The Liberator from Boston, Massachusetts on August 16, 1834 · Page 3
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The Liberator from Boston, Massachusetts · Page 3

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JOURNAL OF THE TIMES. ted end polluting white and what has been done for as T Wbilsl the while man ha ethshed, at great expense of life and treasure, schools fur the Carlre and the Hottentots lor the Indiau of Ceylon and the negro of Mew-Zealand ;-whilst he has hi missionary, on the one hand, plvhijf with untiring iep his course to the summit ot the Rocky .Mountains, and, on the other, scaling- the wall of Chiua to declare thai Truth which makes men Irec indeed ' what has he done, what is he doing, fur the clan, "whose ignorance and error must ba daily wiincscd, and whose wants mint be fully known t Nothing, nothing, nothing. What eonhdence, then, can 1 properly tewsv, in a benevolence acting only afar off, whilst it neglects so much at handui tha't charity which w ill despatch a band of missionaries to A frica, whilst it will mil supply one to her sons htre, though tainliuir perching lor the bread of Me ? In . what manner am 1 to estimate the sincerity of men aye, of christian men too who, in one breath, tell me; their prejudices against us whilst here, are insurmountable, but, that they vanish, when we are removed from them some six or seven thousand miles that whilt we remain here, religion itself is incompetent to destroy them, but that when it acts across an ocean it possesses woudrous. overmaster-in? potency, for their extirpation; who say, I'.iat Mere, under the restraint of wholesome laws, with (be presence of the whites to check and control us, , we are utterly unlit, because of our moral and intellectual depravity, for the enjoyment of the lowest privilege yet, forsooth, would iJiug us, with all our stupidity, our inexperience, our vilcness and infamy, a one unbroken and recking mass, opon a distant land, unchecked by wholesome laws or animated by virtuous example to do what T To carry on a system of piracy 7 of robbery ? -or to establish a factory for conducting a commerce in the blood and gore and groans of our fellow-meu T No : it is not in these occupations we are to be employed, and for which it would seem, our benefactor being witnesses, we are well filled, but it is "O, wonderful adaptation ! to christianize and civilize one huudred millions of heathen ! ! Again if we are a nuisance note, by what necessity are we always to remain so? Are e incapable of improvement impenetrable to those gieat truths by w hich man's mind is enlightened his heart purified and he made a freeman indeed T This cannot be asserted without impugning God's word. What, then, will make tip this everlasting pressure 1 Prejudice, prejudice so proclaimed before all Israel, and before the Sun ' ! We have none against the whites. Deeply injured, neglected, villihcU as we have been, we are willing to pass it all by, lake a lowly station, and cheerfully acknowledge their superiority. Hut how is this temper reciprocated ? By still accumulating abuse. They sav of us, as a class, we are diseased, sick, ready lo die, and yet, by emigration to Liberia, would they suck from us the most healthful blood that circulates in our system. They declare by their language by their lav, an inflexible purpose to grant no mitigation of our ills, unless we respou- harmoniously lo their policy in sending us away. How ihen can we in a matter so important to us so far fioni our homes so irremediable, if it fail, trust to those whose ligoi oi temper no concession can soiiiu w -.enisii policy is the tuhstance, our good but the accident. But further, why are we spoken of as a class ? why do they throw together the good, the bad, the indifferent, and make ot them one mass, baptized by the name of nuisance, when they dual not thus with other men T I do not perceive thai men of blark hair and of light coloicd hair of black eyes ami blue eyes of low stature and high stature, are spoken of in classes, to w hich any moial or intellectual designation is given. No : each one is judged by his own merits nor are they mixed up with the vices and demerits of others to make a foul and unsightly lump. This common-sense and commou-chariiy measure of judgment and treatment is all that I have a right to ask, it is all I desire, and justice cannot withhold it. But, more than all, we are especially obnoxious to the slaveholder. Here is the spring of all this preparation. My fellow-man is ia bondage the sight of a freeman of his own color released from chains will make the slave more restless under his; and the slaveholder, with his hand in the throat of. my father, my brother, tny sister or my mother, must by all means, be kept tranquil and undisturbed his property in man must be untouched, whilst he is robbing him of the use of the limbs and muscles that God gave, and of the daily products of their toil. And this is the sum aud substance of this mighty charity ! We are to be driven from the country as a nuisance we are to be persuaded, by unceasing reiteration, that such we are now, and se we must remain, to alt, bul especially to the unrelenting slaveholder.' O ! my soul come not thou into their secretonto their assembly mine honor be not thou mmeu. I will not undertake 'to decide upon the justness of all these reflections. I only say, they are such as may very naturally be expected to arise in the mind of an intelligent free colored person, on the presen- r - I -ft--. tattoo oi colonization motives lor rvioovai. a iicii they are, however, nearly allied to such as are really eutertained by him, we may be led to presume, from , the result of colonization efforts upon the class to which he belongs. In the commencement of the scheme, whilst it was recommended chiefly as one of benevolence to the colored freeman and native African, it engaged in some small degree, the attention of the colored people iu the northern stales. But so soon as it was urged as a stroke of policy, ana 114 siirh rarpninnamii1 with fl-rpat vilitiralton nl the colored people,) pressed upon the Southern slaveholder, the whole plan was broken up, so far as tbey were concerned, ISeuevolcut persons, too, among the whites, entertaining sentiments of kindness toward the blacks ; many of whom had sop-. ported colonization 011 the ground thai it bid fair lo confer upon idem great benefits, so soon as they discovered, that benevolence to the oppressed was practically, but the banner on the outer wall, whilst the great citadel of the plan was in the policy of removing from amongst us a neglected class of nieu, whom wc bad brauded, nuisance,' and who were viewed as a hindrance to the peaceful perpetuation of slavery, they not only revolted from it, but so easy a task did they Cud it, lo expose the repugnancy of the principles upon which it was conducted, that