POUt IRONWOOD DAILY GLOBE, IRONWOOD, MICHIGAN MONDAY, MAY 10.1963. I IRONWOOD DAILY GLOBE "The Doily Globe is on independent newspaper, supporting what it believes to be right and opposing what it believes to be wrong, regardless of party politics, and publishing the news fairly and impartially." —Linwood I. Noyes, Editor and Publishe. 1927-1964. Mrs. Linwood I. Noyes, President Edwin J. Johnson, Editor and Publisher The New Monroe Doctrine The American interests in the Dominican 1-tepublic arc ideological, political, economic and moral. The sending of troops to protect American lives and property was an action sanctioned by international custom. But President Johnson in his broadcast of May 2 declared that we would not tolerate the establishment of '"another Communist government in the Western Hemisphere." This in effect was reviving the Monroe Doctrine. The revival is made with a distinct change of emphasis. The U.S.-sponsored resolution before the Organization of American States- calls for military and police personnel from any member governments that arc capable of inr- nishing them. The Monroe Doctrine has always lurn a rather dubious international instrument. Dexter Perkins, for many years a professor of history at the University 'of Rochester, has asserted: "If \vc survey the facts candidly we must admit that the message of 1823 was directed against an imaginary menace. Not one of the continental powers cherished anv designs of reconquest in the New World in November or December of 182.3." The Doctrine expressed the principle that any attempt on the part of former colonial powers "to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere" would be considered "dangerous to our peace and safety." It was challenged during the Cuban imbroglio by Soviet Premier Khrushchev, who said at a news conference on July 12, 1960: "Life moves forward; it sweeps away everything that does not correspond to the spirit of the time; it asserts the new, the progressive. We consider that the Monroe Doctrine has outlived, its time, has outlived itself, has died, so to sav, a natural death." Curiously, Khrushchev did not appear to challenge the doctrine's original validity. Perhaps a third of- Dominican Republic industry is owned by .Americans. The government controls another third. The republic is the third largest producer of sugar in the Western Hemisphere. It also has large deposits of bauxite ore, which have attracted the Aluminum Company of America. The United Fruit Company enjoys the island nation's tropical wealth. Since the overthrow of the Trujillo dictatorship, U.S. business interests through the Business Council for International Understanding have clone a truly remarkable fob of management counseling and assistance. American diplomats have advised Dominican officials patently and intimately. The United States committed itself to Dominican democracy in 1961 when we sent warships to within sight of Santo Domingo to influence reversal of an army take-over. President Johnson now . says: "The moment the O.A.S. comes up with a plan, we'll be the lirst to come back home." But that moment mav be a long way off. U. S. marines policed the Dominican Republic for eight years—1916 to 1924. Marines occupied Haiti in 1915 to frustrate suspected German designs on the island and stayed un- til 1934 to maintain orderly government. Nicaragua was similarly occupied from 1912 to 1933 except for a brief break in 1925. American forces also intervened in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras for shorter periods. Intervention has a way of being .self-extending. Snailnaping on the Border The French, that funny race, have a thing about snails. The best snails are supposed to come from Burgundy, where their cooking is so complicated that the carrots and onions involved in the process never show up on the table at all. Stuffed snails—cagouillcs—are found in the Marennes region. Little gray snails are served with a tomato sauce near Nice. Catalan sausages go with cargolades, grilled snails—not advised in summer. The Isle de France area occasionally offers snail stew. The snails which are in the'news today, however, arc of Swiss rather than French extraction. Extraction is the right word, for in this instance it is a euphemism for snailnaping. What the French have been doing, apparently, is crossing the border to hunt for escargots in the Swiss canton of Neuchatel. The Swiss don't use their snails—they certainly wouldn't eat them—but they now seem eager to play snail-in-the-manger. The canton has issued a decree barring the "capture, transport, and sale" 'of its snails. Police have been authorized to search cars. If they find you with a gaggle of snails, they'll seize your vehicle. The snails the French nap are destined for canning factories in the. department of Doubs. Doubs comes from the Latin dubius, or doubtful. Era of the little War' We are living in what, thanks to the ab- scence of a shooting war between anv major powers, automatically earns the title of peacetime. But though the world- is in no immediate danger of dying from a nuclear heart attack, it has broken out with' a rash of measles, says Harlan