paramount object ia tbis struggle is to save tn Union, and Is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Cnion without freeing any slave. I wo ld do It.

and if I could save It by freeing all th slaves I would do It: and If I could save It by freeing some and leaving others alone. I would also de that." This shows vsry clearly that his paramount object was to save the Union without reference to slavery But he did not make any distinct proposition on th subject to the southern states, AND ANSWERS Sub Umbra vTnen I hslf close In silences ef r'rt The much Imagining eres that still des'r Landscapes forever gren. skies ever clear, 1 TJ onc retreat utitnovn. "here In an arch the sacred olives stretched, Rust.lng In undertone, their ashy boughs. TT on cerpet or rreen grasses, starred 11 chr'nthraurn snd daisies white, feu like a ratnahewer Cakes of gold; lights.) up with unexpected fire The unstable wtnss of flreflles.

anl the shen Of meraJd Insects butxing In the flowers. 1" tremulous flake cf golf. Tne sunllfht throush th. boughs, and seemed to be Songs of cicadas flaming through the air. And the gren aras.

protected ths bourns. The gold chryanihemunjs, and daisies Astonlhet, heard th ur.famlHar song. Lulgl Capusna (translated from the Italian by O. A. Oreenel.

SCRAPS Philadelphia ha school children. Chicago has lawyers, a gain of In a Cleveland In May had 1.000.000 streetcar" rider daily. Colu.Tnbus. now pays city street laborers a day. China yearly import worth of various kind of leather.

Wilmington. la to hav a new free library building, to cost siOCOXI. Isaac Gkill. age ninety, of Millvllle. N.

is a devote of 'dancing. Color blindness is id to have been'dis covered by the faraous Dr. rrlestrv In XTTS. Havana In April, jry and June hirpei If the United tales crates of plr.e IPI Thunderstorms are rarer In fan Fran rIx than jn any other part of the United giatea, lvsnla will plant black cherry lrs in th state reserves to provide food fir bird. Th' trtt lighthou on thl continent wa in 1713.

at the entrance to Boston harbor. A rack that ran hung on a radiator enabl a person to warm Ms feet lert Invented. The Waupun. (Wis.) prison permit eon vict to take university correspondence education course. la 131 there were" only twenty six peranto societies In the world year later there CO.

Uruguay ha prohibited the manufacture or tor. port a tion of alcoholic beverage of strength exceeding 45 degrees. Electrical apparatus taking current from a light socket has been invented fore th growth of Indoor plants. A locking device to prevent the. us of telephones by unauthorized persons has been patented by a New York man.

The a overnment of India will extend Its wireless ytem until every army post has a station in the charge of a officer. New York city factory 1514 output wt valued. at More than ll. 0.1 persons were employed and paid $Ml, ooo.ox). Deerfleld.

recently entertained a reunion of 100 descendants ot Sergeant John Plymrton, who settled in DerAM in 1Q. To pick Up fallen fruit raptdiy a Calt fornlan has invented a machine resembling a lawn mower, the work being done by a pronged roller. To keep a woman's hand warm In a muff a nickel cylinder which, when heated on a stove, will retain the heat for hours, ha been Invented. In Rutland, Vt, there is a currant bu.h growing high up in the crotch of a tree. The bush bore fruit and Mrs.

O. Lv Gilbert used Its berries to make Jellies. Already the parent of twin boys, a'g ten, Mr. and Mrs. Fred J.

Hawley, of Seattle. have adopted Mary end Margaret Erlckson, twin girls, age sixteen months. J. II. Mandigo, the oldest emrloye.

of a company manufacturing farming inipt rnent in resigned hla position recently after service of Anyone years. The United States Is supplying Enpi.in with poplar timber for making matches, which la preferred to the aspen wood formerly obtained in Rula Two ctrgoes of 600.000 feet of poplar have been shipped. Two young deer earn into the dooryard at Dr. Greene's at Solon, a the family were eating their breakfast. They appeared lost, and strayed around the yard, even coming within four rods of the house, and one of them lay down.

They stayed around the yard for eorn time. An "American company haa received grant of a franchise to operate motor' freight and pasenxer service on a Tcad to be built from PekiiiK. the capita! of Chtr.a. to th western tbummer palaceV by way of the Marco Polo bridge. This road, it la understood, be the first step In an extensive plan for public road construction in the vicinity of reklng.

Seventy years sro Edward Kverett Hale. In advanc of his time, worked for. the betterment of prison condition. When he, preached to prisoners, says the Rev. Calvin Stebblns in the Christian Keslsterr he addressed them as "my never giving them occasion to feel that there was anything peculiar in their sltu ation to separate the preacher from Ms congregation.

a rtav itv fMlch. firm has bought from Henry Stephens everything In. Waters, which has a population ct 2 Amnnir the things bOUrht ap two mllls, one planing mill, ten mile of r.sr rnw nilft raj roaa. tour ve flat cars, two miles of tramways. electric light plant, waterworks Vtem and sixty houses.

The property whl be dismantled and taken to I3ay City. Amsterdam papers ar discussing the advisability of enlarging and deepening the North sea canal and dispensing with the locks at Ymulden. thus giving a free waterway without locks from the North sea to Amsterdam. Only by doing thl. tt 1 aald, can Amsterdam hope to check the steady inroads on her trade mode by the rapidly progressing port cf Rotterdam, which has sea level canal connec tion.

a announcement by th war of tflce in Berlin give the" following list of the ten most kicwmui avUtors, with the number of allied flyirig machines brought down: Captain Bolke, 19 Lieutenant Immelmann (dead). 15; lieutenant Wlntgens, 11: Lieutenant llohndorf. 10; Lieutenant archau (dr.id). Lieutenant Mulser. Lieutenant Baron von Althaui, Lieutenant LefTers.

LleutenantWalx, 4. and Lleuter.ant Ger liche. 4. A firm situated in a small tow.n In New Brunswick. Canada, id grlr.1in(f refuse elara shells and mixing them with otlr materials for us as commercial frtil, Izera In the past many towns on where the clam industry sl ounds hrtve utlllxed these ehells.

if at H. for i roving city roads. At one on Maine shore it Is reported at ei 5C.00O bushels of clam shells are If ft A lowlng the winter clam canning iv The cost of utilizing the product i ri grinding at the factory is the expen of transportation by vesstln. Upon hi return to London from Inly, Guxlielmo Marconi, in an Interview unh British jourralists, pave the information: "New developments ill r. rf only make wireless in this war more enicient man ever rfrre.

but will make it mow difficult fir tn enemy to intercept messag cs. Thc i prove'ments wlil apply to lntror in aeroplane and airships. HHh. 1 1 aeroplane have been at a disadvar.ta with airships In wireless work. though they were, able to transmit they have not icn la receive them.

This was eeauRe the reiving signal wa too faint to be tlriguihed. beiri? drowned by the of thl aeroplane englre. Now ve been able to ftronj the rr fir.al sufr.ciently to enable to fce take.

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