Calls for resignation Increasing Nixon admits blocking investigation WASHINGTON (AP) - Facing the gravest crisis of his presidency, Richard M. Nixon bluntly told his Cabinet today he will not voluntarily leave the nation's highest office. Demands for Nixon's resignation mounted swiftly after his disclosure Monday that he tried within a week of the Watergate burglary to thwart a crucial phase of the FBI's investigation of the case. Some of the strongest pressure for Nixon's removal from office came from his staunchest supporters in the past. All 10 of the Republicans on the House Judiciary Committee who voted against all three articles of impeachment approved by the committee said Monday's disclosures had caused them to reassess their positions. Many of them said flatly they would vote for impeachment if Nixon does not resign. Nixon got solid backing from the Cabinet members. Participants in the meeting said Nixon stressed that he would not resign. "The President sincerely believes he has not committed an impeachable offense," William Simon said. "He also believes the Constitution provides for a process that should indeed be overriding." Simon said there was no discussion of the 25th Amendment, a constitutional provision under which a president can tempo- rarily step down and allow his vice president to become acting chief executive. White House officials have confirmed that both resignation and 25th Amendment options have been considered by the President and firmly rejected. Simon said while Nixon didn't ask for expressions of support from his Cabinet "of course he Daily Journal 101st YEAR N0.184 FERGUS FALLS, MINNESOTA56537 TUESDAY, AUGUST 6, 1974 SINGLE COPY IQc Ford refuses to make comments on impeachment WELCOME TO DUCK CITY — Not quite »nre Hit b r««ny tree that the ducks and geese are tame and won't hurt anyone, Sunii Bjergo, 7, Mary Gookin, 4, and her twin sister Elizabeth, stand on a bench for just-in-case protection. From Montana, they are the grandchildren of Mrs. A. C. Bjergo, Fergus Falls. Lately, the birds at Lake Alice have been making a real killing off kind-hearted bread throwers. (Journal photo by LeAnn Kuntz) WASHINGTON (AP) - Vice President Gerald R. Ford says he is suspending his public defense of President Nixon against impeachment in light of Nixon's statement that new evidence "may be damaging." Ford said Monday he had not seen the new evidence and would stand on his views that the President is innocent of any impeachable offense "until I have reason to change them. "I have come to the con- elusion that the public interest is no longer served by repetition of my previously expressed belief," Ford declared in a prepared statement. He said "the whole truth should be the objective of the (impeachment) trial before the Senate." The vice president issued the statement two hours after President Nixon released transcripts showing he authorized, • six days after the ..Watergate break-in, an effort to keep the FBI from investigating evidence that Nixon re-election money was involved. Ford said that since Nixon says the evidence may be damaging he, Ford, will make no further public statements on impeachment "until the facts are more fully available." Ford also said that as the man who would succeed Nixon if the President were impeached and removed from office he properly has no constitutional role in the Senate impeachment debate and so should not daily involve himself in it. As the first vice president in his position — Andrew Johnson had no vice president, Ford said, "there are no precedents to guide me except my own common sense and my conscience. "Both tell me to let my widely known views on the impeachment issue stand until I have reason to change them and to refuse further comment at this time," he said. "Another compelling reason for my decision," Ford said, is that taking sides in the impeachment debate within Congress would interfere with his pledge to be a "ready conciliator" between Nixon and Congress on other issues. got it." "We've gota country to run," Simon said. "Let's not have this tragedy obscure the fact that wo have a lot of determined people at work" on such problems as the economy. Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger emerged to tell newsmen U.S. foreign policy traditionally has been bipartisan and that "no foreign government should assume" any alteration in this because of Watergate. Kissinger ignored repeated questions about whether he personally would favor a Nixon resignation. Secretary of Labor Peter J. Brennan was asked if any Cabinet members indicated they wanted out of the administration. "Everybody's staying on," he responded. "They've got a job to do." The stock market surged dramatically ahead today, rallying around what brokers described as hopes for an early resolution of the impeachment issue. The Dow Jones average of 30 industrials jumped 22.09 points in the first hour of trading. Summoned on short notice, every member of Nixon's Cabinet came to the White House for the late-morning meeting which followed Nixon's admission Monday that he tried two years ago to thwart a crucial phase of the FBI's Watergate investigation. As the meeting was convened, one White House official summed up reaction to Monday's disclosure in two words: "It's bad." Newsmen and photographers who were admitted briefly at Ihe start of the Cabinet meeting found the President flanked by ah unsmiling Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger and Defense Secretary James R. Schlesinger, puffing on a pipe. To some observers, Nixon appeared somewhat tired and drawn, although he smiled once while engaging Kissinger and Schlesinger in animated conversation. Agriculture Secretary Earl L. Butz, en route to the Cabinet meeting, said in response to a reporter's question that he "absolutely" supports the President. A White House spokesman said, "all items" would be open for discussion at the meeting, but another official said, "It's not a strategy meeting." About three hours earlier, Nixon's top White House aides gathered in the office of staff chief Alexander M. Haig to assess reaction lo Nixon's admission .thai he tried to block a portion of the FBI probe and that he withheld evidence from Congress, the public and his own lawyers. Two sources indicated that James D. St. Clair had made a veiled threat to resign as the President's Watergate lawyer unless Nixon made clear that SI. Clair was not informed of the content of the transcripts until last week. Another source said St. Clair told Nixon, "You make a statement or I will." St. Clair's assistants Continued on page 8 Council approves site for Reserve center GERALD FORD Here's text of written statement by President WASHINGTON (AP) - Here is the text of a written statement issued Monday by President Nixon: I have today instructed my attorneys to make available to the House Judiciary Committee, and I am making public, the transcripts of three conversations with H. R. Haldeman on June 23, 1972. 1 have also turned over the tapes of these conversations to Judge WEATHER FERGUS FALLS AREA Sunny and a little warmer through Wednesday. Clear to partly cloudy tonight. Lows tonight around 60. Highs Wednesday upper 80s to near 90. High Monday 85. Overnight Low 57. At 8 a.m. 61. At noon 82. Precipitation 24 hours ending 8 a.m. today, none. Temperatures One Year Ago Maximum 90. Minimum 65. Sirica, as part of the process of my compliance with the Supreme Court ruling. On April 29, in announcing my decision to make public the original set of White House transcripts, I stated that "as far as what the President personally knew and did with regard to Watergate and the cover-up is concerned, these materials — together with those already made available — will tell it all." Shortly after that, in May, I made a preliminary review of some of the 64 taped conversations subpoenaed by the special prosecutor. Among the conversations I listened to at that time were two of those of June 23. Although I recognized that these presented potential problems, I did not inform my staff or my counsel of it, or those arguing my case, nor did I amend my submission to the Judiciary Committee in order to include and reflect it. At the time, I did not realize the extent of the implications which these conversations might now appear to have. As a result, those arguing my case, as well as those passing judgment on the case, did so with information that was incomplete and in some respects erroneous. This was a serious act of omission for which I take full responsibility and which I deeply regret. Since the Supreme Court's decision 12 days ago, I have ordered my counsel to analyze the 64 tapes, and I have listened to a number of them myself. This process has made it clear that portions of the tapes of these June 23 conversations are at variance with certain of my previous statements. Therefore, I have ordered the transcripts (be) made available immediately to the Judiciary Committee so that they can be reflected in the committee's report, and included in the record to be considered by the House and Senate. In a formal written statement on May 22 of last year, I said that shortly after the Watergate break-in I became concerned about the possibility that the Continued on page 14 WASHINGTON (AP) — Rep. Charles W. Sandman Jr., R- N.J., who vociferously defended President Nixon during the House Judiciary