The Liberator from Boston, Massachusetts on August 16, 1834 · Page 2
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The Liberator from Boston, Massachusetts · Page 2

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130 . if not tcrong thai emancipation ought not to be encouraged, unless in connection tenth expatriation and removal to .Ifrica and that it is an impossible thing Jbr the colored people to remain here free except in a state oj hopc- , less degradation and untiappintjs 1 cannot entertain a doubt, Sir, thai you will perceive, ' and cheerfully admit, Uiat sucli doctrines, 1. received, by the community, naturally tend to produce the listlessness ol' which 1 have been speaking : whether or not they arc Colonization doctrines, I luavo to you and my readers to decide. 2. Their appropriate tendency is to excite a malignant and persecuting spirit a-gainst the free colored people and more rigorous enactments airaiu.it the slaves. It ' this be the legitimate result, you, I know, will agree with m.2 m saying, there is in it a shameful lackot magnanimity and manhood lor a pconle whom Uod his raised Irom small beirinninis to be reat and command ins to whom he lias opened his liberal hand, supplying every temporal want that they can feet upon whom he oas bestowed liberty, civil, political, religious ; great moral end intellectual power ; for such a people to descend from tiie heaven-kissing lull ' on which they have been placed, to the low and odious task of Dcrsecutini a poor, a weak and defenceless class of our population which we have, so far, done every thing to degrade ; nothing to elevate, to abuse and viliify them, that they may be compelled to 'consent' to expatriation ; snd all this, too, under the plea of humanity, philanthropy. religion O.i, S.r, it is a ran offence belbre find. He o-ivt'S Duwor, that it may be ucd fur frood. not for evil for the protection of the helpless, not for their destruction and he has declared, that to visit the widow and the orphan, is evidence of that pare and un defined religion with which lie is wen pleas ed. Xatcre the moral constitution ot man revolts'against oppression of this kind : For observe, Sir, a knot ol sturdy lads imposing upon a puny and decrepid Drotner, uo not feelings of indignation at such conduct arise in your breast beyond the power of suppression ? I feel assured they do, Sir, not only in yours, but in the breast of every one who is not himself a tyrant. Thus, opposed by the bcnevoicncc of God and the moral constitution of man, na 6ch system can, on a great scale, be ultimately successful. However, to the proof, that this persecuting and rigorous spirit has been growing among us, since colonization principles hive heen "generally received by the community. Jt is to be found, in Ui3 most unequivocal .source the laics of nearly all the slave states. Take for specimens a few. 1 have .S3en the son of a white woman, sold into perpetual slavery by the Commonwealth of Virginia attempting to regain ny legal process in a distant Stateiis long lost liberty. lias a free colored man, by his industry, secured tor himself and those dependant upon him a permanent place of residence, or do the avails of his economy and exertions lie in real property ? Acts of banishment exist compelling him to remove within ninety days. Does he seek employment in distant commerce, or is he but a simple mariner on board a vessel entering the port3 of several of the slave states, either for purposes of trade or through stress of weather? He is thrown into prison as a felon, and there detained at the Captain's cost which eventually must be kis until the vessel is ready to depart. Is he charged with a criminal offence ? He is tried not ns formerly, before tribunals that were really competent to decree justice -but by commissions made up ot men, se- Jted for the most part, without reference to their knowledge of the laws of the state, either civil or criminal. Does the mind of a slave rise above his low condition does he thirst for knowledge, its proper food and above'all for that knowledge 'which is life eternal?' His master, should he teach him, is subjected to indictment and fine. His fellow-slave, should he instruct him, or should the free colored person undertake the task, or give or sell hi in any book, he is whipped or ,fined, or whipped and fined at discretion. Does the intelligent free colored man look with compassion upon his brethren, bond or free behold their degradation their ignorance ? Does he .witness how unpitisd they go out of this world how unprepared to enter upon that which is to com?, does he thence desire with the zeal of his Master, and as his minister, to declare to them the glad news that a Saviour Jias died fur them, and loves them, and desires them to be eternally happy ; to impress upon them the pure and peaceable and comforting truths of his goppel? should he attempt it, in Virginia he is scourged so is every free colored person or slave that listens to him. These, S r, and other kindred fruits are the result of a policy which insists upon the banishment of the free colored peop'.e. 3. The influence of these principles is opposed to emancipation. I am not aware, that it has been supposed to be adjutory to emancipation; and proof of this is offered in the 00 or l)J0 slaves that have been transported to Liberia. The fact, t.iat about this number have been emancipated by transportation to Africa is admitted. These are all the iastanct-s of emancipation, that can be attributed to tke influence of colonization principles for, when they insist that emancipation should never be divorced froju deportation, they cannot lay claim to the many thousand who are emancipated in this country, that they may, if they choose, remain here, and who have remained here. It would .be an unfair pretension, to ascribe to the in-;fluence of certain principles, effects, which Xhej have no natural and inherent tendency to produce, lint it is very confidently be-jlered and asserted, that the discussion of .colonization throughout our country, has tn-tilcxtally, brought up the subject of slavery to public consiueralion-And tiiat to this are to be e.et down