Redlands Daily Facts from Redlands, California on May 6, 1965 · Page 11
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Redlands Daily Facts from Redlands, California · Page 11

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Redlands, California
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Thursday, May 6, 1965
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Page 11
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Eight turbulent days In the Caribbean Redlands Daily Facts Thursday, May 6, 1965 -1 1 Action in Dominican Republic sets new US policy (Continued from Page 1) parisons with the grisly husi. ness of Soviet intervention in Hungary in 1956 when a revolution was crushed because Russian strategic interests were at stake. The crisis was not unexpected. On the morning of Saturday, April 24 — a sultry day in Santo Domingo, Gen. Marcos Rivera Guesta, chief of staff of the Dominican army, summoned Uiree military men to his office to dismiss them. They were air Force Col. Pedro Bartolomeo Benoit, navy Capt. Suntana Car- resco and army Col. Casabo Saladin. All had been bridling at the attempt by Dominican President Donald Reid Cabral to subordinate military influence as one way of bringing some stability to the poverty - stricken Caribbean nation. Since the assassination of dictator Rafael Trujil- !o on May 30, 1961, the Dominicans has seen eight- governments, none able to cope with the problem they faced. Rivera Guesta had informed his aide that he was about to dismiss the three military men. What he did not know was that his aide was a member of a conspiracy that had been plotting a coup. Forewarned, t h e three about - to - be - dismissed officers overpowered the chief of staff. Stormed Radio Station At 2 p.m., a rebel force stormed into the government- operated Santo Domingo radio and television station and went on the air. The police got it back 35 minutes later, but by then the plot had gained momentum. During those 35 minutes the rebels proclaimed Cabral's overthrow. They announced that the government of the Dominican Republic would be returned "to the people." Hearing this, "the people" ran from their homes into the street, cheering and shouting. It appeared they were to have another exciting bloodless revolution, so familiar to the Latin temperament. On Sunday afternoon, April 25, rebel army forces began handing out rifles and machine- guns to civilians in Santo Domingo for a "peoples uprising." The civilians in turn banded together and opened attacks on police stations. A bazooka knocked huge holes in the sides of the main station, the Fortele- za, and the police were shot down or they surrendered. Broke Open Arsenal The rebel - civilians broke open the police arms arsenal and passed out hundreds of ad ditional rifles and burp guns. One boy of 10 ran down the street carrying a rifle in either SANTO DOMINGO DOMINICAN REPUBLIC To San Isidro SUPPLY CORRIDOR — American units are holding open a narrow corridor (2) through which supplies reach the protected "International zone" (1) of Santo Domingo from the loyalist- Under-insured? Not if you're under The Travelers umbrella. Call us for details about this modern homeowners insurance. V/e'lI help you make sure your house is protected to the full extent of Its present day value. muma mmm 826-B Brooksid* Ave. Bus. Ph. 792-8850 . T - r TL.„.. Eve. Ph. 793-5001 /'/n IflOmOS Car—Home—Business—Life Raprasantlna i THE TRAVELERS INSURANCE COMPANIES Hartferd, Cenntctlcut held San Isidro military and air base. hand. When a friend asked if he could have one, the boy replied, "no. One is for my father and the other is for my brother." Cabral had been aware of the danger. Saturday night he was a guest at a seder — a religious ritual meal — at the home of Israeli Ambassador Benjamin Varon. The amba.ssador remarked that the biblical last supper actually was a seder. "This may be my last supper," Cabral replie<i. Twenty-four hours later he had vanished. Not even the loyal army man. Gen. Elias Wessin y Wessin, with all his planes and tanks, had attempted to support him. Indeed Wessin y Wessin at one point leaned toward the rebel demand of restoring to power Juan Bosch, the first freely elected president of the Dominican Republic. He changed his mind when the Castroites and Communists moved swiftly — through default and conspiracy — to the forefront of the revolt. Wessin y Wessin joined several other Dominican officers in forming an anti-revolutionary junta. No Surprise The fast moving situation came as no real surprise to the U.S. Joint Chiefs as they met the following Monday morning. McNamara had told Congress last Feb. 18 that the Dominican Republic "continues to be unstable." .