they were enabled, very soon, lo product) an opinion concurrent with their own, amongst all the colored population of the North. The free colored people of the South, aud of the South-west, more particularly the lattet, have, at no time, manifested much iuteiest iu the enterprise, la Cincinnati, there is. among this class, an unei hostility to I.ileriaii Emigration. Their temper on the .subject of removal, at all, was, doubtless, greatly exacerbated, by the severe and persecuting spirit, exhibited toward thein in lfSZQ wheu a strong measure was resorted lo with the view of compelling them lo remove. In Louisville, notwithstanding the presence, of about one hundred emigrants, w ho were detained there, for several day's, previously to descendiug the river to take passage in the Ajax and a vciy lorci-hle appeal, made at the same lime by a highly gifted agent, in behalf of colonization, 110 effect seems to hare been produced upon the free colored pvopie of that city. Not one of them, so far as I am informed, has, at any time, emigrated to Liberia, or signified a wish to do so. - In New-Orleans, among the same class, if not opposition, there is, 1 apprehend, a thorough indiller-ence. Here, tbey cannot be much short ol leu thousand.' Numbers ol them know how lo read and write, and there are not wanting, those who are educated, intelligent and wealthy. Whilst presenting the claims of colonization to a very large assembly, that part of the gallery, appropriated lor S.ibbaih services, to the blacks, was crowded with that description of people. I spoke of them as 1 tell kindly : and of their condition, compassionately. To me it appeared a matter of 110 small importance to Ibe cause of ralotiizalion thai some tungiants should if possible, be obtained out ol so laige ami influential a body as was constituted by the wee colored class in New-Orleans. Still muie importoui . did I consider it, that some one or two, of the uamt inUllinaMl ani uaviUb- nmm.a ln. nl wit ll)i Ise tll'f. suaded to go out to Liberia, that they might bring back a true report of the condition nd prospects i the colony, which I then thought would ! satisfactory to every one else, as well as to their bre hieii in the lower country. With this view, tluough the medium of the newspapers, 1 gave notice 10 mi h of them as desired to go out, 'that their passage, with aJI necessary accommodations, would fx? lurnibcd gratuitously. So little interest was excited iu favor of Ibe scheme, then, and within the two or three week, during which the whole of the emigrants bv the Ajax were delayed there, thai only one iiee colored person came to converse with m"e on the su!- . jeel. He was irresolute at die fust interview, aud , m never sought another. A reference to recent expeditions will satisfy any a who will make it, thai the tree colored people have almost entirely abandoned tite project. The whole number of emigrants sent out iu twenlv-three expeditions was 2,00 1. Of these, there wcie" staves 613. Compare tire proportion of these numbers with at shewn by uteouent expedition ay, r y the our of the year 1833. The first f Brig American irom Philadelphia, said to have been a small oue, (the exact number I have not by me the means of ascertaining,) sailed iu May. This emigrants ia this AasUnce I mi down as all free. The Jupiter sailed from Norfolk with ffiy emi-gtanls. forty-four of whom were slave. I be Ajax Irom New-Orleans w ith one hundred and f fly ; of whom at least one hundred and twenty were slaves. The Argus from Norfolk viihjift y one; thirty-tire of whom were slaves. The aggregate uumber, by these expeditions, may be lairly set Uownatticoiun-dred and sixty ; of wrtom two hundrrd mere slares. Snc.li facts, sir, tend to deinousti ale the practical opeiations of the principles on w hich Colonization is recommended. How much soever they may be cherished by the sincere advocate ol human liberty, iu common with the slaveholder, it is in progress to full proof, that they have iu thcin nothing attractive, to that particular class of people lor wliosc benefit the whole plan was set on foot, and as lo whom it may be considered as w holly inciiicicnt. To what extent the transportation oi starts, who are compelled lo choose between exile and perpetual bondage, is a (Ipparturc-from the original purpose of colonization, I do not propose l.eie 10 inquire bul proceed. i$. To speak upon the influence of colonization upon Africa. It is not my mieniiuii to discuss this part of the subject at gic.it Icugih, bul lo prove, as orirlly as I cau from lacb, that the prospect of converting to Christianity, and civilizing the heathen ol Africa, by the direct instrumentality of the colony is if not wholly in a great measure, delusive. To the many who are led, mainly, by the consideration just mentioned, I irusl, it will not appear unfriendly to the cause of Religion itself, wheu I attempt lo show, that their effoils, in this tray, have little if any tcudency to promote it. As no cause, that is substantially a good one, ever received solid support from an erroneous presentation of facts, or Irom false or unsound arguments, so neither will it elude detriment by the suppression of opposing facts, or ot a candid and manly examination ol its claims. It is for the advancement ol truth, that I propose lo examine the soundness of the position taken by Colo-mzationists, that the ' Colony' trill be the great means of christianizing and civilizing Africa. Ill one sense, this is uot denied : Thai the Colony will continue to grow in numbers and importance, uutil it may be considered as permanently established ; that il will furnish a fooling for missionaries and others, who may engage in this work of benevolence ; thai here in future limes, as iu many o! our cities now, the religious will assemble to consult and organize associations for diffusing a know ledge of Christianity among the heathen, I shall not, for a moment, controvert. What 1 mean is, that the Colony ilselt, as such so far from aiding, by the fair influence of its religious character, in the conversion of the natives who come within the sphere of its action, will rather operate agaiusl their conversion. This position will, as 1 think, be fully supported, uot only by the history of all other nominally christian colonies iu modern times, but by facts already existing atid ascertained, going to prove the unfavorable influence ol the Colony upon the surrounding tribes. The discovery of America was made by a man, professedly, and, no doubt, really a christian. The country ol his birth, and that under whose patronage his voyages were conducted especially the latter, were eminently refined, brave and chivalrous. The Colonies planted by Columbus were made up oi men who were nominally christians, and ruler pi is-mg, nor is it disputed that there were among iliein intii vidua Is of decided and deep-toned