Cleveland, assistant secretary of state for international organization affairs. There are (or were, as of the time he spoke), 49 little wars, guerrilla campaigns and border disputes currently going on around the world. One reason, he says, is the nuclear stalemate; war between the big powers has become unthinkable. Add to this situation the emergence of scores of new, independent nations in Asia and Africa and the spreading of the idea, which the United States has encouraged, that every country has the right to dctetminc its own destiny. With the fear of nuclear war inhibiting the big powers from keeping die small ones in line as they once did, the result has been a series of minor disputes. "It seems," says Cleveland, "that the alternative to a world war is a world full of wars." Folks who get married in Las Vegas are saluting it as the gambling capital of the U.S.A. LBJ Believes in Continuity (Copyright 1969, King Features Syndicate, Inc.I By jfo/m Chamberlain The "liberals"—and the word should be in quotes, all right — have turned savagely on President Lyndon Johnson for instituting what tLey insist is a totally new doctrine in relation to nipping Communist subversion or protecting U.S. citizens in Latin American countries. According to these "liberals," the so- called "Johnson Doctrine," as applied to the Dominican crisis, is in flagrant violation of everything that had been built up since the creation of the Organization of American States supposedly turned the Monroe Doctrine into an anachronism. But what short memories the "liberals" have. The truth is that the "Johnson Doctrine" was also the "Eisenhower Doctrine" and the "Kennedy Doctrine." Just think back for a moment to the mouth of May in 1958. Vice President Richard Nixon was then in the midst of an eighteen-day tour of eight South American republics. The Communists, working both openly and behind the scenes, had organized demonstrations against Nixon, which became particularly ugly in Peru and in Venezuela. To counter the threat to Nixon's person, Eisenhower ordered U.S. paratroopers into the Caribbean area. True enough, they were set down at forward stations that were, as Eisenhower put it, "well within the American zone." But they were there in full anticipation that they might be needed in Venezuela itself if Nixon had gotten into real trouble. < The "Eisenhower Doctrine" vis-a-vis Communist tampering in Latin America had a definitive workout in Guatemala as early as 1954. The '"liberals" have either forgotten or do not care to talk about the story ot jack Peurifoy, Ike's ambassador to Guatemala, who helped engineer the overthrow of the government Or President Jacobo Arbenz, who had gone over to the Reds. Peurifoy's adviser in this business of ousting Arbenz was none other than Thomas Mann, who has been Lyndon Johnson's right-hand man on Latin America from the start. In 1954, as now, the "liberals" yelled "imperialism" because of the Peuriloy- complicity in ridding Guatemala oi a "trial run" version of Castroism which actually had Castro's own "Che" Guevara working hard for it. On the subject of the U.S. role in ousting Arbenz, Peurifoy never indulged in any double-talk. "People are complaining that 1 was forty-five minutes off schedule," he said when the job of masterminding the Guatemala re-volt against Arbenz had been completed. Coming on down to the end of the Eisenhower years, the Bay of Pigs invasion plan was already in the works at the time when Nixon and jack Kennedy were carrying on their presidential campaign debates in the autumn of 1960. When Kennedy publicly accused the Eisenhower-Nixon administration of a "do- nothing" policy in relation to Fidel Castro, Nixon could not reply for fear of tipping Castro off to the secret that the CIA and the Pentagon were cooking up a surprise party for him on the Cuba beaches. The point here is that Jack Kennedy, when he took office, did not call off the attempted Bay of Pigs application of the "Eisenhower Doctrine" that Red governments have no place in the western hemisphere. The Bay ol Pigs failed because the U.S. did not use enough air cover follow-through to back up the original invasion by the Cuban anti- Cas- troites, but the mistake was one of means, not one of intent. Even as late as April of 1963 the Kennedy administration was following the lines laid down in the Eisenhower years. In giving recognition to a new military government in Guatemala, the U.S., speaking through Assistant Secretary of State Edwin^Martin, told Latin Americans that the hackneyed terms, "self- determination" and "non-intervention," should not be permitted to threaten hemisphere security or bring "Castro-Communist' governments into being. So, when Lyndon Johnson sent U.S. Marines into the Dominican Republic to forestall a Castroite disaster, it was the "can do" man's way of signifying that the Eisenhower and Kennedy doctrines were still in effect. There was nothing "new" here. To the Rescue Today in World Affairs By DAVID LAWRENCE WASHINGTON — Do international problems really cha n g e very much in a half -cent u r y? Are the basic issues that inflame the passions of peop 1 e s around the globe any different now than they