'ailu 'journal OPINION PAGE SATURDAY, SEPT. 7, 1974 s wriiten by jam« Gray and Cha/ies Editorial Comment What is the U.S. doing in Ethiopia? The United States has begun escalating the delivery of arms, including M-60 heavy tanks and helicopters, to Ethiopia, and this raises some questions. But the questions go unanswered. The American Embassy in Addis Ababa refuses to provide answers. "We don't discuss the specifics of what is in our (military assistance) program," the U.S. charge d'affaires told a Washington Post reporter who asked. Well, someone in Washington had better discuss the specifics. Why are the arms being sent? Is it to counter a threat from Soviet-backed Somalia, and if so, is there such a threat, and why then, isn't action being brought to the international level — to the United Nations, for instance? Even if the UN was not inclined to solve the problem, at least it would be given an international airing. To whom are the arms being sent? To the Ethiopian military, which has been chipping away at aging Emperor Haile Selassie's throne to such an extent that he has practically been unseated? Are we encouraging the final coup? Or are we on Selassie's side? And in any case, what business is it of ours who's on top in Ethiopia? Apparently we've made it our business, and maybe we should, since we do have strategic interests in the area — the Suez Canal and the Persian Gulf are in the general neighborhood — and the Russians have made Somalia their business. The point is that, with our experiences in Indochina still both fresh and malodorous, it's the business of the American people and their representatives in Congress to be advised of the potential profits and losses before the bills come due. What others say . . . HERALD AMERICAN, BOSTON STOP THE SCHOOL SNOOPERS With little fanfare, Congress has acted to put a long-needed brake on a kind of repellenl snoopery which is all too typical of official hunger to compile secret dossiers on just about everybody. Throughout the nation, in recent years, educational authorities in a host of federal- state programs have been subjecting students to a wide variety of quizzes which invade the most personal aspects of the students' lives. These quizzes, dreamed up by bureaucrats in the guise of confidential evaluation surveys, inquire not only into the sexual lives, racial attitudes and moral concepts of the students but also into the details of their parental relationships — including how Mom and Dad behave at home. Youngsters from grammar school through college have been suffering more and more of this intimate poking around, the results of which disappear into files whose potential use is as suspect as the specious explanations offered fo.r compiling them. Congress, in adopting a bill sponsored by Sen. James Buckley, has backed the conviction of the conservative Republican lawmaker from New York — and of a growing number of informed parents — that something must be done to correct such uncontrolled intrusion of family privacy. Under his bill, federal funds would be withheld from any school system or college that refuses to let parents examine the files pertaining to their children — the files of personal evaluations, quiz answers and other information now generally withheld as confidential. The Buckley Bill, if signed into law, will by no means end the Big Brother attitudes of educational supervisors. It should, however, prove to be an effective control over the many highly questionable practices now in operation. with Lee ST. PAUL, Minn. (AP) Gov. Wendell Anderson does not plan lo ask for the resignation of University of Minnesota Regent 1.. J. I-ee, Bagley, an aide said Thursday. lx>e lias admitted that religion was a minor factor in the selection of C. Peter Magrath over David Saxon as a successor to university President Malcolm Moos. Ted Smebakken, the governor's press secretary, said Anderson believes the question of religion "should be totally irrelevant" in selecting a university president. However, Smebakken said Anderson had not talked to Lee since it was reported last Friday that the religion of candidates for the university presidency was considered by regents. It had been alleged that Saxon, vice-president of the University of California at Los Angeles (UCI^A) was the regents' first choice as university president, but was rejected because he is Jewish. Magrath is Episcopalian. Smebakken said Anderson plans to meet with Lee "in the near future" and will discuss the matter with him at that time. lyee has denied that he voted against Saxon because he is Jewish, but said religion in general was "a factor but submerged" in the selection