piety. .Muie than this cannot be said of the adventurers lo Liberia. And lor the natives, have any ever been lound so well characterised to win the regards aud conciliate ihu love of men, as those descubed by Columbus 111 a letter to the King aud Queen of Spain ; as ' so affectionate, so tractable, and so peaceable, that I swear to your Htghuesses, there is not a belter race ol men, nor a better country in the world they love their neighbors as themselves their conversation is the sweetest and mildest in the world, aud always accompanied with a smile.' Can the imagination bring up before us circumstances more iavoia-ble than those which were here realized by the colonists, lor the exhibition of the Christian iliaiacier 7 And where, alter an experiment ol yoOyeais, are all these "people T Civilized T Christianized f . Ol the South Americans, there are miserable, abject remnants ; of the lslamlers, there is scarcely a human being lelt, to testify lo the Christian efforts ol this Chi intian colony. Are we sending lo Liberia better men more regardful ol justice and mercy or more strongly vn:-matcd by the Christian spirit, thau the pilgrim fathers of New-Lnglaud f Vet, where are the aborigines of thai country f Are they christianized T No : tne scorching -.lint of colonial Christianity has utterly consumed mem. In his intercourse with the aborigines of this country, Wm. I'cuii, more fully than any other of the colonial proprietaries, exhibited to their contemplation the lovely porira.t of the christian iiegociaiorj moving; high above the gross region of subilely and deceit. Notwithstanding this great and attractive example of justice and magnanimity, yet do we find in the histoiy of the aborigines of Pennsylvania, the same result as iu all the other colonics, they were either destroyed, or, iu wretched remnants, driven back tarther and farther into the wilderness. The great majority of the colony possessed bul little of the spirit of I'enii. Nor, indeed, rs it lo be expected, that adveuturers lo distant countries, merely for the sake of gain, (aud of this description the great body of colonists always will te,) where il is to be acquired by commerce with savages, ignorant and unable lo appreciate the value ol their commodities, will fail forgetful of principle and right generally to seek those advantages iu their traitic, thai superior inulligeuce can so easily secure lu them especially iu the absence of a well regulated pul.lic sentiment, as iu older countries to brand such overreaching with disgrace. Now, sir, if all these instances ol colonization iu modem times, undertaken under the most lavorable circumstances, uid by some of the most pious aud distinguished ilTen, have utterly miscarried iu the work of christianizing and civilizing the heathen, what can be urged to encourage the expectation that the colony of Liberia, or any other nominally christian colony, planted 011 the coast of Aliica, will be permanently beneficial to the aborigines of that continent I But 1 am encountered here with au exception to the theory established by these facts: The European colonists differed in color Jrom the natives of countries tcliere Iney established themselves ; whereas the Xegro colonist of litis country, goes to Africa with all the udcunlagts of similar color aud physical conlorinauou. 1 giant thai this circumstance did, at oue lime, appear lo tne entitled lo considerable weight ; bul the testimony ol Coventor l'nuiev, united 10 oilier testimony ot tue same character, showing the lelalion of lue colonists aud the natives, has very much diminished its weight-, 'and turuislutd, agreeably to my appreheiisiou, reasons lor believing tneie are causes as completely repulsive betweeu the native Alricau and the colonist irom the United States, as any thai cau be found in color or form. i Ins gentleman, writing from Monrovia,, iu February last, says: 'The natives are, as to wealth aud intellectual cultivation, related to the colonists, as the uegio ol America is lu the white man ; aud this lact, added lo tin ir mode of dress, which consists of nothing usually bul a handkerchief around the loins, leads to the same distinction as exists in Aineitca between colois. A colonist ot any dye, and many ol I he 111 lucre are ol a Uaiker hue luau tue Vey or LVy , or Rroo or lasa,J wouid, j! al all respectable, llimk 4uiiist.il uigiaued ity marrying a native. The iiuuvcs are, lu icl, menials, (1 uieau those iu towu.) anu sorry am I to be obliged lo sav, that Irom my limited observation, 11 is tviuent, III it as little ettoii is uiaue by tue colonists lo elevate them, as is usually made by the higher class iu the Luucd States to eievate tne lowvr. The Kev. Samuel Jones, a colored man aud a Bapi.st preacher, seut out by the Colonization So ciety ol lieorgetowu, utiio, ou a visit 01 expioratiuu to Liberia, speaking ou the same subject, sas ; 1 saw iu all the scuools but oue or two Hat it t and noue weie-pieseut me two Sabbaths 1 pieatin. 111 Hie coiniiX. I ite uanes geiit rail :ear me loiuuis,-, mho 4ie itic colonists) yus it Is i.etessaiy luat lu j suould, iiidi tbey may uot rise a no t-esno .i.ti... Oue Ulan, liceitscu eAlioiier oi the Laposi tiijtri,i-lu.utuu, wcul so lul Us lo s tile natives ouj,lu to m iacs, and he Ut baled tne sul jc 1 with mi qo.t Waning. In tact, the nlal.ou ln:r-vcct the ft n.u..-i una native, is very similar lo ItiaL itliin iii.ibui aud iu-'.' 'Ail iliv cuionisis who cau atlord it have a uuiite 01 Ui lu uu tneti vvu.tr. Ii. miuvt never go lulu Ibe in.ue, 1ul a.w.i s t .n ai.u s.i , lu lue ktittteu. V heu liny go u. v.tt to s.v.-iw In ilir uusitu, iiu iwa li. 1. 1 hats .l, 0 luougli ttit lisik.1. tu it: vit su. ui.ss.v e." 'I hi t ot.su, ui.t.n 01 the (tii.i 1 it h.t . is 11. V01i.it-tary iaii .xt 1 pi loi 1 iin.e : vet, wliai kutu oi a bitiriei does a paer it.lm,t ion oosc to a vitiated state tl public seiil.ttieiu I Is u uot a mallei mat khoulufbe dt tply pontiered by Christian slaveholders lit our own cotiiui). how lar men exaiui le 111.1 coiitiibute to biiug about and saut lioti the enslavement ol the natives by the coloiusts T Is it not probable that the edge ol deiesiatiou ol ulavery w.uid be somewhat ciulleu among l hem ou kiieir lecolleciuii; that their Inends iu the L ulled Slates, looked upou by them, it may be, as eminent preachers aud christians, still bold their fellow men in bondage T How manj plausible pretexts mighi be lound lop turning into a cotton, or coflee, or sugar plantation, some half doxen or more ol these nearly naked uomadic ladies aud geiitlc men, thai they might be better led and clothed -than ihev could clothe and teed themselves and bam the additional beneb of bow and The 'Commercial Advertiser' of New-Vork, a newspaper warmly supporting the cause of coloniza tion, on the arrival of the schooner Edgara few day since Irom Liberia, says: 'All Ihc inlonuation