were five decades ago? Just 50 years ago— on F r i day, May 7, 1915— a submarine of the Navy of the imperalist government of Germany torpedoed without warning the "Lusitania," an unarmed merchant vess e 1 of a British steamship c o m ?any, and catised the death of 1,198 persons, of whom 124 were Americans. The whole world stood aghast at this act of brutality. The European war had begun the year before, and the United States was carefully preserving i t s neutrality. Yet innocent citizens of this and other countries were wiped out in a few minutes. The theory behind such sinkings was that they would discourage the shipment of supplies to G r e a t Britain and France. The action was in total disregard of international law and in definance of warnings which the United States had issued to the belligerent powers not to endanger American lives and property on the high seas. To torpedo unarmed vessels with out warning was contrary also to the accepted rules of civilized warfare. ft ft ft Most perplexing of all was the problem which faced President Wilson. From Friday to Monday, no word came from the White House except that a protest note was being prepared. fore the United States could mobilize its troops and get them overseas to rescue the western allies. President Wilson promptly broke diplomatic relations and asked Congress to give him authority to arm merchant ships in order to resist attacks. But Congress got involved in a filibuster and debate, led mostly by the "liberals" of those times, 'and the session adjourned on its fixed date— March 4 — without granting the reques ted authority. Mr. Wilson went ahead, anyhow, believing that he had the constitutional power without action by Congr ess. When American vessels were sunk, the president immediately asked Congress to declare war, and it did so on April 6, 1917— not even six months after 1916 election. the On Monday, May Mr. Wilson made 10, however, a speech in Philadelphia in which he conveyed an impression of restraint. Although he made no explicit mention of the "Lusitania" tragedy, many of his listeners believed that he was referring to the sinking of the ship when he said: "The example of America must be a special example. The example of America must be the example not merely of peace because it will not fight, but of peace because peace is the healing and elevating influence of the world and strife is not. There is such a thing as a man being too proud to fight. There is such a thing as a nation being so right that it does not need to convince others by force that it is right." These remakrs caused a wave of protest inside the United States, although those who were on the pacifist side applaud e d enthusiastically. But in the next few weeks, public opinion developed heavily in favor of the idea that the United States should take a firm and resolute position because the phrase "too proud to fight" had been misconstrued abroad. ft ft ft Consequently, the sec one American note, which was se' on June 9, was so strong that the Secretary of State, William Jennings Bryan, considered il too belligerent and resigned. The net effect of the American stand, however, was to prevent a recurrence of such episodes as the sinking of the "Lusitania." President Wilson was re-elected in 1916 as many of his politic a 1 supporters publicized the slo gan: "He kept us out of war.' But on Feb. 1, 1917, the Berlin government announced that it was resuming unrestricted submarine warefare against all neutral and belligerent shipp i n g The belief evidently prevai 1 e d in the German high command that the European war could be won by the Kaiser's forces be President Wilson made it clear that the United States was making war not against the German people but against its misguided rulers. Likewise, at the end of the conflict, Mr. Wilson sponsored the concept of League of Nations as the only way to maintain peace in the world—by the co-operation peoples. Unfortunately, after the war was over, members of the United States Senate who were believers in isolationist doc trines prevented the United States from ratifying the firs peace treaty which had con tained a provision for the estab llshment of the League of Na tions. Most of the other countriei joined it anyhow, but in less than 10 years the league found itself powerless in the face o aggressive acts of autocrac The Washington Scene By BRUCE BtOSSAT WASHINGTON — (NEA) — Despite stubborn assertions to the contrary, the long struggle in South Viet Nam has not been primarily a civil war. Sens. George McGovern of South Dakota and Wayne Morse ot Oregon have given new voice to the contention it is a civil war. They are echoed elsewhere in public life, and in the academic world among both professors and students. In his new book, "The Making of a Quagmire," New York Times foreign correspondent David Halberstam says flatly: "The new Indochina war was not a spontaneous uprising from the south. It was part of a systematic and calculated conspiracy on the part of the Communist government in Hanoi to take over the south." Bernard Fall, recognized authority on Viet Nam, indicates again and again through h i s writings that the current war was