AUGUST 20, L890. THE MANUFACTURER AND INVENTOR 333 magnificent heating effect, such as is seldom seen apart from metallurgical operations conducted on a very large scale. Another important point must be noticed, namely, the fact that, before the firing proper began in No. 2 kiln chamber, the mass of brick contained in it was at a bright red heat, tljat effect being due to the circumstance that the effluent gas from No. 1 chamber was passed through it, and thus made to give up all the heat contained in it, except such as was required to produce an ascensional current in the chimney stalk. In this way a bumed-off chamber of brick is always in readiness to serve as a heat regenerator for the current of air requisite in the next chamber of the series. Valves and dampers are provided for keeping the currents of combustible gas, air, and effluent gas under the most powerful control, and the ultimate effect is, perhaps, even more beautiful and scientifically perfect than the original conception. Not only is there greater economy as to the time required for the firing operation in any kiln chamber, attended with various other economies that need not be enlarged upon, as they will readily suggest themselves to practical people, but there is a still greater economy in respect of the fuel employed. Up to the present the amount of fuel necessary to burn a given quantity of bricks has been reduced to fully fifty per cent. Since their introduction, many more of Dunnachie's patent fire-brick burning kilns, have been set to work along with Wilson's patent gas producers, and in these the very important economic results recorded above are uniformly obtained, and several of the best brands of silica and fire-bricks in Great Britain are now burnt on this system. Nor has the fertile and inventive brain of the talented managing director been idle in other departments of the GJenboigWorks. He has been devoting his life to the advancement of the company with which he is so closely identified, and we cannot do better than make a brief reference to Dunnachie's patent drying stove. To prevent the overheating of the end nearest to the fires, two floors are employed, the lower one composed of fire clay covers running halfway up the stove from the firing end, and the upper,consisting of iron plates,running the whole length of the stove, and forming the real floor. The space between forms an air flue, communicating with the open air at the gable over the fires, and with the flue at the middle of the stove. This stove dries every brick every day with perfect regularity and freedom from cracking. It permits of two moulders working on the space usually allotted to one. The same gentleman's " Star" heating stove was awarded a prize medal at the South Kensington Smoke Abatement Exhibition, 1882. It is essentially a fire-brick stove. Internally it is composed of the Glenboig fire-bricks, and externally of iron, or iron set with ornamental and artistic tiles. The metal is used only for strength and ornamentation. The heat-absorbing and gentle radiating qualities of fire-clay are taken advantage of, in varying degrees, in most good heating stoves; but in this they are util ised in the highest possible degree, and the result is, a stove giving forth warm air, sweet and fresh, very different from the air heated by an iron stove, and with an expenditure of fuel which will compare favourably with any stove in use. It burns any description of ordinary coal or slack, anthracite, wood, or peat, and may be fitted for gas or paraffin. With ordinary coal, the arrangements for smoke consumption will be found to be of the most perfect description. The aim of the designer has been efficiency, economy and simplicity. To those who understand the stove question, the full importance of these terms, and the order in which they are used, will be understood. It is simple in its construction, and also in its working. The fire-bricks are of such a kind, and are used in such a way, that cracking from change of temperature is impossible; and in operation it will be found that while cleaning can be easily done, it will almost never be required. The mode of cutting off the air at the front by closing ashpan and doonj, thus admitting only* what passes through the cninks, if preferable. This makes the fire-place a "gas producer," forming carbonic oxidey which is burned by the air from the heat ing chamber. It heats up quickly, having no cold to contend with, and maintains a steady temperature, giving forth heat for hours after firing has ceased. In first cost it is cheaper than any other stove in use, having anything like an equal appearance. It is made in three sizes, and is suitable for heating churches, schools, halls, offices, vineries, &c. Referring to the engravings on page 332, Fig. 1 illustrates the Old Works, and Fig. 2 the Star Works, both at Glenboig, and Fig. 3 the Cumbernauld Works THE REVISED RAILWAY RATES. Draft classifications of merchandise traffic have now been issued by the Board of Trade for the principal railway companies in England, in accordance with the