we have from ihe colony, represent the pride, luxury and extravagance of those settlers who have been prosperous iu trade there, as highly repiehensible. Almost every lamily ba a nutuiier ol nauves employed as native servants, and even among the fam ilies of emancipated slaves who have been sent there, though themselves entirely dependant tor their up-poil. yel llicy are loo lazy even to brinjr water : and declare themselves free, and employ natives as their servants.' The Kev. 3Ir. King of Tennessee, late agent of the I ennessee Colonization Society, who went out in the Ajar., in coni-any with Mr. Jones mentioned allot e told me, not long since, that the colony had produced i little eflect tiHn ihe costume cf ibe natives, that they were yet to be peen wandering and lounging in the street, in the state of almost nudity, described by Mr. Finney. The nine gentleman, whilst in Liberia, became acquainted with the Kevcrend Mr. Carsar, an I.pis-copal clergvinan, much ropected. By hiui he was told, that although the last war (March, 1S32) with the natives, in which there were many of them killed, was popular, and considered glorious for the colony, yet the ostensible cause of it wa not tlie real cause ; ami that the latter was to be found in the resent men t of a keen and active trader by the name of Thompson, originating in disappointment at not receiv ing a due reciprocation of presents made by him with the purpose of advancing hi traffic with the natives. But, Sir, has it ever been known, thai commercial establishments have proved to be sources of re-Igiou knowledge and improvement to the heathen, among whom they have fieen placed I Tlie colony of Liberia is emphatically one of this character there exists in it, according to all accounts, a rage for trade. Let us recur for a moment to the history of religious efforts among our neighboring Indian. Who, amongst u, would ever thiiik of encouraging a trcding station, or a company of petty shopkeeper, (such as could lie induced to emigrate lor gain) and upholding them, as the best means of dil-fusiug a knowledge of Christianity among the Indians, as missionary stations I ! I will venture to say, that among the greatest olistacles, the true inis-sionary has to encounter in recommending "Christ lo our aboriginal native, is the influence, direct and indirect, of Mich establishments. When we consider their object, we cannot be at a loss, for an instant, to arrive at this conclusion. It is to supply the xcants of savage life, but more especially the F t-cci.uk wants of savage life. These peculiar want are trinkets, liauliles, bead?, tobacco, ardent spirit, fire-arinr, powder and ball. It is the gratification of these wants that gives vitality, and their growth that gives encouragement to the trading stations. Now , so long as these pecu liar wants subsist, savagism must continue so long as they groto, it must also be growing more rude and untameable. So stier(ieial is this truth, that no missionary station, so far as I am informed, has ever been supplied with any of the articles mentioned nbove, calculated to keep alive savage customs. What ia the first work of the missionary ? Is it not to allure to peace to stationary life and habits of settled industry 1 If he succeed, he puts an end, in proportion to his success, to the sale of arms, powder and bail, whether they be intended to kill men, or for hunting. If he inculcate abstinence from the use of ardent ppirilrf, he is brought directly in collision with the interest of the trader. Should he be blessed in his holiest labors for the amelioration of savage life, it must lie almost entirely, by the annihilation of the traders' occupation. It would seem strange then, that with experienced persons, there should, after twelve years disastrous trial, too, at Liberia, exist such pertinacity in insisting upon the practicability i f uniting the trader and missionary and, that there shotilil still he indulged such bloated expectations of good to the heathen of Africa, from the iustrumtietality of men who go out if preachers, so much ihe worse with fire-arms, powder and ball, and ruin, in one hand, and the bible iu the other. The wants of the native African are limited to a little cotton cloth, trinket!', beads, baubles, tobacco, ardent spirits, powder, ball and fire-arms. Francin Uuvany, who became a resident of the colony in 1823, testified before a Committee of Congress, in IS30, that he hud acquired property, since his emi gration, to the amount of 20,0 DO and that a Mr. Waring, (if we mistake not, a preacher.) had, as a commission merchant in Monrovia, sold in one vear, goods to the amount of $70,000. Novjr, Sireven upon the supposition, that no other goods were sold to the natives, than the probable yearly amount vend ed by these to gentlemen, what uwful havoc must lie made ol the souls and bodies of these poor snv ages ! AnJ when we consider too, that in thii " dreadful trade" are engaged professed ministers of Jesus Llu ist, w 110, Irom tlieir sacred calling must or course, be most relied upon fur preaching tiie cospel to them, and exhibiting, in their ow n conduct, the beauty of the Christian character, it becomes a question of tremendous import to all American Christians, " can 1, in conscience, give my support and encour agemeut to an establishment, w hose ways are pre ent destruction to the heathen, in the hope, that per-adventuie, it may become hereafter the means of blessing and salvation to them V But the pernicious consequences of such a state of things, are, by no means, confined to the natives. The " Commercial Advertiser" tells us that "those w ho have been most prosperous in trade" (in supplying the country with the instruments of death) " are pi ou.J, extravagant and luxurious." They have reaped their reward,' it may lie, at the expense of the little pittances of the unwary emigrants, who by their ruin and alluring trumpery, have been made and kept poor. As to the condition of the poor, however they may have become so, another quotation from Mr. Jones's journal shall inform us. "On theyourA day, Mr. King Agent of Tennessee Colonization Suciety, suggested that we ought now to visit the poor. We accordingly did so and of all misery and poverty, and all repining that my imagination had ever conceived, it had never reached, what my eyes now saw, and my ears heard. Hundreds of poor creatures, squalid, ragged, hungry, without employment some actually starving to death, and all praying most fervently that they might get home to America once more. Eve 1 the emancipated slave craved the boon of returning again to bondage, that he might once" jnor .have the pains of hunger salisued. t here are' hundreds there, who say, they would rather come back and be slaves, than stay in Libtiia. They would set down and (ell us tlieir tale of sullering aud of sorrow, with such a dejected and woe-begone