Burlington Daily Times from Burlington, Vermont on May 16, 1863 · 2
Get access to this page with a Free Trial

Burlington Daily Times from Burlington, Vermont · 2

Burlington, Vermont
Issue Date:
Saturday, May 16, 1863
Start Free Trial

2 THE WEEKLY TIMES. SATURDAY MORNIXG, MAY 16, 1863. Eif altfhlD Cimes. SATURDAY MORMXG. MAT 16. 1863. Gen. Hooker's Eepulse. Gen. Hooker's prime object in bii late more Bent Das pot been attained. He baa been baffled and driven back. Not water bat fire brought bim back Tbe rebels were too many for bim. We deplore tbe unwelcome result as deeply a any one, but cannot find the least olace in trying to soothe tbe soreness of tbe repulse with lie. There is ne cause for lying because the rebels were stronger than we ; we can gaia nothing to be desired by invent ing fictions. Let us rather say the truth ; that we iougnt tbe enemy as well as we could with all the force available and were worsted. In tbe last week in April Gen. Hooker got ready to fight tbe rebel army. To do so he must cross tbe river, a rather hazardous job In itoelf. Jhis work he did with skill and sue- ess, it is admitted. He threw the major part 01 bis army across the river unbeknown to (he enemy who to very watchful. In the Chancellor House was found a nete from Gen. Taylor, Chief of Lee's Staff, dated the day of ur army's arrival, which said "the General Lee had at that moment heard that the fed-oral force was across Ely's Ford, that Gen. Anderson knew nothing of their arrival." Having thus got over the river Hooker proceeded promptly to put his forces in position. Sedgwiok's operations were expected to and did Interrupt rebel communication with Richmond, j What Sedgwick did not accomplish in this direction Stoneman would complete. Now, the rebels being thus cut oft in this direction, must either retreat via Gordonsville or fight Hooker and beat him. By taking tbe yoeitioa at Chancellorsville he forced the enemy to retreat under bis eyes or fight him ; if Lee chose the last, Cbencellorsville was tbe most eligible battle ground for our side to be obtained. i. There our troops were posted and Hooker felt confident of success, issuing a congratulatory order to his army.' The result has shown, that be " crowed before he got out of 4b woods." So far Hooker was eminently successful. He chose his ground and disposed his troops, and then challenged the enemy. This 'challenge was promptly accepted, a fact that is demonstrative of the sagacity of Hooker in judging tbe effect of his movements and the compulsion of his position. Tbe rebels began with a preliminary fight on Friday May 1, but their ' strong column of attack was repulsed with great loss to them. , But in the night they continued their operations and worked a powerful column toward the west, to tmrn our flank ' near Ely's Ford. This obviously was tbe main assault of the enemy, led by the intrepid Jackson. The position of our line thus attacked was to be defended by the Eleventh Corps. But when the onslaught was made with terrifio vigor, the Eleventh Corps, just one-sixth of our forces, ran away and ran through the other portions of the army in shameful, fatal disorder. The enemy pushed rapidly forward, reckless of the destruction . hurled on them. Hooker, by coolness, decision, vigor and intrepidity, re-formed his troops to meet this unexpected ealamity, and retrived it so far, perhaps, as was possible. But it was a great disaster which he could not whol ly retrieve. The rebels got to the west of us, " to our rear," as they say. With this advantage the rebels renewed the attack on Sunday en our lines, which had been changed so as to meet the necessities involved in this accident The rebels fought witn perfect desperation. They marehed in solid column up to our artillery. If lines were swept away they were replaced. Of lile they seemed reekleis. To gain their point the discomfiture of our army they regarded no sacrifice. , By this desperation, by outnumbering forces, and by tbe great advantages which they had gained the day before, they won the vietory which they aimed at. Hooker was beated on Sunday ; so Lee telegraphed to Davis., Hooker's inactivity on Monday, when Sedgwick was engaged, corroborates this. Having beaten Hooker on Sunday, the rebel generals drove Sedgwick across the river on Monday. That is just tbe result as we read it in tbe most trustworthy reports. What the event might have been if the disastrous defection of the Eleventh Corps had not occurred we cannot of course say. Had it stood firm and fought bravely the odds would have been less unequal, and we have reason to believe the event would have been different. After