Along With More Efficient Disposal Methods— New Methods to Recycle Nation's Wastes Being Slowly Developed By BILL STOCKTON (AP Science Writer) MIDDLETOWN, Ohio (AP) On a recent Indian summer iiight in this southern Ohio city sprawled beside the Miami River, a group of middle Amer- Cans celebrated boys' night out at a local tavern. About midnight, after they |>aid the bill and departed, the waitress gathered 30-some empty beer bottles and dumped them clattering into a plastic garbage can at the end of the bar. Later, the janitor hauled them to a bin out back. • Finally, a garbage truck took Jhe bottles to a sanitary landfill where they were buried—lost forever, presumably, to a society rapidly depleting its natural resources. , But the 43 billion glass and ; metal beverage containers manufactured last year, most of which were discarded, are only a small part of the grow ing mounds of garbage that threaten to become a national pollution crisis. If Americans are to avoi being inundated in the discard from their throw-away living scientists warn, vastly im proved methods of refuse collec tion and disposal must be adopt ed. And all reuseable refuse must be recycled back into try economy. "Have you ever thought," the tavern waitress was asked "about those bottles. Should we just throw them away or fine some way to use them again?' "No," she replied. "No, I've never thought about it." Paul Marsh has been thinking about those bottles and the 25( million tons of commercial, res idential and institutional waste generated last year. He and team of engineers and techni- Gary & Boyd Nila* Oakland, Iowa PocuuU P0c, "We've fed Squealer Supplement 'B' as long as we've been feeding high corn silage rations and that's been quHe • while," say the Nflans ot Oakland, Iowa. "Our last 504 head of mixed steer and heifer calves gained over 2 1 /z Ibs. per day from payweight to paywelght" "FRESH" FEEDS HARLAN, IOWA Phone 755-2131 cians at the Black Clawson Co. on the other side of Middletown have been working for three years on a system to cheaply handle solid waste while separating valuable glass, metal and paper for recycling. Black Clawson's system, like dozens of others under development by private and govern ment agencies, is what scientists say must replace the present, often archaic, solid waste disposal systems. Studies indicate that the nation's garbage will yield salvageable materials worth at least $1 billion a year, offsetting the $4.5 billion yearly collection and disposal costs. In almost every ease, studies have found, technology already exists to cope with solid waste problems. Black Clawson, an old-line manufacturer of paper stock and paper pulp equipment, adapted its paper machinery to handle garbage. "Some of the waste papers normally processed by the paper pulp industry aren't much -emoved from garbage, which is usually 55 per cent paper anyway," Marsh said. "So we just 0ok our existing technology and worked it into a system." Heart of the system is a circu- ar tank of swirling water with a spinning blade at the bottom that grinds domestic refuse fed rom a conveyer. Cans, bottles, awn clippings, iron, a pillow, wood, a hairbrush, paper, everything plummet into the brown whirlpool and quickly become indistinguishable in the liquid slurry. Subsequent processes, most adapted from the paper industry, separate paper pulp, metals and glass for recycling. The residue is burned in a pollution-free incinerator. Black Clawson officials say he system will dispose of refuse or $2-$5 a ton, comparable with )ther disposal costs. At the U.S. Bureau of Mines College Park, Md., metallur- ;ists, using existing mineral OPEN; 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. Weekdays 1 p.m. to. 5 p.m. Sundays G-STORE 60 Size ONE-A-DAY vitamins 8-oz$ 1.49 Size RIGHT GUARD Limit 2 multiple fefMtria Spray-on duodwant Limit 2 8-oz. Reg. 69c VASELINE 13-01. Can Salted TOM SCOTT MIXED NUTS 2 cans 7-oz. 97c Size CORN HUSKER LOTION Family Size CREST toothpaste 2 for • SnghtM y«ur unite Reg. or Mint Limit 2 SHOP AND SAVE AT G-STORE 'processing technology, have developed a pilot plant that consumes incinerator residue and separates glass, scrap iron, aluminum and other metals. USBM officials call incinerator residue "urban ore," because their studies indicate that a ton of incinerator residue will yield $12 worth of glass and metal when put through a process that would cost $3.52 a ton. But despite demonstrations by Black Clawson, USBM and others that refuse can be handled efficiently while salvaging valuable materials, potential markets for salvage remain uncertain. Economists have concluded the markets undoubtedly exist, but they must be developed further. Meanwhile, few cities or private refuse diposal companies will risk capital in new recycling schemes with unproven markets. What is needed, municipal officials agree, are federal demonstration grants. City officals will try new ideas if they aren't risking their taxpayers' money. But the Bureau of Solid Waste Management in the Department TO Time* Herald, Carroll, la. Thursday, Nov. 12, 1970 of Health, Education and Welfare had only about $15 million with which to work last year. Dr. Merril Eisenbud, a professor at the New York University Institute of Environmental Medicine, told a Senate subcommittee that demonstration grants should be $500 million a year. "At the present time with the $15-million budget, they can demonstrate one of everything every few years," he said. "But we need to do it in parallel. We need to demonsltrate a -whole spectrum of incinerators, not just one or two." He was testifying before the Senate Public Works subcommittee on air and water pollution about a bill to replace the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965. The bill would increase funding—reaching $236 million in grants by 1974—and an amendment would create a national commission to formulate policy on conserving materials. Another bill introduced by the Nixon administration, basically would extend ithe 1965 act, plac- ing emphasis on the private sector shouldering the burden for waste management. The Office of Science and Technology and HEW would formulate materials policies. On dozens of other fronts, private and public research efforts •are tackling solid waste disposal problems and coming up with encouraging results. In Palo Ailto, Caldf., the Combustion Power Co., under a federal grant, has developed a pollution free incinerator that separates glass and metals then bums the remaining refuse. Gas produced in the burning turns turbines 'that generate electricity. After sale of salvage and electricity, company officials say, the system would cost a city only $1 a ton to dispose of its refuse. Several cities have begun using computers to plan refuse truck routes, speeding collection and cutting costs. Other communities have turned to paper and plastic bags to replace traditional garbage cans. Some cities have begun shredding refuse before burying it in sanitary landfills. Health hazards are reduced and a landfill will hold more. Scientists say pyrolysis of garbage—thermal destruction at high pressure and temperature—offers promise. A ton o! garbage will yield a barrel of heating oil. Famous MOTOROLA SOLID STATE STEREO Model PP231 PG Detachable speakers—• compact carrying case. 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