of a presider.i. Policy over survey funds criticized BRECKENRIDGE, Minn. (AP) — Dwaine Hoberg, Republican candidate for lieutenant governor, said Friday that a $75,000 study of marijuana is an example of "wild, misplaced spending habits" by the administration of Gov. Wendell Anderson. Hoberg said the $75,000 grant had been made by the Stale Welfare Department to study recent research on marijuana, assess public attitudes toward the substance and look at the legal aspects of any change in the state marijuana law. "A $75,000 study on marijuana is not what the hard- pressed taxpayers of Minnesota need," Hoberg said in remarks prepared for a Republican meeting. Hoberg said he opposes legalization of marijuana. •Merry-Go-Round 1 Cuba's prisons hold horrors • By Jack Anderson 'DON'T HOW, WR-SPOT WILL (SET WHATOK 5 LEFT ITO DINNER!' Of President Nixon David Eisenhower discusses final White House days WASHINGTON (AP) - In the waning days of Richard M. Nixon's presidency, his family concluded it would be useless to fight impeachment to the bitter, predictable end, says David Eisenhower, Nixon's son-in- law. "It became our conclusion that history will treat this administration just as unkindly simply for the sake of grinding the country down for another six months, given the economic chaos ..." Eisenhower said. Business News Harry Johnson listed in Who's Who Nixon appointees being pushed aside WASHINGTON (AP) President Ford appears to have used the American foreign policy establishment as a refuge for people whose past identification with Richard M. Nixon could embarrass the White House. Two of three major diplomatic appointments announced Wednesday fall in this description, accoreing to U.S. officials and some foreign diplomats posted here. The sources also included the White House decision to restore presidential chief of staff Alexander M. Haig Jr. to military duty, possibly as commander of NATO armed forces. Ford named George Bush as the new head of the U.S. mission in Peking, ending his 21- month role as Republican national chairman. Appointed ambassador to France was Kenneth Rush who served as Nixon's economic policy coordinator and who once taught law to Nixon. "This certainly is not a question of Kord trying to show he is in command of foreign policy by these' appointments," a State Department source said. "These are not his people." A Western European diplomat agreed. "He's showing the door to some men who could give him trouble, but he is not hurling them either. These are good jobs, but they are out of the American sight-line." The evident exception to the effort to send abroad former key Nixon associates was the decision lo name former Kentucky GOP Sen. John Sherman Cooper as first American ambassador to East Germany. Cooper was not closely tied to Nixon. Bush and Rush, however, were tightly attached to Nixon and his policies. As GOP chairman, Bush spent nearly all his tenure defending Nixon's Watergate role and scoffing at those who cast suspicion on the then president. The potential problem with Rush has nothing to do with Watergate. His troubling connection was to Nixon's economic policy and Ihe current inflation crisis. Ford "wants whatever credit he can get if inflation goes down and he doesn't want anyone saying 'Ford blew it by keeping the old Nixon people' if the economy keeps floundering," one administration source said. The President reportedly has been under pressure to move Haig, who retired as a four-star general in 1973 to takeover the White House job following the resignation of H. R. Haldeman. He, too, was a major defender of Nixon during the Watergate era. Fergus Falls bank debits up 21 pet. Bank debits in Fergus Falls during July showed an increase of 21 per cent from the same period a year ago, according to statistics released by the Federal Reserve Bank of . Minneapolis. In dollars Fergus Falls bank debits volume during July was $44,218,000. In the same month of 1973 the figure was $36,614,000. For Minnesota the July volume of bank debits for reporting cities increased 30 per cent from July of last year. Debits fofor the 12 months through July this year increased 27 per cent from the previous 12-month period. The increase for Fergus Falls in that period was 29 per cent. Here are figures for other cities in this area. They show debits for July this year, July last year and the percentage ol change. Alexandria $50,393,000; $31,386,000, up 61 per cent. Detroit Lakes $29,690,000; $24,656,000, up 20 per cent. . New York Mills $6,137,00; $4,434,000, up 38 per cent. Pelican Rapids $8,164,000: $7,454,000, up 23 per cent. Perhan $9,164,000; $7,454,000 up 23 per cent. Wadena $20,111,000: $20,093,000, no change. Elbow Lake $6,874,000 X4,972,000, up 38 per cent. Wheaton $8,076,000 $6,744,000, up 20 per cent. Barnesville $5,274,000 $3,542,000, up 49 per cent. Moorhead $85,884,000: $67,982,000, up 26 per cent. Breckenridge $14,894,000: $8,923,000, up 67 per cent. The latest edition of Who's Who In The Midwest lists Harry C. Johnson vice president and treasurer of Olter Tail Power Company. He is a native of Ashby and joined Otter Tail Poiver as controller in 1949. Previously he was controller at St. Paul Foundry and Manufacturing, auditor with the Minneapolis Star and Tribune, cost accountant with the Snyder Drug chain in Minneapolis and cost accountant with the Glacier Park Company, East Glacier, Montana. He is a member of the Rotary Club, Elks Club and director of the l,ake Region Hospital and of the Northwestern National Bank of Fergus Falls. Piano teachers' workshop set Sept. 18 FERGUS JOURNAL COMPANY Established 1873 Charles Underwood, Publisher George Marotteck, Business Mgr. -James Gray, News Ed. Glenn E. Olson, Advertising Mgr. Polished by Fergjs Jci-rpal Co at?UE Oar.n.rg. Fergus Fal's. M-nr MSJT.da-'y e«crpt Sg-xJays *"d HOI days SKOrtd ciaupotFag? oa'd AI F-ergus Fans. Virn SURSCR:PT'ON RATES Dc:ivereo bv earner , S? 30 [X* rro By ma 1 n a3varK* W. nnesc'a. 1 vr . 118 00. 6 rrc<,VOOO 1-1=5 S5 50 O'w s'*'« 1 yr . !?» 00. t mm -S'S US. 3 r-.oi . M 00 i-fc-.vip'.n'c-rt -n It- ^ TELEPHONE MEWBEP.OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS Prns ••, priiiied e'dvvte:* 'o "•« t« 'or reou ' tai on CF an local > Ads. $nl> S FJ4540I •.pti<yiv Accoun's. 7J6 ? Fergus Falls area plane teachers will meet at the Fergus Falls Holiday Inn Wednesday, Sept. 18, from 9 a.m. to noon to hear a composer and writer, Dr. Amanda Vick Lethco. The workshop will emphasize a new series, "Creating Music at the Piano." Dr. Lethco holds bachelor ol music degrees in piano and music education, a master of music in piano and a doctorate of humanities. She has studied at Juilliard, Chicago Musical College, Columbia University and Northwestern Universily. She will discuss a fresh approach to the challenges of piano uvtruction. There will be no charge for piano teachers to attend the workshop sponsored by Roy Olson Music Company in Fergus Falls. They may register by calling 739-2246 or writing to Roy Olson Music. Hair stylists complete courses Mary Kaluza and Barbara Molter of the Inn Styles Beauty Salon, Fergus Falls, recently completed a week of advanced training at Bruno Schools of Hair Design, Toronto, Canada. The women participated in advanced classes involving hair cutting, blow combing, iron curling and hair styling. In a luncheon interview three weeks after Nixon surrendered the presidency, Eisenhower, 26, discussed the family's reaction to the politically fatal June 23 tape recordings and Nixon's decision to resign. "I think he was surprised by the fact that his family was willing lo go through it, if need be," Eisenhower said. He also said it would be a good idea if Nixon ran again for public office. "He's been defensive ... he's been bitter. He's been all the rest in the last year and a half," Eisenhower said. "But in calmer times under different circumstances, the man has a heck of a lot to contribute. "If he went into the Senate, I think it would be a good idea ... But I'm positive he's not thinking about it now." Asked if he thought Nixon lied to the country about his knowledge of Ihe Watergate cover-up, Eisenhower said, "I don't know. I don't know what's on the rest of the tapes. I'm not going to pass judgment on that." Nixon was reluctant to tell his family about the damaging contents of the June 23 tapes, Eisenhower said. On Friday, Aug. 2, three days before admitting publicly that he had attempted to thwart the FBI's Watergate investigation, Nixon telephoned Julie and told her "something very serious had come up, that he'd probably have to resign." He summoned daughter Tricia and her husband Edward Cox from New York and close friend C. G. "Bebe" Rebozo was in town at the time, Eisenhower said. The family gathered ii. the privacy of the second floor of the White House. The then- president supplied transcripts and instructions "to think about it a little while and come back," Eisenhower said, without revealing exactly what Nixon told his family. On Wednesday, Aug. 7, a day before he announced his decision to the country, Nixon told his family he would resign. "... We were concerned whether the smoking pistol was here or not. whether the innocence or so- called guilt. However the issues were resolved, as a family it was best to remind ourselves that 1968 was not a mistake, that if the Nixon administration came to a premature end, so be it." Eisenhower stressed that the Watergate tragedy has not ended for Nixon. "There's still something very direct and very threatening at issue right now," he said. "He's already been subpoenaed ... It's clear he has financial trouble ... but certainly a candid memoir would be worth a tremendous amount of money.' 