Hartford Courant from Hartford, Connecticut on January 13, 1935 · 45
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Hartford Courant from Hartford, Connecticut · 45

Hartford, Connecticut
Issue Date:
Sunday, January 13, 1935
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iff ffftliT H !1)lY T " Magazine JsCi iWyJi' dU BookReviews PART FIVE Pages 1 to 8 THE HARTFORD DAILY COURANT: SUNDAY, JANUARY 13, 1935. Perfect News Photographs Now Travel With Speed of Light Inventors' Dream and Editors' Hope Realized After 50 Years 40 Leading Papers Use 'Wirephotos' But Only Readers of The Courant Benefit By Marvelous New Inven tion in This Vicinity Associated Press Maintains System For First Time In History Pictures And Stories They Illustrate Arrive Side By Side periecc photographs of news events, transmitted over telephone wires with the speed of light, from such distant points as San Francis to and Miami, and from intermedi ate points, are now coming into The Courant office, day and night. Since the dawn of the new year repro ductions have appeared daily in The Courant which has, exclusively in . this territory, the benefit of this marvelous invention. It has been underwritten to the extent of $5,- 000,000 by some 40 odd of the lead ing newspapers, including The Cou rant, acting through the Associated Press. No invention in many years has caused such excitement in news paper offices, and The Courant has been flooded with queries as to "How 5s it done?" The successful transmission of photographs by wire a dream of inventors and a hope of editors and reporters for 50 years Js now a reality. Its potentialities are enormous, lor not only may photographs be sent, but in the same machine, documents, maps, fingerprints, contracts, or anything of a black and white graphic na fcure. With Speed of Light. Photograph , pictures of news Events are now being carried across the United States by electrical im pulses as fast a .light, -side by side with the telegraphing of the news stories " they illustrate. Courant readers, since the first of the year, have been getting news and pictures from distant points in the same issue of their newspaper. In many instances, now. the race Between the written word and the photograph is a dead heat, so far as Courant readers are concerned. Eleven Inches a Minute. The Wirephoto system links 24 leading cities of the United States with coast to coast in a 10.000-mile double-circuit of leased wires for the transmission of pictures. Ordinary photographic prints or other graphic material can be sent without preparation for transmission and received on negatives. Transmission is at the rate of 11 square inches a minute. The light beam which "reads" the picture moves at the rate of an inch a minute across a picture 11 inches deep. A picture 11 by 17 inches the size of half a newspaper page is transmitted in 17 minutes. An eight by 10 picture takes eight minutes, a seven by nine picture seven minutes, two five by seven pictures seven minutes. The customary size of pictures for transmission is eight inches by 10, equivalent to a five-column width in a newspaper. The Wirephoto system is available seven days a week and 24 hours a day. Its scheduled daily period of operation is 16 hours, but this is extended whenever important news pictures are available outside the regular hours. Simultaneous Reception. A picture sent from any of the 25 stations will be received simul taneously at all others. The nationwide circuit can be split, however, at Kansas City when desired, to enable papers in each half of the country to send and receive pictures of regional interest. The Wirephoto equipment attach station consists of a sending machine, a receiving machine, "terminal bays" or switchboards for each, and a power plant to supply an absolutely unvarying flow of current. The equipment . weighs two and one-third tons and occupies 240 square feet of floor space. It Is the first of its kind for the transmission of telephotographs. The sending machine transmits, and the receiving machines record, a picture in lines one one-hundreth of an inch wide. The cylinders of the machines, upon which the picture is mounted or received, thus rotate 100 times a minute in perfect synchronization. The Wirephoto circuit also operates as a telephone circuit for communication between Wirephoto stations when a picture is not being transmitted. This enables coordination of transmission. Experimenting Since 1875. The history of the American effort to transmit pictures by wire goes back to 1873, but for decades the progress was imperceptible. At last, however, technical improvement has gone so far that the Wirenhoto machines oDcrate in full daylight, send positives and receive I fcdbQ. tmm jHj r fcia JmhjI t! I . j .ft ' Wirephoto terminal bavs. Left receiving Day ana me senaing Day. ana discipline the