Committee inquiry, said today he has called on Nixon to resign and that he will vote for impeachment if the President does not do so. Among the 10 Republican members of the committee who had opposed all proposed articles of impeachment, Sandman was the fifth to change his mind because of Nixon's disclosure that he withheld evidence from the committee. Four others said they were reassessing their position and the 10th could not be reached for comment. One of those reassessing his position, Rep. Delbert L. I-atta of Ohio, said in an interview this morning: "I've always felt that in order to impeach a president you had to have direct evidence and here the President was furnishing the direct evidence himself." Latta, asked if his vote had switched, said: "Well, we haven't cast that vote, but certainly you can't defend that one particular charge...." Latta appeared on the CBS Morning News. Sandman told a news conference that the transcript of a Continued on page 8 Girl saved from drowning A two-year-old Dent girl was rescued from drowning by mouth-to-mouth resuscitation after .she fell into a county lake Monday afternoon. Audra Zitzow, Dent Route 1, fell from a dock on Big MacDonald Lake in Edna Township about 4:45 p.m. Monday. The child was submerged beneath five feet of water for more than a minute before being rescued by her mother, Priscilla Zitzow. - "The child had turned blue and was not breathing when she was pulled from the water, according to the Otter Tail County Sheriff's Department. She was taken by Perham ambulance to Perham Memorial Hospital where she was released after regaining consciousness. By PHILIP HAGE City Editor The Fergus Falls City Council, after a little in-council maneuvering Monday night, approved a $35,000 purchase of 10 acres by the city for a new Army Reserve Center in the city Industrial Park. Voting, 5-1, with two council members absent, the council authorized the mayor and the city administrator to sign an agreement with the U.S. Army for the site. Under the terms of the agreement, signed immediately after the council meeting, the city will purchase 10 acres in the park from the Economic Development Corporation. The city will then transfer the deed of title for six of the acres to the Army but will retain title for the remaining four acres. The four acres may later be leased to the Army for training operations and facilities. A disagreement arose among the aldermen when council member June Barnum offered a resolution that would separate approval of the agreement with the Army from other routine accounts under concil consideration. Mrs. Barnum indicated she would vote against the agreement with the Army, but in support of the other routine city accounts. Her resolution died for lack of a second. But Mrs. Barnum then said she would vote against the agreement with the Army in any case. This .would have resulted in a vote of 4-1 in favor of the agreement. Council members Linwood Beck and Terry Nelson are on vacation and council member Otto Korp was in the hospital for a routine examination. At least five council members must vote in favor of a resolution in order for it to be official. In order to obtain enough votes, Korp was summoned from Lake Region Hospital. Korp appeared and voted in favor of the agreement. The final vote was 5-1. Mrs. Barnum has opposed the agreement, questioning whether the city should give land away to the Army without any charge, as the agreement provides for. Planning for the proposed center was initiated in 1971 after the Army Reserve complained that facilities in their current building at 820 E. Vernon were inadequate. Bill Poppelton, an Army lawyer from Omaha, Neb., told the council that the Army is prepared to build a $300,000 new facility in the Industiral Park. Council members who supported the agreement felt that income from a future lease would help offset tax losses from the four acres that remain under city control. The purchase price is to be financed solely with federal revenue sharing funds. The four-acre lot that the city retains is unusable for industrial development. The four- acre plot is in the northeast corner of the industrial park, abutting the State Hospital grounds. State law requires that a 100-foot buffer separate the grounds from an industrial site. In addition, the city has a 50-foot easement that runs through the same four-acre site. Plans for the new Reserve Center are expected to be completed by Oct. 31 and Continued on page 11 Off Page One Area happenings. Page 2 Grant County to delay power line. Page 9 On the local scene. Page 14 CITY SIGNS AGREEMENT — City Administrator Rodger Neumann, Mayor Barbara Donoho, and City Attorney David Nycklemoe