^nd it was because of State Department fears that events were moving towards a crisis that Ambassador Bennett had been summoned to Washington for consultations the Friday before. By Monday he was back at his post. One of the first actions of the chiefs was to order the Navy's amphibious Squadron 10, composed of five ships including the Boxer and a Marine landing team, to steam toward the Dominican Republic. They had been participating in an exercise off Vieques Island, Puerto Rico. In the Dominican Republic, Monday and Tuesday were days of terror. Tanks blasted away at rebel strongpoints. Fly-blown bodies lay in the streets under a blazing sun. The Dominican Red Cross estimated the dead during that period at 400, among them scores of women and children. The wounded were estimated at 1,400. Foreign nationals in Santo Domingo were terrified. They huddled in their homes. Watched Diving Planes Robert Myers, a Baptist missionary for eight years and originally from Omaha, Neb., lived a block from the U.S. Embassy in a fairly wealthy area with his wife, Lena, and their two children. His 11-year old son kept running out on the porch to watch the fighter planes diving on the city. Myers had hoped to stay with his tiny Protestant flock in the 98 per cent Catholic country but w^anted desperately to get his family out. (NEA Newsmap) REBEL LEADER — Col. Francisco Caamano Dene, named "provisional president" by Dominican rebels, joins a crowd of supporters in a clenched-fist salute. (NEA Radio-Telephoto) The forces of Wessin y Wessin might have squelched the revolt if it had been confined to the military rebels. But they could not cope with the thousands of civilians who were sniping from rooftops and ambushing the loyal forces with maehineguns. Ambassador Bennett warned .Americans on the island on Monday to be prepared to evacuate and on Tuesday 1,172 of them were taken off by the Navy and sent to Puerto Rico in three ships — the Rucham- kin, Raleigh and Wood County. Eventually more than 3,000 persons representing 30 nationalities were to be removed. The ward room of the Boxer became a nursery and the carrier's crew members shared their quarters with male evacuees. By Wednesday the rebels were running wild. Wessin y Wessin decided to withdraw his forces back to the base at San Isidro. The rebels seized the Duarte Bridge leading to it. The city was without light or water. Casualties among the children were in the dozens — most of them hit by bullets which had gone astray or ricocheted. CARDS and GIFTS for EVERY MOTHER free Parking of fieor of Siore Three young boys were killed when they picked up a grenade in the street and the rebels quickly spread the word that the deaths were the work of U. S. Marines. In Washington, there was a series of urgent meetings. Usually they included Johnson, Rusk, McNamara, Deputy Defense Secretary Cyrus R. Vance, and Gen. Wheeler. Often present were Thomas C. Mann, undersecretary of state for Latin American affairs, and McGeorge Bundy, the President's adviser for national security affairs. Mann, Vance, Bundy and Wlieeler functioned in effect as an excom — executive committee—a junior-grade bod/ of the group that so successfully directed operations in the 1962 Cuban missile crisis. Reports poured into the Wliite House. Wednesday afternoon Johnson was in a smaU office off his main oval office talking with Rusk, McNamara and Bundy. About 3:20 p.m. the President was given a cable from Bennett saying the situation was dangerous; that the chief of poUce and other governmental authorities no longer could protect American nationals. Johnson gave McNamara preliminary orders to start in motion the machinery for putting troops ashore. Then at 5:14 p.m. cams Bennett's "critical" message asking for the Marines. After the order went out, Johnson summoned the congressional leaders and informed them of his decision. Then he went on television to announce his action to the nation and the world. About this time the Organization of American States, which bad been meeting during the day, was informed of the landings. This delayed advisory was to cause trouble for the United States. Advised OAS John F. Kennedy had consulted — or advised — the hemispheric body before he ordered