1 WASIUNOTON - A less Ijombaslic Kidet Castro is now on his best behavior, as he strives to bring Cuba into the society of Western ilcmisplicrc nations, liul bidden from Ihe prominent visitors he lias enticed to Cuba is an unspeakable world of political oppression. We have written about Ihe terror und torture in the prisons of Brazil's right-wing dictatorship. Now we have received evidence of similar tactics in the prisons of Cuba's left-wing dictatorship. Ju.st as Bra/ilian political prisoners smugglei! (heir stark .stories to us through priests, Castro's prisoners have managed to smuggle letters, affidavits und other evidence to Die U.S. witb directions that (hey IK: delivered to us. We have checked out their charges, us lx.'st wo could, with former prisoners who have Ixjen released from Castro's cusloily. We are willing to make a personal inspection of Ihese prisons, if Caslro will permit it, as we also uffered to do in Brazil. The letters and affidavits describe a horror which, for the unhappy souls who tun afoul of Castro's political police, usually begins with a frightening, after-midnight arrest. "You and your family are all fast asleep," states one affidavit, "when the tremendous knocking at your front and back doors starts. Atout six or seven G-2 men, armed to the teeth with Russian machine guns, rush in your house, screaming, pushing'your family, searching your home, not allowing your wife or children to go to the bedroom to put their clothes on. "They insult you with every filthy name in (lie Ixxtk. Finally they push you outside, with your family crying, and put [yoin into a (1-2 car." Tin: victim is bustled to G-2 headquarters where, according lo the affidavit, "you are taken into a small room, have all your clothes taken away from you, searched even within your body, then given a pair of mechanic overalls without any sleeves." The interrogation takes place in a small office. "The officers all put their guns on the table in front of you to scare you," recounts the affidavit. "Then the questioning begins, with insults, the threats, the false • Strictly Personali Public life sadly lacking By Sydney H. Harris *Cuba Continued from page I one of the fundamental principals governing relations among its members. The Ford administration, according to diplomats, has done nothing to interfere with the anti-embargo movement, but its public statements suggest a continuing anti-Castro posture. This is viewed largely as a gesture to the many conservative governments in the hemisphere which have followed Washing- Ion's lead over the years in support of the embargo. Meamvhile.lhe State Department denied reports Friday that American officials had mcl in Switzerland with Cuban Foreign Minister Raul Roa who is on an European tour. The department described as "without foundation" a report that Koa met with U.S. officials in Bern• Why should social life — in its basic human sense — be so bleak in the most affluent and ingenious of countries, which is the U.S.? If we can do almost anything with our physical and technical environment, why have \ve done so little (and that badly) with our social environment'.' In his book of not too long ago. "In the Country of the Young," John W. Aldridge observed, "We are the most housebound anil houseproud of nations, liecausc there is so little worth leaving the house for." And this, he points out. is •vliat the visiting European notices first about us: that we liave no place to go except home. "With all our preoccupation with facilities, we have somehow failed to provide any that would in.ike our surroundings attractive or that would tempt us to move out into them and live attractively with one another." Then he puts tiis finger prcciesly on the problem: "We suffer from having no village life or public life or cafe life or market-square life. It is because we lack these things that our social life is so perfunctory, so deficient in warmth and spontaneity." Everyone who has (raveled in Europe, north or south, knows that the really fascvating part is not the histuni spectacles in the guide-booV<,. or oven the cultural arvl Artistic exhibits, but the street life itself. People live in the streets, in the sidewalk cafes and arcades and markets. A street is a place to be in. nnt to go