aspect, that it would almost break our hearts. They would weep as they would talk of their sorrows here and their joys in America -anti we mingled our tears freely with theirs. This part of the imputation included, as nearly as we could judge two-thirds of the inhabitants of .Monrovia. Mr. Jones had been a slave in Keutncky; 111 a subsequent part of his journal be says, "sooner than carry my wife and two suns there to settle, with only what property 1 now possess, 1 would go bick iuio slavery as a lar belter lot."f then hearing the gospel preached, to the salvation of their souls ! How easily might they fill their mouths with arguments thai weie loimeily deemed good tor the Alucau slave trade, and note lor the domestic slave trade, aud lor the continuance of slavery air.ong us t ll this lie the true account, there was, in the result, a singular retribution of Providence. Thompson teas the only colonist tcho teas killed in tne Oulut icilh ihe i.uttLts. I bete uie,Hnitiig us, I know, maiiv men of 01s-ui.gu.sl.e.. ..etv uiiu latent? especially 111 lite lieu stales who huve hug sun t', lost ..II confidence iu colonisation, as an clicclual means of extol minuting stately, or eeii 111 its jeimasne influence over the live tt.it.ieu pvt. pie lu leiu.iie llieiusehes to Africa, who yet a bete lo 11 a a mUionary enterprise. tt.t:, I tul. - at, to cousi.it atu .-tltt l, , liupai tiallv -.!.. tr.yit me k.tvv, l.u et tet l as it may be, lo.. I I i..ttt lit.iij ic . 10 jjive ol this J ait ol tile sub-j-tl. 111 lb. taii.t sj nil, let tilt-in ask themselves 1.- the mi tdidu . I th. b mailer, tiechleulv of a re- I. gicus c11.11 acter ." . ita the etiou of ihe colony II, 1.11 tne natives, i.ert b.loi e. Lien suth as tiod uses lu bless 111 die ct.nteisi. 11 of tlie heathen !" " Is l..ete any leasvaiab.e gi ootid lo believe, that il will l such in Julure '." " Is theie uot st,u.e room to le.tr thttt many of the Column is,' who have left this couuliy with a highly regulable religious character, have fallen back lu a baser sLtutlaru " If an affirmative answer to the 3 lust question should barely preioutieiate, aud there is hope of tilings still better lu come, ought it not to be a matter of the most earnest consideration, bow far even this will justify men of deep-toned piety, whose praise is in all the churches, and whose intellectual labors reach tlie remotest frontier hamlets in sustaining, by their names ami their etlort?, a scheme that puts at ease the conscience of the slaveholder that has a tendency, o far as it succeeds, by removing the greatest iuiiedimcnt to the xaeej'il enjoyment of slave-property, to perpetuate thfj system of slavery a Il it not very probable, that those persons who have looked, with hieh expectation, to the scheme of colonization, as tne best that coaki be deviled for tlie ami ib da lion of the Alricaa slave trade, are dooced to tuiTt-r utter disappointment. This trade has been carried on since tiie establishment of tlie cuUnic at Sierra Leone and Liberia, as vigorously a it ever had been driven at any tinner period ; and notKitlistaiHiing, it is regarded by the law of the Slate of Eurupe, as well as of our own.enun.rv, piracy, and i puuihabie widi death, and many ot the public ships of these powers, particularly 01 England , are continually cruising in the African tens, in (jiiest of tlavers, yet. Sir, is litis t rathe in human flesh carried on throughout the w hole const, and to no contemptible extent even in tlieir own colony established for it tupprcsUoh. This fact was fully disclosed, by an inquiry iiislitued iml long since, ia t!ie Britirh Parliament. Nor am I, by any uieaus, sure that the result of the same enquiry does nut, on very siroug grounds, impl.irate some rf 011 r own roU.nist 1 cither directly participating in this trade, or else cnnniviiig at its existence in I lie neighbor-httod of Monrovia. May we not be prrpaied to expect this, from the evide'nee already before the public of tlie entire deterioration of the CbrisHaujchar-acter in 6ueh of the colonists as have been most successful in trade, and tlieir utter neglect thus f.rr, of the natives 1 If men professing Christianity will, at Uiis d.iv, consent to enrich themselves by the sale of such 'JTV quantities of ardent spirits as have beeu fold to the natives by chiirch-uit;uler3 in Liberia, tlieir next movement 'will be to sell" to the slaver his supplies; suspecting him to be such, yet asking no questions, fur who questions a customer with a full purse 1 The next step will be to assume a secret ageacy for him ; the next, a direct participation in the profits connected with the agency; and lastly, when such men by their wealth anJ influence have moulded public opinion to sustain their views, and the colony is left to its own government, there will, in all probability, be a shameless and upeir prosecution of the trade in their fellow beings. . - It seems ta me that any hoe, built upon the cstuli-lishment of colonies on tlie African coast, for the suppression of the slave trade, will prove altogether fallacious. It is in opposition, wholly, to commercial experience. There is no commodity if human flesh may be so called which acanc will not supply lo a market kept open for its sale. She laughs at revenue-laws at the penalties for smuggling derides death, and the dangers of th deep, scorn heaven and bell, that she may clutch her prey. There is, in my humble judgment, but one way of bringing the African slave trade to a termination that is, by closing the market every where. I hft: thus, Sir, as I trust, without a single thoiiglir for which I should reproach myself, or the use of a single word which should justly give offeuce to anytone living stated in the foregoing remarks, some of my chief objections to colonization: not colonization as it may be defended, iu theory, by a dexirojjolemic, but as it is, in its practical ope-rctionJlf it be true, that, whilst it professes in itself a capacity for the relief of the country from slavery , it has, after seventeen years of trial, fair and favorable trial hne nothing that has touched tlie matter; if it falls in tcith though it may not have originated uncharitable feelings, unscrip-lural and unreasonable prejudices, and inhuman laws against the colored population among ns; if it occasions a deterioration of Christian character in the great body of those who emigrate and through them, brings the Christian religion into dishonor, among the heathen there is nothing in it, according to my poor judgment, that entitles it to the support of the patriot or the Christian. Although colonization in the West and South-Wet as to any effectual future action, is dead yet its ghost is unceas- inrrlu Iwm-L ..ft! tiT tl ntvnV frttlll tll Ofllv COIire In which our safety lies. Whenever any other plan of relief is submitted, colonization leaps in between it and the public