transcontinental negatives on a special type of photographic film, with marvelous- ly accurate results and complete detail. In fact, the photographic prints received from the Associated Press Wirephoto machines are so good that when compared with the original photograph from which the reproduction was made only seldom can an expert see even a minute difference. The possibility of picture trans mission by radio has been studied since the beginning of radio re search and especially since the development of the photo-electric cell and improved- amplifiers. Pictures have been sent by radio between New York and San Francisco, but are subject to interference by atmospheric conditions, from which the present Wirephoto transmission is entirely exempt. A Day's Operation. The Wirephoto day begins, in each of the 24 equipment rooms over the country, with the pressing of a button which starts a power plant. The equipment room occupies 240 square feet of floor space in which, in addition to the power plant, are sending and 'receiving machines for pictures and a "bay" or switchboard for each. The 'bay" contains a talking circuit with loudspeaker over which any point in the network may talk to the others. The function of the power plant is to furnish an absolutely constant source of voltage to the sending and receiving machines, merican Trained Steadies China's Shanghai (AP.) Prompt action by Dr. H. H. Kung, minister of fin ance in the nationalist government. apparently has enabled China to weather thus far one of the mast serious monetary crises in its his tory. The minister is the same "Chaun- cey is.ung wno auenaca several j American colleges at me uirn oi me century and won degrees from Oberlin and Yale. When he took the job a few months ago of trying to balance in come and outgo in this land of hard- spending militarists, the be-specta-cled doctor . shouldered heavier burdens than his predecessors had borne. An unprecedented situation had been created by United States gov ernment buying of silver on the world market. The resulting upturns in price started to drain China's silver stocks, the silver dollar mounted in value and export trade slumped. Dr. Kung promptly slapped an ex port tax on the white metal, checking the outflow and cheapening the Chinese dollar, to the benefit of exporters. Then he formed a syndicate of Chinese banks which oversubscribed a stabilization fund of $100,- 000,000. Dr. Kung is descended from the sage Confucius in the 75th generation. He is 53 years old and the father of two sons and two daughters. Mrs. Kung is a daughter of the : . DR. H. H. KUNO Won degrees from Yale, Oberlin. t, , V - v I J , , I l f . : im!- T Mat to right are the talking circuit, the me taiKing circuit is usea to control 2a - city Wirephoto network. for no commercial source of electricity is steady enough. It con sists of special generators, regula tors and storage batteries. The generators are the sources of power; the storage batteries and regulators keep the generators steady. The operator, having started his power plant, adjusts the sensitive machinery by meter readings and tunes the light valve mechanism of the receiving machine, making the tension on a little ribbon vibrate at a natural frequency of 1200 cycles per second. This operation takes five minutes or less. Then the control station in the New York office of The Associated Press, which maintains and operates the Wirephoto system for the 40 odd newspapers of the United States cooperating in its use, opens the talking circuit. All points report that they are ready, and each reports what pictures it has for sending. Exchange of Pictures. Detroit may have a picture of a serious fire, New York some photographs of celebrities just arrived by ship or an important news photograph from Europe, St. Louis, a view of an airplane crash, and Miami, by the morning plane from South America, a picture of yesterday's flood damage in Panama. The control station knows of other pictures which will be coming along as the day's events unfold, but meanwhile - it schedules the order of sending for those awaiting trans- Monetary Expert Tottering Currency famous "Soong dynasty" of China. Her brother, T. V. Soong, is former minister of finance. Her sisters are Mine. Chiang Kai-Shek, wife of China's generalissimo, and Mme. Sun Yat-Sen, widow of the famous revolutionary leader. The Kungs recently celebrated their silver wed- dint? nnniversarv Dr. Kung, like other members of the Soong family group, is a Christian. He shows keen interest in church affairs, especially in the field of child welfare and education. The importance he attaches to plenty of schooling as a preparation for public service was shown when he was minister of the interior. He picked for his assistants 10 doctors of philosophy and the department became known as ."the ministry of the PH. D's." SENDING MACHINE - D ' UIKKOH'O LIGHT V VALVt I I ' I CMKiAGl ef.CCLL STAB! I KCT - MOTOO fONTHOL " . CAOKIEIt A MOTO CONTKOL OJC VO'OK CONTKOL ANIL CAMlfJS. I iKVfiry' X COMMON EQUIPMENT !