this numerous emancipations that bare been granted; where the benefi-ijrjes have not been sent out of the country. I granf, it is probable, that in this way, mmv erOBd niay have been led to see the duty of emancipation, who would not, otherwise. Lave been conducted to a knowledge f f it. But would it nc he altogether illogical to ascribe emancipations, in the country, to a principle that inited upon emancipations our of the country Fully as much so, it seems to me, as t ascribe the conversion of a taaa to the christian religion, to his having heard the ingenious arguments of an in-Jidd when, in truth, it' may lce been only the occasion upon m hioL his mind discovered, for the first time, the weakness of infidelity, and the strength of the g jspel. But, Sir, during all this time these 1G or 17 year of gloom to iho slave what has not been lost to th cause of freedom and religion, by the substitution cf & cowardly, incidental discussion of slavery, for one which is manly and undisguised, jr the uly and incidental presentation of it produce the effect with which it U credited, how much jpor rich, blessed and abundant would they have been, had it been pressed openly and directly, yet kindly, upon the hearts and consciences and patriotism of this community ' Is it not to be feared, that we, who have been snpporttrs of colonization, have, thro' ignorancf, been instrumental in prolonging, at least through one lifetime, the dark reign of Siavery on the earth, and in sending on generation of our fellow men, weeping witnessed of its bitterness, to a comfortless gra.e! So thoroughly has been the inoculation of the public, uiui the sentiment, that our slaves, if emancipated, must be remo?ed from the country, that its effects are of surprising uniformity. Address men in this way 'Do you not believe that slavery is sinful and in direct opposition to the principles of our government ':' the reply almost without exception is, 4 what shall .we do with our slaves, if we manumit them ? Where shall we send them ? It will never do, in the world, for them to remain among us it is better to retain them as they are, indefi nitely in slavery, than to liberate thern here.' J his leeling has led to cases cf great apparent inhumanity and charitableness. One of these lias come to my knowledge in 6 direct a manner, that 1 have no ground for doubting the truth of it in any particular. A persou living in a slave State is the owner of a good looking young man, who is permitted, on his paroie ot honor, to reside in Cincinnati to receive the tire for his own services from the gentleman in whose employment he is not, in any part of his own use, but to bv transmitted according to his the slave's discretion, to his owner. He lias learned to read and write, and given, in his uniform, conduct, the Lest evidence, that he is, in truth, as he professes to be, a Christian, lie has never, in the least degree, vi olated his integrity toward his owner, by retaining any ot the fruits of his own toil, or by asserting his liberty as he might, at any time, do in Ohio. His friends and connections are all residents of this country. This circumstance, united to a very unlavorable opinion of the present condition and future prospects of Liberia, has made him entirely averse to a removal thither. He has a strong desire to obtain his freedom, and has offered lor it a large sum. His offers have been, steadily, met by a refusal, at any price yet ie has been promised his liberty gratuitous ly, if he will 'consent' to emigrate to Libe- la. lo this lie entertains an insurmounta ble repugnance preferring to remain in his present condition, although his noble- spirit is almost worn down vntn its hopelessness. ISow, bir, were it not for ttie prevalent opin- that the colored man, w hatever may be us intellectual or moral elevation can never be respectable or happy amonsr us, 1 doi bt, whether such a case as this, calling for the deepest sympathy, the most earnest commiseration, could have been found in the private annals of V estern slavery. There is no country, in its best state, that would not suffer loss by the banishment of such a man. 4. They are an opiate to the consciences of many, who would, otherwise, in all probability feel deeply and keenly, the-injus- lce and the sin or slavery. Ihey are the purchase of a little more sleep, a little more lumber. 1 have mends, dear to me, who would, in integrity, rank with the Camilli and the Fabricii, and in strength of christian principle, fall but little behind the martyrs of the church, who have thus been persuaded to lay this flattering unction to their souls, that, unatr existing circumstances it is right before God, by system, to take from the weak and the defenceless the daily proceeds of their labor, save what may be sufficient to support them in a state for the continuance of the extortion. And who does not perceive slavery to bo this? I am certain many of them will read this, such, I would ask, in all kindness, if, after having attended the meeting of a Colonization Society, and con tributed to its support their ten, twenty, or. it may be, their fifty dollars ; or alter havinsr heard a highly wrought and eloquent colon- zation speech, tliev have not seen in very dun effulgence,' the noble declaration of our i'atnot ir athers that all men are created equal ? And heard in distant, and yet more distant peals, the thunder of God's word against tiie oppressor of his poor ? 5. Colonization principles have, in a great degree, paralyzed the power of the truth, and of the ministry in the South. That the messages of the gospel have comparatively but little influence upon mind, in the exclusively planting sections of the country, where the number of slaves is great, will not be denied by any impartial and considerate observer. 