mind, aud pushes it aside. The poet has said " man never is but always lo be blessed " colonization, 111 substance, savs, slavery " never is but always to be removed. " Knterlainiug these sentiments of colonization, I take up w'uh great confidence, the opinion, that, nothing of real moment rati be done fur our relief from the great evil uniler which we are slowly yet certainly perishing, unlit this community be utterly divorced bom cola-nizniiuuiiii all its parts, and in all its measures. Kentucky is, at this lime, in a fearful crisis un der a mighty pressure. She must vv itbout delay and if she w ould save her life almost with violence, throw off the incubus that is suffocating her to death or, be content to share, in common with the South, ltd sure, its bio'lcnin'r, its duuwtrou luttfe- let ijmi present for your consideration bul two or three facts: in 1790 there were in this State more than five whites to one colored ierson, in lt30 there were but three whites, and a very small fraction, to one colored person. In lSl)0, our whuks number was 220,959. In 1810, 400,511 increase - 183,552 In 1820, our whole numlicr was 564,317: la 1S30, 6SS.844 increase 124,527 Deduct the increase of 1830 from that of 1S20 anJ there will be a difference of 61,025 Thus, it appears that, on a population-capital of 564,517, theie was an increase in ten years of only 124,527 whilst for an equal period of leu years, there was an increase of 185,552, on a popiilutiou-capilal of but 220,959 demonstrating an absolute reduction of increase on the larger capital, below the increase on the smaller, of b'1,025. During the same period from 1800 to ISoO, the increase of the Blacks, taken separately, has been uniuteirirpt-ed aud rapid. From 1790, when Ihe lirel Census of the U. S. was taken under the law of Congress, to 1830 a period of forty years, ihere was a guin in the increase of the black Herniation, according to their population-capital, over the, increase of the whites, according to theirs, for the same icriod, of more than 59,000. The process by which this result is produced, I may exhibit on some future occasion; it is yet going on, producing results of the same kiiid with au alarming rapidity. v . In refusing to look at, what is acknowledged on all hands, to be an evil one that is becoming darker, wore unwieldy, more menacing and that is, in the end, if unremoved, to over-master us there is a want of manhood, which, it is believed, cannot fairly be attached to our countrymen. All that is wanting is, that this community come up to the con sitleration of the subject with kind and charitable feelings that the mass of mind among us "be applied to it, nut for dissension but relief not for triumph but for truth. In this temper, let the widest discussion of the the subject be invited in print and out of print free, J'ull, liberal, unrestrained, let system, that is breaking up the schools anil colleges of the south dissolving its churches, impoverishing the country; giving with each day of its protracted existence, additional strength to every excuse that is now made for its continuance, and that must, in a few years, at most, if left undisturbed, break upon the South w ith overw helming destruction 1 As king as such gentlemen, approving, doubtless most honestly, this supposed feature in colonization step forward, aud J'or this cause publicly recommend the whole scheme tliey are, with triumph, whatever tliey may intend, set down by tlie determined slaveholder of the South as full-blooded coionizationisls, endorsing his opinions, thru slavery now, under existing circumstances, i right that emancipation in the country, is out of the question; that rigorous laws, made to wring from the free colored people their " consent" to emigrate, are not to Or condemned, but rather to be winked at. The great mass of men stop uot to enquire what nice shades of dillerence tlvere may be among coloniza-tionists but tcAtf are colonizationistsby public pro fession. This ascertained, they tire set down as favoring all its gloomy consequences ; as the advocate of all Us appalling lulluence; as certainly as the moderate drinkers of tlieir one or twu daily glasses of brandy each, are written dowu by the opjioser of temperance, on their side. John Dean Lake, a w i loess in the inquiry above alluded to, residing at Sierra Leone, says: Depo-neul bad a mercantile transaction wilii a Mr. Hilar 'league, an American subject residing at Liberia. This Mr. 'league is iu tlie habit ot purchasing gooti in this colony, which he takes down to Liberia ti" sale, where a great many of the articles lie purchases, are in demand. Mrl 'league, in paying Mr. Lake for some goods, took the money from a bag containing about 1 ,000. The word Mau-zaiiarcs" was marked on this bag. This circumstance struck him, from the singularity of the word. Deponent has every reason to behev this bag came out of litis vessel, she having been brought into this harbor subseauentlv. and condemned in the court of mixed commission where it waa proved that she I tad taken in tier cargo (slaves) at the Gallinas, a river making the northern boundary of the colonial possessions of Liberia, distinguished heretofore, without bavins yet lust iu reputation lor the slave trade." there be no sympathy with the timid and the slothful, ! who cry otit let it alone, let 11 vmne, 11 win etire itself," whilst the torpor of approaching death, is bevintiin? to be felt let associations be encouraeed, hav ing lor tlieir object the concentration cf iniehec- t tual eriort. and the diffusion of intelligence tbrcogh-J out the whole maim of our population. This u ill j be round, as I vcrilv believe, tne roost eneciua method of keeping in "clieck the rash and the i in prudent and of drawing ot the ma tu ret I and sober views ot the patriotic and intelligent ol toe mho. Permit me, in conclusion, to ay, that the views submitted ia this communication, are entertained after long and very circjiniect examination of tlie main subject to which tliey apply. Born ia the uudst ol a slaveholding feomvrHtiity accustomed to the serv ices of slaves from nl iirtviey reared under an exposure to all the. prejudices hat slavery begets and ling myself, heretofore ;11d early life, a slaveholder tny" efforts ot meoUil 'WiCTatioa were eiaiuueucet in the ssusy lowest aud 'grusi-est a linos - pliere. Fearing tlie reality, as wtll the iinputat lion 01 emnusiasut eaw umi mj uuki uinu to a higher and puret,"rroi'?and- intellectual region, I used as a stand-point to survey deliberately a I the tract that 1 bad left.. When 1 remember, how calmly and dispassionately my mind has proceeded from oue truth connected with this subject, to another slitl higher that the opinions 1 have-embraced are those to which such minds and heart as W ilber-fitrce, and Clarkson's yeilded tlieir full assent that they are the opinion of tlie diiterested and ext elleut of our ow n country ; 1 feel well satisfied, that, my conclusion are not the fruit of enthusiasm. When 1 recur to my own observation, through a life, already of more thaa lorty years of live anli-repub-licaii.ieiiJeiiccsof slavery and lake up our most solemn state paper and there see, that all men are created equal, awl, have a right that is inalienable to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness," 1 Iccl a settled conviction of mind that tlavery, at it etUts amons- us. is ocuoeed to the very essence of our government and that by prolonging it, wc are t tng- do ten the foundation-principle of our happy institutions. When I take up the Book of God's love, and tlie re read whatsoever you would that men should do unto you, do ye even so unto live in" my conviction is not less thoroo-h, that slavery now is sinful in his sight. But one word more. Tlie views contained in this letter are my own, and they have been the result of my own reading, observation and thought. 