-."ril RECEIVING MACHINE J j ( I 7n r - LI6MT I I VALVt I LOW PASS u.LIlt iANO AS VMC I , W. I llCNf VALVE tTE JL ;!i:r. KILTtK HIMMt,,. ! M?!"""' j trv.v, .: ,. j c-itoo- "" ,eo"o- Sam m'o "y : . HEC.nct; cuindik J ' I CLV'C" I I To the reader who understands electrical cngintc. tion which is the Associated Frcsj Wirephoto. e r v vvv n r tja , a a a a rrrfw 14. 1? i t f A f i w iivfe a. y . v. -J a a ( t: r. rw v v w t -- ' 61'. swj3ft VrwrWifff-r-rrrffTiriiihiyN ih J"'fr-hva'-'-'w--iA-iii,nni win mir u hil..l--' Pictures being transmitted on the Wirephoto sending machine. In the foreground are a driving motor and a clutch. The motor runs continuously. The clutch enables connection of the motor with the cylinder when a picture is to be sent. mission. New York, it decides, will send the European picture; Detroit, St. Louis and Miami will follow in order with theirs. Before New York begins to send a picture it transmits for a few seconds, onto the line and into each receiving station, an amount of power corresponding to the lightest and darkest parts of the picture. Each point adjusts its power to the receiving equipment at the proper value for those two limits, knowing that the receiving machines, when adjusted to receive the two extremes of light and darkness in the print, will handle normally all the intervening shades. All this has taken less than 10 minutes, or has been accomplished in two or three minutes if an important picture was ready to send. Then the signal from the bay of the sending station three interruptions of power tells every point to press the button on its receiving equipment, operating the relays which prepare the circuits to start. A few seconds later a smaller button is pressed, on the sending machine, starting in the same instant every receiving machine along the line. A cylinder on the receiving ma chine at every station, 17 inches long and 12 inches m circumfer ence, has been loaded with a negative upon which can be received a picture of any dimensions up to 11 by 17 inches (the size of half a newspaper page). The negative is fastened around the cylinder and enclosed in a lightproof container. Receiving Machine. This negative is then exposed to light from a lamp focussed through an aperture one one-hundredth of an inch wide, which opens little or much according to the strength of the current caused by the picture on the sending machine. Where the portion of the incoming picture is very black the aperture which ad- j mits light to the negative is nearly closed; where very white, the aperture is almost open. At the end of the picture the re-: ceiving machine automatically cuts SENDING t rii't" eouALizc" AMUIIUJ' ?0O-JO0- AO0" 0E SUKKLY ISUIfMtNT I ' ' I CIOTCX I I TEST I I I I I I CONTKOL I I MISC. I I a&ram . -. r f. off. The cylinder is lifted off and taken to a darkroom a step sway, where the lightproof container is unlatched and the negative removed and developed. If the picture transmitted was of maximum size, reception took 17 minutes. Development of the negative takes five more. As soon as New York has sent its picture, Detroit becomes the sending station to transmit its fire photo. As soon as each receiving station has lifted the cylinder with the exposed negative off its receiving machine, it puts on another loaded cylinder, having enough so that it need not wait for one recently in use to come back from the darkroom. But perhaps before Detroit. begins to send, Cleveland comes in on the talking circuit and schedules two strike pictures of prime news value; taken a few minutes before. If the editor in charge at the control station decides that these are of greater news importance than the pictures awaiting transmission at Detroit, St. Louis and Miami, he may tell Cleveland to send its photos at once, and direct the other stations to follow it. Thus through the day and night the schedules constantly change. Fresh pictures are available as the world wags on. Those who enjoy electrical studies will delight in reading about the advanced science of telephotography represented by Wirephoto service from which Hartford Courant readers ftave benefitted since the first of January. A positive print wrapped around the sending machine cylinder is scanned in strips 1-100 of an inch wide by means of a light beam focussed first on a light valve aperture similar in all respects to the light valves used in sound picture work. The light valve chops the beam at a frequency of 2400 cycles, passing a pulsating beam which is turned through 90 degrees of focus sharply on the surface of the picture. The light beam travels horizon EQUIPMENT TERMINALS AM RECEIVING EQUIPMENT 1 I should explain quite clearly the complicated but history-making inven- j s f 1 "T Wirephoto receiving machine. The incoming picture has been recorded on the negative within a hghtproof cylinder, winch the operator is now removing. This goes to a dark room a step away. tally at an inch a minute. The cylinder, rotating at 100 revolutions a minute, is approximately. 