given its impetus and has taken its direction and key support from Hanoi. Neither these two nor other concurring first-hand observers can be dismissed as parroti n g an official U. 8. governme n t line. They have relied heavily on independent sources of information and judgment. They are highly critical of many aspects of both American Vietnamese policy mance. and South and perfor- McGovern says the war really is between the Saigon government and the Viet Cong's National Liberation Front. it tt Fall points out that, although the NLF was set up in December I960, this flimsy Hanoi facade never got around to disclosing names of its alleged leaders until mid-April of 1962. To Fall, this was proof of NLF's "wholly artificial character." "Even in 1962, the NLF bothered to announce only 30 of its and would be under Lao-Do nf control. The intent, plainly, was to set up a party which could pretend to be free of ties with Hanoi. On the military side, the picture is muddier, yet it offers no great factual triumph for the "civil war' argument. Fall says that by mid-1963 Hanoi may have dispatched 12,000 infiltrators into South Viet Nam. Much earlier, he indicates, the North Vietnamese had infiltrated two fill division staffs to lead and co-ordinate guerrilla operations below the 17th parallel. From what sources were these infiltrators drawn? In the exchange of repatriated persons after the Geneva pact of 1954, some 100,000 Red soldiers —including many native south- erners—w e n t north. Also making the trek were substantial numbers of raw recruits, and many dependents of hard-c ore guerrillas left behind. A large portion of all these were trained for later fighting or underground effort in South Viet Nam. But the actual beginning of warfare in South Viet Nam goes back to 1957, when murderous assaults on key village officials were reported in great volume in the southernmost sectors. Aimed at destroying the country's administrative and economic fabric, these attacks now have killed some 15,000 leaders in all areas. The guerrillas who began the conflict in this manner were no innoc e n t peasants distre s s ed over the price of rice in Saigon. They were some 5,000-6,000 vet- e r a n s of the war with the French. They just stayed behind at repatriation time. Says Fall in "The Two Viet Nams:" "A smaller group of elite guerrillas. . .quietly buried Its well- greased weapons, hid its portable radio transmitters, and returned for the time being to the 82-member committee.'' ! humdrum tasks of sowing and That same year, Hanoi created harvesting rice." the Viet Nam People's Revolu-j Clearly they had southern tionary Party for the S o u t h,' sympathizers from the outset, but announced no names of, But their ample native recruits founders. Circulars from hard- have come in good part from ies very much as the United core Lao-Dong Communist party the loyalty won. by success or let,, very mucn as me unueaj headquarters in North Viet Nam compelled by terror. No expert informed Lao-Dong members in knows the real mixture. And, in he south that the new party any event, the guiding hand was merely a tactical necessity i was always moving in Hanoi. Nations is floundering today. The difficulty then, as now, concerns the inability of peoples to make their voices heard and to keep autocratic governments from theatening the peace of the world and from launching a war. When peoples are really able to communicate with peoples, a time may come when misguided governments can be restrained from plunging their countr ies and the rest of the world into war. (Copyright, 1965, New York Herald Tribune Inc.) Business Mirror By RICHARD F. WHALEN NEW YORK (AP) — Small change makes big business for the vending which right machine industry, now finds itself smack in the middle of a boiling controversy over silver coinage. If it weren't for the coin-operated vending machines, the U.S. Treasury probably would have little difficulty in eliminating all or nearly all the silver from dimes, quarters and half-dollars. Rapidly shrinking silver stockpiles will soon force such a move. The Treasury could make a nickel-copper alloy coin, like the present nickel, which would be similar in appearance to silver coins. However, ft ft such coin would not work in vending machines. The National Automatic Merchandising Association says there are 83 million vending- machine transactions every 24 hours. Volume totals $3.5 billion a year. Slug rejectors give each coin five tests, one of which involves a magnet that checks the precise electrical property of silver coins. In recent weeks debate by silver producers, silver users and the vending machine industry has intensified. There have been reports that there is strong feeling in the Senate for retaining some silvei in coins. Silver users such as the photographic industry, however, argue that sooner or later Ironwood Daily Globe Published evenings, except Sundays by Globe Publishing Company, 118 E McLcod Ave.. Ironwood. Michigan Established Nov. 20. 