1 run a member tf no anti-slavery society nor have 1 any acquaintance, cither personally or by literary cor respondence, wun any ol tiie nortliern anoiuionisie No one, beside myself, is committed by any thing I have said. With great respect, JAMES G- BIRNEY. fiercer County, July 15, 1834. CD 3 li! iTa SATURDAY, AUGUST 16, 1834. MR. BIRXEY'S LETTER. Our readers are presented, to-day, with one of the most important documents that the anti-slavery cause has yet produced in ihis country. . If any one is deterred by its leugth Irom giving it a careful and earnest perusal, he might as reasouably refuse to open a gold mine on account of its richness and cxleut. It contains uolbing superfluous nothing tame. As a piece of composition, it is chaste, vig orous and eloquent : its logic is clear, compact, in. vincible. The Letter drives the last nail into the cofiin of the monster CoLo.t izatios. In the last number of ibe Emancipator, Professor Y light makes some oinmculs upon ibis teller, aud says 4 It is sufiicionl to sav that Mr. Birney has main tained the highest standing in society at the south west, both as a pit vat e and professional man. He was Solicitor General of Alabama, had the oiTer of a scat ou the bench of ihe Supreme 'Court in thai state, and was appointed hv the Legislature lo nom inate th Faculty of the State University. Siuc his removal lo Kentucky, be has been ottered the chair of Political Economy, Rhetoric and Belles-lettres in Central College, aud has been appointed 1st Vice-President of tne Kentucky Colonization Stu iciy. la 18.52, he was appointed by Ihe American Colonization Society their permanent agent for I Ctiuessee, Alabama, .Mississippi, Louisiana, and the Territory of Arkansas. This agency he Iried thoroughly. No man could have better opportunity of witnessing the effect of coloiiizaiionism upon Ihe .south. His talents are equal to the high-standing which he has occupied, and there could le no (teller proof ot his pietv thau h.s relinquishm" iu behalf ol the oppressed, such a standing, lor the reproaches and insults that arc suie lo tall upou loose wlio practically love their neighbois as themselves. The editor of ihc Emancipator says thai 10,000 copies of the Letter have already teen scattered throughout the south-western valley, from the press of the Lexiugtou (Ky.) Intelligencer and adds: ' We hope the friends of the cause will uoi lad to iuriiisli tlie l.x. I oni. ol I lie .viiieiii an .Int. -Slavery Society with lue mrans ol making it a stereoiypeo pamphlet, mid i;iviii- il a wide nrculaliou. hen tiie Ingu standing, couimaudiug latcuis, ex tensive inuuence, and disaiteresied samuccs ol Mr Biitiey shall be tally understood at the noitii aud east as they a.'reatiy aie i it the south-west, a great additional iuteiest and importance will be attached to Hi is ttitilit aiiou. To this end, it w ill he accompa nies! Willi a oriel saeicn, prcpareu in mis city 101 the purpose, by individuals in possession of ample aud authentic information (Jj It behooves us to caution our colored friends particularly, respecting the individual alluded lo in the following adveriiseuieut, as lie has imposed bint' self upon us, aud twice upon them, iu this city, through our iustrumentality. - We regret tlie necessity of this public exposure, but justice to the whole community demands il. We uudcrstand tbal Emp- sou is attempting to injure the reputation of the Kev Mr. Hiiucs by calumny, among those who have not yet discovered his owu insincerity and aposlacy,aud are strangers to Mr. II. With such he may succeed for a time ; but it will be the success of au assassin. TJ- TO THE PUBLIC. A person named John Einpson, from London, was introduced to me in May last, aud highly recommended as a Lecturer against Deism and Atheism. By virtue of that recommendation, he was received by me aud others to whom 1 introduced him. In consequence of the recent couduct of M a Etnpsou, il becomes in t duty lo lulunn ail persons, ou wuom my lecommcuuauou or ihis gentleman, either iu public or private, may have had an influence, that I was mistakeu in the opinion 1 bad formed of him, and thai be docs not now enjoy my confidence or respect. J. V. H1MES. Boston, Aug. 7, ll&L XJ We have many excellent communications on file for an early insertion. ' A Constant Reader ' is welcome. O The collection obtained al Groton for the Maryland Colonization Society was less than $17 ! BOARDING HOUSE, No. 1G3, Pine-Street, three doors above Sixth Street, Philadelphia. JAMES GIBBON begs leave to inform his friends and the public, that he hits ritted up his residence for the accommodation of genteel people of color who may visit tlie city. J. Gibbon pledges himself that every attention will be rendered to Jie comfort of such visitors as may favor his bouse with their patronage. August 1(JL 6m. FREE LABOR. "ZbucA not, taste nor, handle not tSjEVERAL of oar anti-slavery friends have for a Ions; time felt desirons of making a practical application of the above positive injunction to the products of slave labor. In their behalf, we would respectfully and earnestly request all tho friends of emancipation, who are willing to unite in sustaining a free labor store, to leave their names with Mr. Bacon, at the oSce of the New-England Anti-S!avery Society, No. 46, Washington Street, before the 1st of September nest. - THE DESPOTISM OF FREEDOM : ' MtfftiMoM! . ... A most estraoidinary state of thing has been w,t-nrssed in this rity during the preseut wef k such an has not fx a kuowa since the revclut.on, and such as ought never to occur again to the ta:ri pttitenry. Ou Monday night last, a coid"y aad :cmcw-is mob assailed ihe tisul..e C .-.t .. : -v-u A V.:-ur-diet ht Charlcstowii, liiove t. t;i v-.i' f.o i.tutttLS, 12 Nuns, aud 57 srnoinrs v.; giiev nt to y, mostly Protestant eluldiea., .