powers vested in them by the recent Parliamentary investigation. If the companies approve of the classifications as laid down for them by the Board, they will be embodied in a Provisional Order and be legalised by Parliament. The document before us refers to the London and North Western Railway, and we may fairly take their schedule as representative. It deals (1) with maximum rates, (2) provision as to fixing rates and charges, and (3) miscellaneous matters, such as returning empties, arbitration, &c. For the conveyance of minerals and goods in class A, the rates are :—not exceeding 20 miles, o^d. per ton per mile ; exceeding 20 but not exceeding 50 miles, o*75d.; not exceeding 100 miles, o'6od. ; any distance beyond, o'45d. This applies to a consignment of not less than 250 tons delivered to the Company at one time,and to be delivered at one time to one person. For a consignment less than 250 tons, but not less than 10 tons, the rates are :—for a distance not exceeding 20 miles, o'ood. per ton per mile ; exceeding 20 but not more than 50 miles, o*8od. ; not exceeding 100, o-65d. ; any distance beyond 100 miles, o'5od. For other consignments—not exceeding 20 miles, o'ood.; exceeding 20 but not more than 50 miles, o'85d.; not exceeding 100 miles, o*7od.; exceeding 100 miles, o*6od. Maximum terminals :—station terminal at each end, 6d. per ton. We shall be pleased to notice in this column any books, &c. , that may be forivarded to us for reviezu. the resistance varied approximately as the velocity squared there was a decided change in the law at or about the velocity of sound. By an elaborate investigation of many carefully made experiments with the Bashforth Chronograph, it is established that for all projectiles the resistance varies practically as the velocity squared for speeds between 100 and 850 feet per second and above 1,300 feet per second, while for intermediate rates the resistance varies as an increasingly higher power of the velocity, the maximum occurring between 1,100 and 1,140 feet per second, and depending upon the shape of the projectile. This is a remarkable fact, and offers an interesting problem to physicists as to the " why and wherefore." A large portion of the book is taken up with tables of experiments and calculations connected therewith, and we need hardly say they are arranged and printed with the care for which the Cambridge Press is noted. The close agreement between the calculated and experimental ranges and times of flight for high muzzle velocities and low elevations show, as the author claims, that his coefficients are well adapted for the best guns of the present day. Only one small curve-diagram (Fig. 13) appears in the book, and, if we might make a suggestion, it is that mathematicians would occasionally find a new light break in upon them if greater use were made of graphic representation in recording experiments. MESSRS. W. B. FORDHAM LIMITED. AND SONS, A REVISED ACCOUNT OF THE EXPERIMENTS MADE with the Bashforth Chronograph to find the resistance of the air to the motion of projectiles, with the application of the results to the calculation of trajectories according to J. Bernoulli's method. By Francis Bashforth, B.D. Cambridge: University Press, 1890. —Until the advent of the Armstrong gun the resistance of the air to the motion of projectiles was a matter that had no public interest and did not particularly concern the artillerist, as, previous to that time, long ranges and high velocities were unattainable, and under ordinary conditions the common formula of r OC v 2 was sufficiently accurate for all purposes. Now, however, that successive improvements have given us guns capable of throwing an 1,800 lb. shot with a velocity of over 2,000 feet per second, or, to take another case, a 380 lb. shot to a distance of 12 miles, it is of great importance that we should be able to determine accurately the effect of all the various forces acting on or against the projectile. The science of ballistics has been- a favourite one with mathematicians for the last two centuries, but the author claims to be the first to formulate the correct law of resistance of the air for velocities between 100 and 2,800 feet per second, to spherical projectiles and also to elongated projectiles when they move approximately in the direction of their axes. After giving a short historical description of the investigations from Galileo onwards, and referring to the various ballistic pendulums which have been constructed, the author describes his chronograph which was designed to measure correctly the time occupied by a cannon ball in going over successive equal spaces, and thereby to enable a trustworthy formula to be instituted. The old idea was that the resistance of the air varied simply as the square of the velocity at all speeds. In experiments on French railways between 1862 and 1868 it was found that the resistance consisted of a factor varying directly as the velocity plus a factor varying as the square of the velocity. More recently Mr. O. T. Crosby, of the U.S. military service made experiments