through. A pub or a cafe is a place to be with others, not to Ret drunk in. Small towns in America have liltlc more "village life" than big cities. The teen-agers have nowhere to go, nothing to do but tootle around in their jalopies looking for "the action." They are bored sliff, and it is this boredom that generates delinquency, not anything else. Urban planners have concentrated on niiiniinolh office buildings and shops in an effort lo revitalize the downtowns of big cities: but their efforts arc doomed lo failure because they make no provision for the ambiance of street life. Where people do not walk easily, and cannot sit easily watching olhers walk by, there is no attractions to lure familiers from their suburban rabbit- warrens and their deadening television charades. It is not only the colonial town-meeting lhat needs to be revived pollitically; it is also tin' sense of community that needs to be rekindled - and this can be done only by making (iiir social environment warm anct comfortable and participatory in the sense of the old British pub or (he Italian trattoria. The swinging singles bar and the bowling alley arc shoddy and ineffectual substitutes for facilities that should bring us together in fun and freedom and the "fraternity" MI- have largely lost. accusations, where everybody is accused of being the CIA." If the prisoner doesn't give the answers they want, he is held alternately in overheated and frigid cells. "The heat is so bad, you faint. And then you are brought in a special cell that has air conditioning so cold you freeze. All this tu make you lalk." The prisoners arc permitted to see llieir families once a week. "You are shaved by a gorilla, without shaving cream, then taken to ;t small room, all bugged, with your investigator sitting next to you, and are given six or seven ininules with your family, after your family iias been given a lecture to tell you to confess." The letters and affidavits described the food in Cuban prisons as scarcely enough for survival. At La Cabanas Fortress prison, 1KO men were crowded into galleries without windows, nothing but an iron gi ill at the end. It was so hot in the summer that the prisoners cnuldn'l bear (o wear clothes. When it rained, the water washed into the living quarters. "At one time," states an affidavit, "we were not allowed to have water lo shower for 23 days." Another describes the hour in the sun which the prisoners were permitted once a month. "Hut we had to run in double lime. All the time we were running, we were being hit by the guards with clubs, bayonets and iron sticks. Then down again into Ihe hold, again being hit by the guards." Most of all, the prisoners dreaded the "viquisa," as the cell searches were called. "The guards come into your gallery ;\fter midnight," according to onu account, "and line you up outside or against the wall. They start to throw everything you own outside and douse water all over your bed, which normally is thrown from one end of the gallery to the other. "You also gel beat up. When you are taken outside, nude, the militianas (women guards) stand in the patio and laugh at your nakedness." At the Isle of Pines prison, the prisoners were welcomed off the ferry boat by "guards on both sides of the gangplank, hitting us as we passed by Ihem, and I mean hitting with clubs and sticking us with their bayonets, just for fun I guess," slates one letter. The prisoners at the Isles of Pines got up at 5 a.m. and worked until 6 p.m. "cutting weeds, planting trees, picking fruit." "God forbid," reported one former prisoner, ' l if they should catch you eating a piece of fruit. The guards would make mince meat out of you with their bayonets." The prisoners were subjected tn daily beatings, according to the smuggled documents. "There was seldom a month in the Island when they did not kill one or two prisoners in the work camp, or cut them up, crippling them, or something," charges an affidavit. The documents give detailed descriptions of the prisons, enclose typical menus and name some of the most brutal guards. One prisoner, risking almost certain retaliation, has asked us to tell his personal story. This will be published in a future column. Rabin, Ford meetings set WASHINGTON" (API - Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and President Ford will meet twice nexl week, a spokesman says. Press Secretary Jerald F. lerHorst said on Friday the President would welcome Rabin at a formal ceremony on the South 1 xiwn of the White House Tuesdnv afternoon. They'll Do It Every Time _ — . _._ ,:\. - WHAT KtPf YOU? you've BEEN 60N& FOR HOURS.'.
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