-j Srcd ti.u Luge Yu.ltiir.g, whicb'iu a few Initirs, w'uh tj ,i. t.aat.i.d nd ccst-ly fut in lure, was burnt iu the ground! Ihc piittei-pal actors in this scene of Vamlaiim were disguised as Indiaus, &.C. j but among the iainesnse crowd who witnessed it, there seems 10 h.e !eco uu effort made cither lo stop the savage oi ibe lire, or to arrest the- grand; coic-ptraiors. A large nuiolvr of en- :iies Irom. ChailestwwM aud this city were drawn to Ibe spot, but, strange and rhameltd to tell, not rtM9 of litem threw any w.ner upon tlie liarrxi I Tne r was deliberately cuuuuunica'.cd to the Chapel, lu the Bishop's Lodge, the Stables, and ibe Oid.Nu-nery,a large wooden bo.lding situated at a Maft distance from the others. Theloss is estimated svs high as one hundred thousand dollars. ' Tiie excitement is said to hava arisen against the nunnery iu consequence of a repwil that a fristrj was confined there against her wjtl ; that she kad once made ber escape, but was eulir cd back rorlcr thc promise of being dismissed ia three or four weeks with hoir, w kirb was not done. Mr. E. Caller f Cbarlestown and Ihe Selectmen ef lb sasac towf investigated Ihe affair, aud certify that Ut fcaMl remained l here on the 1 lib inst. vohsntarily. An occurrence so daring and dreadfal coald aot ' fail to till the community with nsinaishsncnl and horror. Accordingly, or Tuesday, at ibe snrrcstioa of the M ay or, the citizens of Boston assembled at Faa cuil Hail by thousands, t express their sbkomscs and detestation of so base an .let. Spirited tesola-lions were adopted, aud a enmmittee of 28 appoint ed to investigate tbo proceedings, and to adopt ev ery suitable mode of bringing Ibe author ad abet tor ol the outrage lo justice. Similar meetings bay been held by Hie citizens ot' Cbarlestown and Caa. bridge. As violence tends to beget violence, it was atar ally feared that the Catholic population would resort to some tiemendous act of retaliation ; bat the strenuous and praiseworthy efforts Vf the Bishop to ap pease meir indignation, and the nightly mustering of the independent military companies, bare up to ibis noor preserved the peace er the eity. It was rumored that an attempt woald be made, by way of revenge, to-destroy the College buildmgt ia Cambridge, and a volunteer corps rallied tot their protection. What s slate of things for Boston and its ricini J And lo what ia il owing bill te the colonizatioa mobs which have so recently disgraced New. York and other places T These have furnished ibe aaat-rlnal precedent ; and the impunity w hieh marked Iheir proceedings, and the approbation which tbejr have received by men of high as well as of low de-' gree, have emboldened the rioters in- the present ease to execute their incendiary designs.' We bare many things lo say, bul are transcending our limits. Perhaps the next resort of the mobs in litis rouu-try will be oriif bctchkkv I Fire axd loss or Livas. The Woollen Factory at Salmon Falls, N H. w as burnt eu Thursday afternoon of last weei. Loss estimated at SISO.OOO, a part of which was insured. The stair way waa on fire before the giih could descend, so that many of ihose who were saved had lo rush through (he flames. One was driven by the smoke aud Ere fioin room to room till she reached Ihe loof, where she held on by her hands, nntil compelled by Ihe heat In let gor when she fell lo the, ground, aad was so injured aslo cause het death ihe same eveuing. The following is a list of killed and wounded .Mary Nowall, mC York, killed by a fall. Lydia Varner, of Eliot, burnt to death. Harriet Hastings, ef Wells, do. Thomson, leg broken. Sarah NowcJt, ef rorbf mouth ; Mary Jane Leaviu, of Atlon, Me.j and Mchitahle Wilkinson, more or less injured. One' gentleman fell from a bttose-ti.ji, lull escaped witty slight injury. Hold Assertion. A Lite number nf the Boston; Recorder, refeninjf to the riots in New-Vork, asset is, in the face of" the most notorious fans, tbal ' These have been got up not ay pt rtons opposed in principle lo the An.i-S'.avery mov ement?, t.ui bv a r:!le who are f;l.id of any pretext for disotrhiu; Ihe public ;care, and commit! ni d-prvdations ou pioperty.' Who jot up tire riols but the editors of the Commercial Advertiser, Courier &. Enquirer, .Tnncs7 Journal of Commerce, tfce. T Aud are Ihey not ' persons opposed iu principle perhaps net m principle, for it is extremely problematic! whether Ikey have got any to the auti-slavery muveuieu's t ' N. li. The above assertion was not made by Mr. Tracy, the present editor of the Recorder, who is resjKjusible for such heresies only as have appeared in that paper since Ibe lsl of August. Fire. About 10 o'clock on Wednesday ere uiii' last, a fire broke out iu the exteusive rope walk ol" ilessrs. Day & Francis, at Koxbury, bear ibe termination of the Tremonl road, w hich w as entirely destroyed, together with a large iiuaotity of cord-a?e and stork. There was insurance ejected on the slock aud machinery for 53C0O, $3C00 at Ibe Mmiufariurers office, and 2GU0 at lire American office. The fire is said to have originated frosa the steam enjrine. A Mr. McCarty, of Oldtown, Maine, was ran ever by one of the Entities, and bad his arm broken. Ife ' was taken to the Hospiial. 7Vc;t rj last week. MARRIED In Ibis rity, on the 9th inst. at the Catholic Church, by the Rev. Mr. Tyler, 5Ir. Jane Henry Holt of Jamaica, to Miss Louisa A. E. Lewie of this city. , In New-Bedford, Mr. David S. Fletcher te Miss Rachel L. Randolph of Jw-Vork. In Urooklyn, on Tuesday evening, August 12, by Rer. Mr. Tillotson. Rev. Calvin pHtLLEO,of Itb-ica, N. V. to Miss l'ltt'DKtrcx Cba jDjili, of Canterbury, Cu O The enemies of the colored people eaa bow determine whether Misa Crandall, ia opening ber school lo educate a portion of ibet despised race, was actuated by m desire te get m black husband. They shall also be enabled le decide, ia the course of a few weeks, w hether the editor vf the Liberator is to espouse a white or a black soman. ., LIST OF LETTERS received mi this OJJiee since our last faper. John Scoble, London, (Eng.) David Mcr-. ritt, Salem, Mass. ; Robert Voae, Dorchester, Mass. ; Joshna Coffin, Philadelphia, Pa. ; James Hambleton, Spruce Vale Ohio ; Arnold "OufTum, "Philadelphia, Pa. a John Taylor, Bath, Me. ; Charles K.Cook, New Bedford, Mass.; James Leacli, Chilli-cothe, Ohio ; Ray Potter, Pawtucket, R. I. ; George Bourne, New-York city ; J. W. C Pennington, N. J.; W. Wuite, Salem, Mans. J David Wilson, Mendon, Mass. ; Timothy Goodale, Jamaica, Vt ; James Clay, Philadelphia. Pa. ; James MeCrummill. do. t Jo seph Mash,-Sandwich Mass. p Araog -A. Phelps, llaiioweu. Me.; David Ruggles, New York city ; S. II. Colton, Worcester. Mass. MLXVTES OF THE COXTEATIOAZ. fTflHE Minntes of the Fourth Annual a. Convention of the Free People or Color are for nle at the store cf JAMES G. BARBADOES, No. 26, Brattle-street Boston. ABgm v

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