which led him to conclude that the speed-pressure-curve is a straight line, and therefore the resistance to motion through air varied directly as the velocity of the body in motion. Other experimenters in a more or less rough way have come to other conclusions, and it will thus be seen that where such different results have been arrived at the subject is not without difficulty, and that very much depends upon the accuracy of the instrument* and the care with which the observations and calculations are made. Robins, in 1742, seems to have approached very near to the conclusions now advocated, and to have shown that although ACCORDING to a resolution proposed and carried at an Extrordinary General Meeting of the shareholders of Messrs. Fordham and Sons, Limited, at the Midland Grand Hotel, on July 18th, Mr. W. B. Fordham in the chair, it was decided to increase the capital of the company from £60,000 to £100,000, in 100,000 shares of £1 each. This resolution was subsequently confirmed ,at an Extraordinary General Meeting on August 1st. For the present use it was proposed to call up only ,£10,000 at a premium of ios. per share. The chairman felt sure that they would use the money to great advantage in the business, which was steadily increasing. As an instance, Mr. Fordham showed that in January the increase was £745 ; in February, £639; in March, £1,693 ; in April, £1,183 ; in May, £947 ; and in June, £935 ; or a total increase for the six months of £6,144 compared with the corresponding period in 1889, which was the company's best year. He drew attention to the fact that the increase was a steady one, and not erratic ; at the same time he believed that there would be no diminution in the dividend. Replying to questions, Mr. Fordham remarked that the price of the shares, as quoted on the Stock Exchange, was not necessarily their proper value, and he should like to buy 5,000 shares at 30s. It was intended to apply for a quotation of the new issue, which would be allotted in the strict proportion of one new share for every six of the original shares held by proprietors. The directors will strictly carry out this allotment pro ratd, but we learn that if the existing shareholders do not subscribe for the whole, the directors may allot the shares in the best way consonant with the interest of the company by bringing in new shareholders who can do business with the firm. The list will open on Monday, August 18th, and close on Friday, August 22nd. The name of this firm is well known in business circles, having been established over 60 years, but it may be mentioned that the company was incorporated in December, 1885. For the four years ending December, 1889, a ten per cent, dividend has been paid on the original capital of £60,000, while no less an amount than £1,500 has been written off goodwill—equal to ten per cent, of the purchase price—and a considerable sum carried to the reserve fund. The following figures show conclusively the volume of business transacted, and the steady increases:—1886, £106,561; 1887, £119,190; 1888, £125,145; 1889, £135,982; and for the six months ended June 30th last an increase of £6,144 over the same period of 1889. It is eminently satisfactory to note that the profits for last year enabled the directors to pay 10 per cent, on the amount of new capital now offered ; they also believe, as already mentioned, that the present issue will not over capitalise the business nor reduce the dividend. As proof of their own bond fides, they are prepared to take their full proportion of the new issue; and they are dependent on the surplus profits over 10 per cent, per annum for their own remuneration. Considering the steadily-increasing business done by this company during the past year, there should be no difficulty in securing shareholders, who are generally only too eager to invest in a sound commercial undertaking. We have no doubt that the secretary of the company will be pleased to give any information if addressed at the offices, 36-40, York Road, London. COMMERCIAL TRAVELLERS ABROAD .—A further communication on this subject has been issued from the Foreign Office. In the following countries commercial travellers have to takeout licenses :—Argentine Republic, Brazil, Mexico, Uruguay. The following countries exempt travellers from the obligation :—Chili, Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, Japan, Morocco, Persia, Peru, United States of America (with the exception of Texas, where the license levied amounts to £10). CASUALTIES TO TIMBER-LADEN SHIPS.—The total number of ships which foundered in 1889, belonging to the United Kingdom and* to British Possessions, was 12, and 5 lives lost. Two were sailing ships homeward bound ; 5 sailing between foreign ports; 5 in the foreign and Colonial local trades. The year 1880 was the worst, when no fewer than 59 lives were lost and 34 ships foundered. Under the heading of'' Missing," are 3 ships and 30 lives lost. Among the miscellaneous casualties last year we have 4 vessels and 5 Uvea lost.
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