Sunday's battle Hooker's withdrawal was apparently necessary, unless Sedgwick should gain some signal succes on Monday to relieve him. If the 30,000 men under Heint-zleman might have reinforced Hooker Sunday or Sunday night, so that the battle could have been renewed on Monday wheu Sedgwick was engaged, very likely the tide might have been turned. But to bring up supports at the critical time seems to be something that our generals have not yet learned. Who is to bear the responsibility in this case does not appear as yet That Hooker retreated on account of the rise of the river is a shallow pretense ; for the retreat wae ordered several hours before the rain began to fall. 1 - - - Wet the Attack ok Charleston was kot Continued. It has been evident that something was concealed as to tbe reasons for withdrawing tbe monitor fleet from in front of Charleston after the first attack. A letter from the chaplain of the 115th New York regiment, at Hilton Head, written in defense of Gen. Hunter, makes tbe following explana tion, which is in keeping with the general war management at Washington, and not at all improbable : " Soon after tbe attack on Fort Sumter bad commenced, and when promising favorable results, a dispatch arrived from Washington, ordering a delay in tbe attack on Charleston, and that three of tbe monitors be sent to the relief of Admiral Farragut at Vlcksbnrg. This order was seat with tbe supposition that tbe attack on Charleston had not commenced. On the arrival of tbe order, a council ot naval officers was held. Some ef them were in favor of continuing tbe attack, but Admiral Du-pont decided in the negative. He reasoned thus : if I should continue the attack coatrary to orders and should succeed, the government migbt sustain me. If I Bbould make a failure and lose the monitors, I should lose my bead. Wne will say that this was net sound reasoning f As soon as it was known in Washington that the attack on Charleston bad already commenced, and that it would go out to the country as a failure, another order came for tbe immediate renewal of tbe attack." In corroboration ot this we have a state ment of Dr. Marsh, formerly of Montpelier and a Principal of the Union School, who is en tbe staff of Gen. Hunter and was. on board of the New Ironsides during the battle, of the same import. He says that the attack was suspended in eonsequence of an order from Washing ton which was transmitted by a special mes senger en the steamer Arago, directing that no attack be made. In the opinion of Dr. Marsh the shots from the monitors passed clear through tbe wall of Sumter every time they struck fairly. He saw what he was convinc-1 ed were holes through the walls. He further j believes that the attack would have been a success if it had not been discontinued tor the reason named. Provost Marshals. The Springfield Bepub lican says "the politicians have got the better of the soldiers in the provost marshal's appointments for this State. But one of the latter is in the list ; while old and active politi cians swep off tbe bulk. D. H. Merriam, who has represented Fitchburg on whig and re publican state committees these many years, beats both his soldier rival and Whiting Grig- wold of Greenfield ; while our own district is represented by one of its most adroit political managers, Judge Morton of Springfield. Cols. F. W. Palfrey and W. Raymond.Lee, whom it was supposed would be selected for two of the eastern districts, alike for their services in the war and their abilities for the place, are left out in the celd." We see very few soldiers appointed in any State to those offices. Tbe politicians in every State doubtless have got the better of the sol diers. Police. Michael McKenzie. a soldier, was arrested Friday, pleaded guilty, and was fined $5 and costs, by JusticeHollenbeck for endeavoring to " knock the head off from an Irishman," with a broom stick. Cause three glasses of beer and two glasses of gin. Virmont Central Railroad. An adjourn ed meeting of the holders of the first mortgage bonds of the Termont Central Railroad Company was held in Boston on Thursday, Hon. Thomas M. Edwards, of Keene, N. H., chairman. Mr. 0. W. Davis, from a commit tee appointed at a previous meeting, reported that the committee could not propose any plan of settlement with the Vermont and Canada Railroad Company, and recommended that the bondholders empower a committee to adjust the matters of difference. The report was accepted, and the same committee, consisting of O. W. Davis, Joseph Andrews and Otis Drury, were authorized to settle and adjnst all questions on such terms as they may deem to be just to the several