1919, (Ironwood News-Record acquired April 16 1921; Ironwood Times acquired May 23, 1946.] Second class postage paid at Ironwood. Michigan. MEMBEB OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS The Associated Press Is entitled ex elusively to the use for republcation of all the local news printed In this newspaper, as well as all AP news dispatches. Member of American Newspaper Publishers Association, Interamerican Press Association. Inland Daily Press Association. Bureau of Ad vet Using Michigan Press Association. Audit Bureau of Circulation*. Subscription rates: By mall within • radius of 60 mile*—per year, 10: sU months, U; three months, 13; one month, $1.50 No mall subscriptions sold to towns and locations where carrier service Is maintained. Elsewhere—per year, 818; one month. $1.50. All mall all silver will have to be eliminated from coins because the rowing industrial demand far outstrips the supply from mines. The International Nickel Co. proposed a nickel-silicon coin it said should satisfy the vending machine industry. But within hours an industry spokesman said the coin wouldn't work well enough. He emphasized that the industry would be the first to endorse any and all coins that it knew would work in the present coin mechanisms without costly adjustments. That's the heart of the dilemma facing the Treasury, which also has a number of other worries: <y •& o —Will people readily accept the new coins and use them interchangeably with the present coins? —Need there be a law against hording silver coins to avoid a worsening in the present coin shortage? —What must go into the new coin to make it too difficult to counterfeit? The high cost of silver discourages counterfeiting now. Perhaps the most likely candidate for the new coin is a nickel - copper "sandwich" — like today's nickels on the out side with a copper core. The core would provide the electri cal property that silver does now. One drawback: It might be difficult to make such a coin in the large quantities necessary to the economy. The vending machine industry has indicated that it likes the sandwich. So it may well be tha the first change in U.S. silve: coinage since it began in 1792 will be tailored to the needs o the modern era of mass mer chandising by machines. The Treasury, wrestling with the varied alternatives, has pu off making a recommendation several times so far this year The latest word is that it may make the announcement in about two weeks. By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS Today is Monday, May 10, the 30th day of 1965. There are 235 days left in the year. Today's highlight in history: On this date in 1775, Col. Ethan Allen captured Ft. Ticonderoga from the British. Allen's company of Vermont militia ivon fame as "The Green Mountain Boys." On this date: In 1775—The second Continen- •al Congress met in Philadelphia, the first time all 13 colonies were represented. In 1869—The golden spike was driven at Ogden, Utah, marking he completion of the first transcontinental railroad. In 1871—France ceded Alsace- Lorraine to Germany. In 1940, Winston Churchill became prime minister of Britain. the week, 49 centa. EASTER DATE VARIATION Variation of the Easter date between the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the churches o the Western world results from the fact that the Ortho d o x churches follow the old Jul Ian calendar instead of the Gregori an calendar, Day in History In 1941, London suffered one of its worst air raids; Nazi bombs damaged the House of Commons, Westminster Abbey and the British Museum. Ten years ago — The United States, Britain and France sent identical notes to Moscow, asking for a conference to end sources of friction. Five years ago—Sen. John F. Kennedy defeated Sen. Hubert Humphrey by a 3-1 margin in the West Virginia Democratic presidential primary. One year ago — The Soviet Communist party issued a statement saying that world communism should be a voluntary movement of like-minded people in which no single party would be dominant. Record of the Past 10 YEARS AGO — Temperatures: High 60, low 39. . .A. J, Tiberi, manager of the Wakefield Piggly-Wiggley Store, is the general chairman for the 20th Century Annual Convention and Merchandising Conference, to be held Sunday, May 15, in the Ironwood Memorial Building. . .Hurley High School's baseball team is scheduled to play its first game of the 1955 season against the Bergland Vikings Wednesday afternoon at 2 at the Montreal Field. 20 YEARS AGO ture: High 47, low Tempera- 26. . .The Rev. A. G. Eklund, pastor of the Mission Covenant church, was elected president of the Ministerial association of the Upper Michigan conference of Covenant churches at the recent ann u a 1 meeting of the group held at Menominee, Mich. . .The bookkeeping class of the Luther L. Wright high school has been awarded honorable mention in a nationwide bookkeeping contest c o n- ducted by the Business Education World magazine, Rosa L. Pape, instructor of the class was notified yesterday. USB DAILY GLOBE WAN'! Berry's World O IMS by NEA, Inc. "Ralph, what's the story on this Jfeppe</-up inff/frof/d 6y Communists from the North}"
What members have found on this page
Get access to Newspapers.com
- The largest online newspaper archive
- 11,100+ newspapers from the 1700s–2000s
- Millions of additional pages added every month