action in the Cuban crisis, and he won unanimous approval m advance of his blockade order. But the sensitive Latin Americans, fully aware that the OAS charter forbids intervention in the affairs of another state, were upset that Johnson hart acted in the Dominican case without first seeking a "hemispheric presence" as at the least a cover. More than 400 Maruies went ashore on Wednesday night, but it was obvious by the next day that more troops would be needed. Anarchy prevailed in Santo Domingo. The OAS asked the papal nuncio in Santo Domingo to try to arrange a cease-fire, but so many Dominicans had guns and were operating without real leadership that this proved impossible. A party of American correspondents, among them UPI's Matt Kenny, got tangible evidence. At one point, they accompanied paratroopers across the Duarte Bridge into the rebel-held section and were caught by sniper fire and ducked for their lives. A squad of paratroopers moved up and the newsmen scurried out under their protecting covering fire. Under Handicap The Marines and paratroopers were under a tremendous handicap. Their orders were not to fire unless fired upon. And they were restricted to using only light caliber weapons. At his mid-day briefing on Thursday, State Department spokesman Robert J. McCloskey was asked if the Communists were running the revolt. He replied "I am only prepared to say they are participating, could not say that they are leading, and I could not speculate on the eventualities." That night additional U. S. forces were sent in — including 1,500 more Marines. The 82nd Airborne, at Fort Bragg, N. C, was alerted for action. At 7:23 p.m. EDT the first troop transports left Pope A i r Force Base at Fort Bragg with the paratroopers. They took off intending to land in Puerto Rico. Enroute they were told to change course and go directly to Santo Domingo. The first plane landed at 2:06 a.m. EDT Friday followed by others at seven minute intervals. First Senior Officer The first senior Army officer to reach Santo Domingo was a combat - hardened veteran of African, Sicilian and Normandy landings in the World War II. He was 52-year-old Maj. Gen. Robert H. York, the 82nd's commander, and a much-decorated man — Distmguished Serv i c e Cross, four Bronze Stars, three Silver Stars, and two Purple Hearts. Friday and Saturday the buildup continued as fighting continued in Santo Domingo, and Marines began to die. It was now necessary to establish a U. S. Forces Dominican Command, and Lt. Gen. Bruce Palmer was named commander. Coincidently, Palmer was the Army's deputy chief of staff for military operations and. was about to become 18th Airborne Corps commander at Fort Bragg. On Friday morning, Wheeler summoned him, gave him the Dominican job, and sent him on his way. The general was unable to locate Mrs. Palmer immediately. By the time he got to Bragg, she had been found in a Washington drug store. He gave her the word of his destination by telephone. Friday night Jonnson went on television again. It was in these remarks, at 7:07 EDT, that he first indicated the U. S. intervention had a purpose other than evacuation of nationals and protecting their safety. He said: "There are signs that people trained outside the Dominican Republic are seeking to gain control. Thus, the legitimate aspirations of the Dominican people and most of their leaders for progress, democracy and social justice are threatened." The U. S. buildup continued on Saturday without much fanfare, but Sunday was the day of big decision for Washmgton. Early that day the 82nd paratroopers moved across the Avenida Mexico (Mexico Avenue) and linked up with the Marines near the American Embassy to form a "corridor" through Santo Domingo. The Marines, meantime, had cleared out an international zone and set up roadblocks leading to the waterfront. The effect was to bottle up some 300 remaining hard-core rebel-troops and about 12,000! rebel civilians, many of them armed, in an area of about four square miles. OAS Approved Corridor The establishment of the corridor had been undertaken with the approval of the five-man commission of the Organization of American States which had flown in to try to establish conditions permitting formation of a government. In Washington, the President got up late, but immediately began going over memos and press dispatches on the sit uation. Other officials in the State Department and Pentagon did the same. Adm. David L. McDonald, cliief of