interests, provided that the permanent capital of the Vermont and Canada Railroad Company shall not exoeed the sum of $2,000,000, that the settlement to be made Bhall be such as will close the construction account of the Vermont and Canada Railroad Company, and that the committee make no deduction to the seeond mortgage bondholders of what is due to the holders of the first mortgage. Notice. The dispatch from the headquarters of tbe Sanitary Commission, communicating with the army of the Potomac, calls for dried fruit for the present exigency. While the cities supply the call for the more expensive articles, as tea, coffee, beefsteak, Ac, the country is desired to supply the demand for dried fruit, which, for the present will be very greatly needed. Another despatch reads thus : " When the next battle comes, our whole stock of supplies will melt away in a single day." The suffering to be relieved is immense, and as everything sent to the Commission will reach the battlefield at once, let every woman feel stimulated to work zealously, and every man aid generously in furnishing the materials lor her benevolent labor. Send as freight, free of charges, to Brig. Gen. Davis, Quartermaster Gen'l, Brattleboro, Vt. for N. E. W. A. A. 22 Sumnwr St.. Ron ton, Mass. In behalf of the U. S. Sanitary Commision. Donations may be sent to Mrs. Dr. Thayer, Burlington, who will forward them. The Eappahannock Campaign. ,We publish from tbe World's correspon dence a succinct, intelligible and apparently impartial resume of the late campaign of Gen. Hooker. It furnishes every reader with tbe means of judging of tbe conduct of Geo. Hooker, while it points out tbe specific cause of bis unsuccess. . If it weie obvious that Gen. Hooker had failed through bis own incompe tency, the judgment of the people would be decided and inflexibly against bim... But where a failure is palpably produced by causes beyond the control of tbe commander, and when be shows unmistakable intrepidity and generalship in averting tbe worst conse quences of tbe nnforseen disaster, it is not tbe time to clamor for a change ; least of all, to clamor for a man whose whole career is a failure. The World has sounded the key-note of clamorous importunity for the removal of Gen. Hooker, and for tbe return of Gen. McClellan. We feel confident that tbe latter is out of the question. Whatever maybe done in the future as regards Gen. Hooker, Gen. McClellan stands no chance of resuming his former command. He has been removed for incompetency. If Hooker shall also be, this will not affect McClellan's incompetency. Then, cer tainly, be should not be restored. The World disapproves of Hooker's per sonal gallantry aa periling the army. How does it know but it saved the army? The General felt it needful and heroically threw himself into the breach. It was perilous, surely ; but fighting battles usually is, unless fought as some of our generals fight. It is not surprising that tbe World, with its profound admiration of Gen. McClellan's peculiar and personally safe method of managing a battle should condemn the unselfish intrepidity of Hooker. How does the rebel Jaekson fight ! He does not say : " Go in, my brave boys ; tbe fraternal eye of your General shall follow you." He puts on plain clothes andiead his men in the fieriest melee. His charges are irresistible. Not a man in the rebel service is so much admired by us and by rebels ; not a man in the rebel army carries so much moral force into the field of battle. His men go to the cannon's month as cheerfully as they would to dinner whieh is saying very much of their willingness. We believe that Gen Hooker has gained immeasurably in the esti- mation and confidence of every man in his army, by his conduct in the late movement How that movement failed, in our judgment, we have said. The Killed and Wounded. Washington, D.C., May 8, 1863. Zo lie Editor cftkt BurlingtiM lima : Most ef the wounded from Vermont regiments are arriving here to-day. 2nd Reg't killed, wounded and missing. 175. 3rd " " " 80. 4th " " " " slight 5th - - " " . heavy. 6th " " " 70. No field officers were killed er wounded. Captain Ainsworth, Cth regiment, killed. Cap tain Hutchinson and Lieut Crane of Otb regiment wounded. Lieutenants Goodall and Kennedy of 3rd are wounded. Captains Crossman and Tracy, and Lieuts. Gleason and Clark of 2nd regiment are wound ed. A full list will be sent soon. FRANK F. HOLBROOK, Commissioner of Vermont P. S. The wounded officers named are now here more are to come 1,800 wounded are expected here to-day from the army. Provost Marshal. Capt Henry B. Hen' dershott, 2d United States artillery, has been detailed as Acting Assistant Provost Marshal for Vermont, headquarters at Montpelier.