sign an agreement with L'.S. Army lawyer Bill Pop- pelton for transfer of deed title from the City to the Army. The City is transferring title for six acres of property in the Industrial Park to Ihe Army for construction of a new Army Reserve Center. (Journal photo by Philip Hage) Tonkin Gulf Resolution helped vault U.S. into the Vietnam war By WILLIAM L. RYAN AP Special Correspondent Ten years ago this week the United States Congress took a giant step into an agonizing entanglement, and the nation has yet to recover. The step purportedly was intended to stem the offensive of communism in Southeast Asia. The United States since has disentangled itself some, though far from completely. As for the offensive, it may have slowed or even hesitated, but it never stopped. It is on again right now. One of the most painful chapters in American history began ¥:W:*x&::W:W:*:::*:tt^ on Aug. 7,1964, when Congress approved what would be known as the Tonkin Gulf Resolution. The vote in the Senate was 88-2, in the House, 416-0. The resolution's expressed aim was "to promote international peace and security in Southeast Asia." The effect was to permit President Lyndon B. Johnson to intensify the Vietnam war and American involvement therein, at his discretion. • As seen by Gen. William C. Westmoreland, newly assigned American commander in Vietnam, the situation was this: The Viet Cong, strongly sup- uy Communist North Vietnam's regulars, controlled most of South Vietnam's rural areas. A series of military coups in Saigon had made that regime perilously unstable. The Communists were in grabbing distance of easy victory that would nullify years of American effort at a cost of more than $10 billion since the end of World War II. Ostensibly to gather intelligence on North Vietnamese movements of men and materiel southward, the U.S. Navy was patrolling in the Tonkin Gulf. By American account, here's what happened: On Aiiy. 2, 28 miles off the coast and in "the hiRh seas," it was reported that North Vietnamese torpedo boats had attacked the destroyer Maddox. It escaped serious damage. The destroyer C. Turner Joy and air patrol from the carrier Ticonderoga were ordered to reinforce the Maddox. On Aug. 4 after dark, the torpedo boats attacked again about 60 miles from shore. The Americans opened fire and scattered the- attackers without themselves suffering any damage. The Pacific Command recommended immediate punitive air strikes on the North. Next day, President Johnson announced "measured" re- sponse. The North's torpedo boat fleet and a petroleum storage area at Vinh, in the \orth Vietnamese panhandle, were hit. the announced purpose being to signal Hanoi against ••miscalculation" of American intent to respond lo attack. Two days later Congress gave the President carte blanche with the Tonkin Gulf resolution. The decision would mean eventually that the original $10 billion American investment would swell to more than $200 billion in another nine years. From about 20,000 American military men on the scene in 1964, the figure would be more than 500,000 at Ihe peak of the war. The casualty figures among Americans, relatively insignificant up to the time of the Tonkin (lulf. would stand at the end at 4(5.000 killed and 300,000 wounded. By conservative estimate, in those 10 years, perhaps 175,000 South Vietnamese troops were killed and 450,000 wounded: possibly 900,000 North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops killed and wounded. About 400,000 South Vietnamese civilians were killed and about 900.000 were wounded in the period by conservative American estimates. I,aos and Cambodia, drawn inlo Ihe whirlpool, saw their way of life destroyed in bloody warfare. The United Stales was hit by widespread turbulence directly connected with protest against Ihe war. Military morale may have been permanently affected. Economic consequences were heavy. One ironic result of Ihe Tonkin Gulf episode was that in receiving the power of that resolution, Lyndon Johnson ultimately losl the power of the presidency. It led to a situation that helped persuade him not lo seek renomination in 1968 and paved the way for a Republican administration to succeed him. South Vietnam's government survives despite the North's offensive. Whether all Vietnam is ever unified on Hanoi's terms depends now not on the United States, which withdrew militarily under the 1973 Pans agreements, but on a stubbornly au- thoriUirian Saigon regime itself. The other Southeast Asia nations seem relatively secure in a time of bettered Chinese- American relations Pressure seems to ease as they seek nor- niiil relations with Peking.
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