12 inches in diameter, thus giving a scanning area speed of more than 11 square inches a minute. Since the light reflected from the picture surface is proportioned to the tone density of the surface, the pulsating beam is thereby modulated with the tone values of the picture before reflection to a photocell of the gas-filled cesium-oxide-on-silver type. k The optical system is made up of a condenser lens to focus the beam on the light valve aperture and an objective for focussing the pulsating beam onto the picture surface. Turn through V0 degrees is accomplished with a small stainless steel mirror, and parabolic surfaces also of stainless steel gather reflected light from the picture for passage to the photocell. , ' Tiny Light Valve. The light valve itself is an aperture 1-100 of an inch square with two parellel duralumin ribbons, 6-1000 oi an inch wide and 5-1000 of an inch thick, partially covering it and connected at one end to form a loop. A magnetic field at right angles to the plane of the ribbons, furnished by two permanent magnets, and a 2400-cycle current through the ribbons furnishes the shutter action. As the ribbons vibrate on their inward swing the aperture is closed, Coachman of Five Popes Recollects Riotous Funeral of 'Captive' Pontiff By AXDRLE BERDIXG. Rome. (AP.) The coachman of five popes, Rinaldo Jacchini, aged 90, is spending his declining years pensioned at full pay after 70 years of service in the Vatican. ' Interviewed on his four score and tenth birthday recently, Jacchini showed himself regretful that the automobile should have deprived him of active work. He retired five years ago following the sighning of the Lateran treaty which ended the pope's seclusion. The Vatican , stables were then abandoned, the black horses sent! away and garages built. , Jacchini saw three periods of service, v one before the Italian troops captured papal Rome in 1870 and the popes could drive where they liked, another during the - "captivity" from 1870 to 1922, and the last rCE'VlNO AT SCNMWt, A fuSES. LAKH fUSIS, LAMPS. C TS Alt A KCT S. AUK K(CT MNU CAKKlCK AMK TEST 4 MISC KANCL Ji Jlt TCKM AUf U(M AM CAK.lt. 4 KOTO. CONTKOL OJC. MOTO.CONrX MOTOKCOMraoi " KANtL KAWIL BNO ritl 3KD PASS F'L.TC LI&MT VALVE COUAl'UK Ct ATS t CATS CT 4AT ST SATS AKKANCtUCNT 0' TERMINAL AT XtfCf . . ... rST wwasffi. -- "X Ji and on their outward swing the aperture is opened. Due to the small quantity of light that strikes the photocell cathede. its output is extremely low, and a three-tube dry cell amplifier having the high gain of 77 decibels is used to step up the power to a usable quantity for use on the network. Proper filters eliminate possible ex-tranous frequencies, and equalizers to eliminate frequency distortion are inserted following the high gain amplifier. A single-tube amplifier, having variable attenuators, furnishes the regulation necessary just before passing the power to the line. Line Power One Milliwatt. The normal maximum line power is one milliwatt. That value represents maximum reflected light to the photocell, or . the maximum highlight of the positive print. The minimum output is adjusted to 14 decibels below maximum, the proper value being attained by inserting an adjustable mirror in the path of the lightbeam before it strikes the picture surface and cutting into the beam just a sufficient amount to send directly to the photocell the minimum light required to get the n-aecibcl contrast between the maximum and minimum represent mg respectively the lightest and darkest tones in the picture. On the network, the overall gain is kept constant by automatic gain lators wmch remain inoperative following settlemenjt of the Roman question. "In the days before the automo bile the Vatican had 60 horses,' Jacchini recalled. "Four were har nessed to the pope's coach for ordi nary drives, and six on state occa sions." JSefnri TR7n Vio Armi r., n;.. IX on the 17.mae tri to Castel f!anMf v, u;,V C wat ponun spent the summer there. He remembered Castel Gan-dolfo because he was given double allowance there. Asked what was the most momentous coach-trip of his life, Jacchini replied without hesitation: "The funeral procession of Pius IX, the night of July 12, 1881. when I was almost thrown into the Tiber." Pope Pius had died in 1878. His reign was marked by animosity of anti-clericals who objected to his attitude toward united Italy. In 1881 it was decided to carry out his wish and bury his body in , the Verano Cemetery at the other end of Rome. "The transport was to have been secret," Jacchini recounted, "but a menacing crowd gathered and when we reached the Sanf Angelo bridge some of the fanatics shouted: "Throw the coachman Into the river.' "I had four horses under my reins and urged them forward. As we pulled clear of the mob the Catholics in the procession shouted they would defend the Pope's body, and we proceeded without much trou ble." RINALDO JACCHINI :-. 