- tapt. a. has entered upon the duties of his office. He is assistant, not of the District Mar shal, but of'Provost Marshal Gen. Fry, and is the representative of tbe War Department for the State. Capt Hendershott is a native of Poultnev, but was appointed to West Point from Ken tuoky. He graduated at West Point in 1847, He was promoted to a Captainey in 1861. Lieut. Col. A. C. Brown, 13th Vermont regi meat, having received his commission as As sistant Provost Marshal for the 1st district, re turned home to Montpelier, Friday evening, to assume bis duties. Preparation for a Draft. Capt. Render shott, Assistant Provost Marshal, has issued an order which direets that the Provost Mar shals for the various districts of the State re port by letter to his headquarters without de lay. lhey will report whether the Boards of En rolment in their respective districts have been organized, the names and residence of tbe members constituting the Board, and what progress is being made generally towards carrying out tbe law for tbe enrolling and calling out the national forces. They will al so apply from time to time for such instruc tion to his headquarters as they may require under exislinir laws and regulations in the performance of their duties. A Swift Railroad. The St Albans Mes senger says "the Montreal and Champlain Railway is emphatically a ' one horse affair.' The trains are not only not ' remarkably quick n their speed,' but they are remarkably snail. like. Whenever we no to Montreal w al ways allow three or four hours from Rouse's Point, and we have never been disappointed in getting along mueh faster. This, perhaps, might be endured if the cars were neat and tidy. But they are not, Some of the cars are hardly fit to convoy cattle and sheep, much less human beings. The managers may possibly be running the road to suit themselves, but we are quite sure they suit no one else. The traveling public will not long have to put up with this state of things. When the Montreal and Vermont Junction Railroad is completed, which will be at anearlyday. it will not be so disagreeable a job to reach Montreal from this way as it now is ; and we have no doubt there will be a large increase of travel in that direction." New Cars. A new taggage and express car has just been put on the branch of the Central Railroad from Burlington to Essex Junction, which is lrom tbe railroad shops at St Albans. Anew passenger ear from tho same shops is nearly completed and will soon be put on the road. , This will make Mr. Ap-piston's trains the equal of the best in point of comfort and convenience. . The Wounded. The following additional wounded are reported in the Vermont regiments. They seem to be mainly in the second regiment, which probably was aetingkas skirmishers : unris. u. Mood, company , Li. Vt.. severe Corp. Thos. Dempsey, company A, 2d Vt. severe. J. Brittell, company K, 2d Vt, slight Sergt. W. H. H. Camp, company F, 2d Vt, sneti i. Lyman B. Stoddard, company G, 6th Vt severe. Joseph Moore, Jr., company B, 6th Vt, se vere. O. M. George, company F, 2d Vt, severe. Daniel Cannon, eompany I, 2d Vt, slight. H. K. Wilson, company A, 2d Vt, severe, C. W. Brown, company B, 2d Vt, slight John Cross, cemDanv F, 2d Vt.. slieht John Kelly, company K, 2d Vt., thigh, se vere. F. D. Gilson, company 1, 2d Vt, arm, severe. ineo. Merrill, company H, 2d Vt, band Frank Colt, eompany B, 2d Vt, thigh. Sergt Henry L. Ballard, company H, 2d vt.,arm. Corp. E. W. Prior, comp. I, 2d Vt., thigh j. m. israaiora, comp. , za vt, tnigb. u. Dawson, comp. 11, 2d vt. slieht. From the World's Correspondence. Tbe Campaign of the Rappahannock. Its Successes and its Failures. N. James Walker, comp. KJ2d.Vt. thisb James T Holmes, comp. 1, 2d Vt, arm. Charles V Hnpf, comp. A, 2d Vt, leg. Lieut. D P Clark, comp. D, 2d Vt, thigh. Leroy M Bingham, comp. H. thigh. Corp. A Parllus, comp. B,2d Vt.slight Corp. J Bovia, comp. K, 2d Vt, arm. L Moore, 2d Vt, slight. H E Soule, comp. H, 2d Vt, side. T A Brown, comp. E, 2d Vt, slight. L K Harris, comp. F, 2d Vt, thigh. Geo Shipper, eomp. A, 2d Vt, groin, H B Bixley, eomp. I, 2d Vt, side. H A Moore, comp. F, 2d Vt, thigh. Duane Ross, comp. I, 2d Vt, slight Corp. Louis Bowers, comp. K, 2d Vt, thigh. R M Worthing, comp. H, 2d Vt, slight. Corp. A Danforth, comp. A, 6th Vt, slight. George A While, comp. H, 2d Vt, hip. B E Combs, comp. C, 2d Vt, slight Theodore Merritt, comp. H, 2d Vt, hand. Webster D. Derby, com. I, 2d Vt, arm. V. Dailey, com. F, 3d Vt, slight. Hayland Shell, comp. I 2d Vt, slight Charles McCarthy, com. G, 3d Vt.slight. B