naval operations, was an example. At 7 a.m. EDT at his home. Admiral's House on Massachusertts Avenue, he was given a one and a half hour briefing on overnight develop ments. He then attended church and headed for a golf course in subrban Fairfax, Va. Aides caught him by telephone just as he arrived at the course at 10:45 a.m. and informed him the Joint Chiefs would meet 30 minutes later. In case he didn't get there in time, the vice chief, Adm. Horacio Rivero, was on hand. McDonald made it, as did all the chiefs. They reviewed Gen. Palmer's recommendations from Santo Domingo, and made proposals. These were given to Johnson by Wheeler at a 9 p.m. White House meeting. Decision Made Earlier The decision to intervene with huge U.S. forces — almost half as many as the United States has in Viet Nam — had been made earlier. At 6:30 p.m. EDT, the President summoned congressional leaders to the White House. He also decide<i once more to go on radio and television—his third such ap' pearance in five nights—to e.x- plain his actions to the nation. Curiously, there was almost a FOOD FROM AMERICA — Powdered milk showers over Dominican recipients of food supplies from the United States. American forces In Santo Domingo are distributing the foodstuffs to ease civilian suffering in the embattled Caribbean nation. (NEA Radio-Telephoto) 'soft sell" White House approach to this major speech. Instead of asking for television time, a request that is always granted, Press Secretary George E. Reedy merely said that it would be made "available" to the networks. This means they can show it "live," or tape it for presentation later. In addition, the White House said the speech would only be a "review of the week." When the networks decided to video tape the remarks for later showing, the Wliite House, according to broadcast sources, expressed displeasure. The networks then shifted signals, but it was too late. In tlie end, only one network—CBS—carried the President's remarks at the time he made them. What the President had to say was far more than "a review of tiae week." It was the announcement of a full-scale U.S. military intervention that now amounts to more than 19,000 troops. That Sunday niglit, Jolmson explained tlie reason he felt they were necessary: "The American nations cannot, must not. and win not permit the establishment of another Communist government in the Western Hemisphere." It's your deal! the big Mercury-Comet Leadership Days Celebration Sale Your Deal! Your Terms! on any 1965 Comet or Mercury NOW JIM GLAZE, INC. 420 WEST REDLANDS BLVD. REDLANDS 208 E. STATE DOWNTOWN REDLANDS ORDER NOW for MOTHER'S DAY We'll Be Open Sunday. May 9th OUR DO GIBIET GRAVY ^- OARllC BREAD CHEESE CAKES SALADS BAKED LET MORBITZER'S DO YOUR COOKING 6AR-B-QUE CHICKENS, TURKEYS &RIBS Ready to GO... COOKED or FRESH MORBITZER's POULTRY BARN Phone 797-0114 or 797-1626 After 6:30 P.M. 32645 Yucaipa Blvd. — Between 13th & 14th St.. Yucaipa -Country-^ Club Vista A New High in Residential Uving ... In Redlands THIS STUNNING SERIES OF HOMES SETS A NEW STANDARD OF LIVING FOR THE FORTUNATE FEW Four Bedrooms • Family Room • 2 Baths • Single & Two Story VIEW Homes • 572% Financing Available • Sales Office and Models Corner South St. & Sunset Dr. Sales Office Phona 792-9394 from $29,950 FEATURES: REFRIGERATED AIR CONDITIONING • Payne 100,000 B.T.U. Forced Air Heating • Fireplaces (2- Story Designs have twol) • Wood Paneling in Family Room • Ash Kitchen Cabinetry • Luminous Kitchen Ceiling • GE Double Oven, Range, Dishwasher and Disposer, all Built-in • Pantry • Genuine Cer amic Tile • Pullman Lavatories • Vanity • Covered Patio • Cedor Shingfa Roofs. Directions: From Redlands Fwr, take Ford St. crofli KedUnds Blvd. and con- tinoe on up Oak St. (sooth) to Franklin Ave., then left to South Ave. and left (east) to Country Club Vista. Sales by FOWLER'S Realtors Estoblished 1914 210 West Citru!, 793-2883 Country Ciub Viita Dial 792-9384 SCHEDULE of NIGHT OPENINGS for Downtown Red lands OPEN FRIDAY and MONDAY NIGHTS Fowler's. Clothing Gair's Good's Apparel Goodie Shop Harris Co. Her Highness Gordon's, Jewelers Jo Nann's Karl's Levine's Louise's Maggi's Norris Yardage Penney's Redlands Toyville Sally Shops Sliger's, Music Smith, Jewelers Western Auto Wilson, Jewelers OPEN MONDAY NIGHTS ONLY •TIL 9:00 Colonial Maple House Helene's Yarn Shop McMahan's Furniture Nelson-Hales Furniture United Beauty Supply

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