111 I j- l S ' , I Moving Light Beam Reads, Each Picture ScencJIalE-Sizc of Newspaper Page Can Be Transmitted to All Parts of Nation in 17 Minutes Detailed Technical Description Given People Who Besiege Us With Questions: 'How Does It Work?' May Learn in This Article during the transmission of a p:c-ture. They do their work during the intervals between transmissions, compensating for progressive atmospheric and other conditions that must be contended with on a 10,000-milc network of wire. Governing Tone Variation. At the receiving stations the incoming power is regulated by a variable output amplifier similar to that in the sending circuit, after which it is sent through a full-wave rectifier and filters which eliminate the 2400-cjcle carrier, leaving the varying direct current representing the modulation or the actual tone variation of the picture. This varying direct current is used to operate a duralumin ribbon shutter on the light valve of the receiving machine to vary the exposure of a negative, enclosed in a lightproof container on which the picture is received. The principle of operation of the receiving light valve is similar to that of the sending light valve except that only one ribbon is used. It is caused to move by the varying direct current representing the tone variations in the picture, and not by a constant frequency. This ribbon is tuned to the rather high natural frequency of 1200 cycles, and suit ably damped so that all movement of it is forced vibration caused by the incoming picture signal. In this ribbon circuit is a tuned equalizer which prevents unwanted or transient vibrations. By varying the side motion of the receiving light valve ribbon, the opening through which the light reaches the film is varied proportionately, thus obtaining film exposure in exact proportion to the original tone values of the print on the sending machine. This light beam is adjustable in width, so that, the exposure lines may be made to merge and be practically invisible on the finished print. Scanning Synchronized. The scanning of the negative is exactly at the same rate as the scanning of the print by the fending machine, the cylinders rotating at the same speed and the beam moving horizontally at the same rate. Constant rotational speed for all motors within extremely small limits is obtained in a rather unusual manner. A controlled oscillating circuit, maintained by a tuning fork kept ; rontf nt temperature, furnishes .)hzyS.2 ri"pr. Part of the power in ;i, j ci.c.i t i used in connection with an overloaded tube and filters, to supply the 2400-cycle car rier for the sending light valve. Part of the power is fed to the grids of a two-tube pha.e detector. Mounted on the same shaft as the cylinder driving motor is a 300-cycle generator which feeds the plates of the phase detector. The tubes act as a full-wave rectifier to control the output of other tubes which furnish current for the driving motors, which are separately excited, 300- cycle synchronous. The output of the tubes furnish ing power to the motors is depend ent upon the phase relationship of the 300 cycles from fork and inductor generator. By suitable circuits the speed of the driving motors is thus kept at 100 revolutions per minute within one part in 300.000. The fork' is sealed in a container, the temperature of which is kept constant by a tube -controlled thermostat. A constant power source is obtained from small generators suitably filtered with electrolytic condensers and storage batteries. Special Film and Paper. A special type of film to bring out finer details in news pictures has been perfected for use in the Wirephoto service. Special photographic paper for Wirephotos also has been evolved, to increase the contrast aad character of the picture-.. It has been possible to develop to a new point, in Wirephotos., the fineness of news picture shading and detail, because vast improvements in telephotographic equipment. Incorporated in the Wirephoto service, enable transmlwlo.) of pictures by wire across the continent without loss of subtle photographic values. The Wirephoto film is coated m ith. an emulsion created to bnnj out In the darker parts of ncs photo, details which ordinarily would be lot in solid unrelieved black, "Itie film !s sensitive to every tone in a phonograph, and capable of picking up at (Concluded on Tit 1.) i

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