LMeader, comp. E, Vt, slight. B T Gifford, eomp. E. 2d Vt, slight Corp. Warren M Wvmae. come A. 2d Vt slight Wallace E Williams, comp. E. 2d Vt, slight John W. York, comp. D, 2d, Vt, slight John R Desber. Corp. A J Merrill, com. H, 2d Vt, slight J B Dunbar, comp.C, 4th Vt, slight H L Maxfield, comp. H, 2d Vt, slight. A J Wilis, comp. E, 2d Vt, slight. Levi L Munson, comp. B, 2d Vt, slight. The Rebel Force at Suffolk. -A letter from Suffolk, dated May 5, says a large por tion of the enemy in our front disappeared yesterday, and we have been able to see the enemy's works along tbe line of the Blackwa- ter, which are much more formidable and ex tensive than we expected, nearly onoircling us and extending twelve miles. . We find that we have been deceived in the numbers of tbe enemy here. At times we computed their numbers to be about 60,000, but from information received, whieh appears to be perfectly reliable, it makes it about one-half of that. Could Not Stand It. Quite a fist-ical and spirited affair occurred at Plainfield, Thursday evening, on the reception of the unfavorable news from General Hooker. A virulent copperhead of that place seissed upon the op portunity for an open altercation with a true friend of the Union cause, who, deeming that forbearance bad ceased to be a viitue," went in, and gave coppeihead a sound "drub- ing." The Cavalrt Regiment. It is to be feared that the piques and ill-feeling among the officers of tbe cavalry regiment has seriously impaired its efficiency. It is asserted in several let ers from the regiment, that Capt. nuntoon and Lieut Higley, who have been recently dismissed'for cowardice, are brave, faithful and competent officers, and that they are the victims of tbe mean spite of the commanding officer. If this be trne it is shameful and must prove the sure destruction of the regiment. The First Brigade. The First Brigade was very sharply engaged at Fredericksburg. Howe's division was formed with Brooks' to cheek the advance of the rebels on Sedgwick's corps on Monday. The Vermont Brigade maintained its ground with gallantry. The loss of the Brigade is said to be three hundred. Death. Mr, C. II. Clarke, who, several months ago, togethei with his wife, gave the Flower Queen in Burlington, assisted by a hundred misses, died at Union Mills, Virginia, May 5. He went out as the bugler of Company L, of the Vermont Cavalry, but had been promoted, we believe. PRF.sENTATioN.-On the evening of Monday, the 14th nit, the officers of the 13th regiment presented Col. Warner with an elegant sword, which was manufactured expressly for the purpose, at a cost of more than $200. The presentation took place at Fort Sta-vens (formerly Fort Massacbiisetis), Lieut. Col. R. C. Benlon making the presentation. The Conduct of Gen. Hooker. Army of the Potomac, 1 Thursday, 3. A. M. j The campaign of General Hooker Js over, and the operations of the Army of tbe Rappahannock, upn tbe results of which many bad looked with hope, (.nd all with anxiety, have ended in complete failure. Commencing with tbe most flattering promises of cheering and decisive victory, it has terminated in defeat in disaster. :';,' " ' The confused and fragmentary accounts already published ean give no adequate realization of events which the past nine days have developed ; and a resume, in connected order, of the various movements, maneuvers and conflicts ean alone convey a correct idea of bow far we were sucoessful. bow far we were defeated, and the causes ot the present result, as far as they can be discerned. The difficulties of tbe position in which the army was plaoed are too well known to need much explanation. A wide river and forty miles of earthworks were in front of the enemy for their defense. To carry this position by a front attack, in face of such obstacles, was simply impossible, and to throw tbe entire army above or below these works would necessitate an abandonment of tbe present base of supplies at Acquia Landing, for with our supplies and eommunications thus exposed, tbe enemy could not poss'bly fail to lake advantage ot it. How tbeo could tbe difficulties of tbe position be successfully met and the enemy be driven from their intrenched position ? Tbe following seems to have been the plan which was adopted, and which was in a great degree successful : the plan. A portion of the army, about half of it, was to cross tbe river near Fredericksburg and pretend to renew the attempt in which Burn-side had been previously unsuccessful, and accomplish two objects first, to hold the enemy's force at that point ; and second, to protect our communications and supplies, while the other half of tbe army should make 'a crossing above the fortifications, and sweeping down with tbe greatest rapidity to the rear of Fredericksburg, take a strong position and hold it nntil they eould be reinforced by the portion of the , army making the feint, which was to withdraw from its position, take tbe bridges to the point of tbe river which had been uncovered by tbe flank movement, and the whole army was thus to be concentrated in the rear of Fredericksburg. The following outline of each day's operations will show to what extent this bold aud hazardous plan baa proved sucuessful, and in what degree and for what reason it has resulted so unfortunately. MONDAY AND TUESDAY, APRIL 26 AND 27. On Monday, the 26tb, was commenced the execution of this plan. Three corps, the Fifth, Eleventh and Twelfth, were ordered to march with eight days' rations to Kelly's Ford, near the Orange and Alexandria Railroad. Gen. Sloeum, of the Twelfth corps, was placed in command, and on Tuesday sight the force intrusted with tbe important part of executing the flank movement bad reached the point at which they were ordered to cross the Rappahannock. Tuesday night, also, three Other corps, the First, Third and Sixth, were sent to Franklin's crossing, three miles below Fredericksburg, to be ready to andertake tbe crossing simultaneously with the other corps at Kelly's Ford on Wednesday morning. WEDNESDAY. The enemy were evidently not prepared to resist the crossing at either point, and tbe affair was so well managed that both divisions ef the army bad established themselves on the west side of the river and covered their bridges without any serious opposition by th enemy. Gen. Sedgwick, who commanded the three corps of tbe left wing, made no forward demonstration, except enough to attract the enemy and prevent tbem from turning uDon the detachment which was forcing its way toward me rear 01 toe enemy s works m command of Gen. Stoneman. Gen. Hooker had personal ly superintended tbe passage of the troops at iveny s rora. ana returned while they pushed on toward the Rapidan at Germanna Mills, where they crossed successfully and made some progress beyond before Wednesday night THURSDAY. Sedgwick still threatened the enemy, and held tbem near Fredericksburg while Sloeum pressed on from tbe Rapidan and took his position across the plank-road (the enemy's line of retreat toward Gordonsville) at Chancellorsville. Couch's (Second oorps), which had remained at Banks' Ford, now moved up to the United States Ford, and crossed to jeia Gen. Sloeum. Gen. Hooker also rejoined, and took command of the four corps thus concentrated in the rear of Frederioksburg and across the line of tbe enemy's retreat. It was now time for this detachment to take tbe defense and hold their position until the other corps should join tbem, and, the army thus united, be enabled to meet all the forcei which the enemy might brine against them. Thursday night there was sharp work on both sides to outmaneuver the other. The enemy had now learned with sufficient certainty that a large force was in their rear in the direction of Chancellorsville, and that Stoneman's cavalry was greatly endangering their railroad communication, and they were accordingly moving away from Sedgwick toward the rear ot Hooker, between Chancellorsville and the Rapidan, by the roads at the south of tbe plank-road, which was in onr possession. While leaving Sedgwiek's front the enemy, made unusual demonstrations of camp fires, as if concentrating there, and similar devices were resorted to on our own side. But neither deceived the other, for both were moving away, and on our side a portion of the bridges were taken up immediately, and tbe Third corps moved all night toward the United States Ford, to join with Gen. Hooker a' Chancellorsville. FRIDAY. While the First and Third corps were moving from the left wing to join General Hooker at Chancellorsville, and while Jackson was taking a circuitous route to reach the rear of Gen. Hooker's line between Chancellorsvill' and the Rapidan, two divisions Sykes' of the Fifth corps, and Williams' of the Twelfth, pushed on nearer to the rear ol Fredericksburg, skirmishing and fighting with the enemy, who showed slight resistance in that direction. The enemy were thus driven before them for four miles, whon Gen. Hooker, for some reanon, ordered them to fall back and rejoin his lines at Chancellorsville. By night his army was all concentrated except toe

What members have found on this page

Get access to Newspapers.com

  • The largest online newspaper archive
  • 18,100 newspapers from the 1700s–2000s
  • Millions of additional pages added every month

Try it free