'I'll is 1 am not inclined to attribute to any delect in the inherent power of the great truths as applicable to Southern mind adapted by God so wisely to the internal constitution of man. For there have been, and there are yet, daily, overturned by them, sins as besetting and as soul-destroy ing, as slavery. When 1 recollect, too, the condition of the Human Umpire, at the time w hen Paul preached in her voluptuous metropolis, and throughout her scarcely less voluptuous tetrarclnes: the aggravated system of slavery that prevailed there the incontinence the political corruption the private vice and that over all these Christianity chanted her mild triumphs, I see no reason for distrusting her clncacy, when fairly tried upou any portion of our countrymen. Uut, when 1 further remember, that he Mas partaker in no vicious custom of the country, leading him to perpetrate injustice and to overlook mercy ; that whatever impurity might be demanded by social manners, or authorized by municipal institutions, he kept himself pure ; that, when thrown into the very midnight of lloman pollution, his Christianity was seen, emitting a clearer, purer and more quenchless lustre the secret f his success is fully revealed. Uehold, at the present time, a professed follower of Paul and of his Master blessed, perhaps, with a sound education in letters aud science versed in christian lore brought up in tiie land of theree ; with a mind revolting ugainst slavery and every form of oppression ; see him, making his wa to tiie South, ready,-with the fervor of a neophyte, to declare the messages of God's love to alt for w hom they were intended ; see him, duiost as soon a the introduction to the scene of action is past, beginning his labor of love by utterly neglecting ' to preach the gospel t th; poor by lamenting the hard lot of misters, tiie eril of slavery complaining of the wickedness of the slaves, excusing every tiling in the slaveholder except acts of cruelty that rouse a neighborhood to astonishment ; next, marrying a widow, or a ward, er a 'fortune' with a "retinue of his parishioners for her dowry; afterward, talking bravely of the price of cotton, and of men to make it; and, at last, in desperation, drumming into silence his agonizing and wailing conscience, by using the very book of GoeCs lore to justify man's nppression ; seeing all thi?, the secret of Jeis unsuccess-fulpcM is made as clear as noon-day. SI.i- very has shorn nisn of his strength, and his THE LIBERATOR. hands are as indolent and uncertain in pointing out the way of life if they point at all as are the hands of a chronometer to point out the progress of time during the last half hour previously to its running down. I am altogether unconscious of any feeling which would prompt me to utter an unkind word against ministers of the gospel in the South. There are amongst them, I Know, men of the most sterling principle, who, so far as they are individually concerned, have lived and are yet living, elevated far above tiie pestilential influence of slavery. To such in my apprehension, the most disinterested witnesses I appeal Ibr testimony in the case : and ask, it the marriages of poor ministers with widows rich in slates have not become so frequent as to take away from them their 'causual or 'accidental' character. if they have not brought a deep reproach upon the cause of religion, and if those gentlemen, who have thus entangled themselves in tiie meshes of slavery, are not looked upon by the very people to whom they were sent, and who are in the some condemnation as 'blind watchmen, dumb dos that cannot bark, sleeping, lying down to slumber?' And further, whether those gentlemen, who on the rare occasions of their preaching, rebuke with all authority the profanation of the Sabbath the love of money, luxury, profanity, intemperance, &.c. &.c. who have been heard to pray with all fervor, for the Poles, the Greeks, and all the down-trodden of foreign lands, have been ever heard, in any of their public ministrations, to prefer but one listless prayer for the conversion of the slaveholder to the doing of justice his heart to the love of- mer cy, and that the two millions ot his "neigh bors lying in bondage before his eyes might by the force of christian principle be enlarged, and the oppressed among us go free ? And, yet further, are not such slaveholding ministers somewhat wanner in their attachment to colonization, than the majority of other men? Do not they insist upon its capacity for the extermination of slavery, as a reason why they do not themselves act more decisively upon the subject? and do they not, in frequent instances, become angry and indignant at those who attempt to agitate their consciences, by holding up their own duty in reference to slavery right htfore them ? But, sir, I am not unaware, that it may be said, I am attaching to colonization, consequences that flow solely from slavery, and that would be what they arc, independently of colonization, or if it had never been thought of. 1 admit in the fullest manner the force of the remark. It contains the very substance of my objection to colonization which is, that, although not originating co lonization has taken up and sustained the vital principle of slavery, when it declares that slavery now is right. Add to this, that, if it does not, in so many words justify it gives favor to an unscriptural, therefore unreasonable, prejudice against the colored man ; it asserts the impotency of religion itself to efface it it practically converts this prejudice into the instrument by which he is persecuted, until he 'consent' to exile for life, among savage men and in a deadly climo. These principles, jointly or severally, are, in my view, objectionable ; and not the less so, because introduced upon the heel of the Missouri question they hsve'ever since been wielded by the power of talent, the authority of patriotism, and the vcnerableness of religion, with an influence that has been pernicious to our own country that has sat with nightmare pressure upon the cause of emancipation at home, as well as upon the cause of liberal principles throughout the world. When I assumed an agency for the American Colonization Society, one of the grounds upon which I mainly rested my hopes of suc cess, was the co-operntion of ministers of religion and laymen, in their example of immediate emancipation and transmission of their slaves to Liberia. From my earliest recollections of slavery, it seemed to be deplored by the religious, that they could not liberate them to remain here, with any reasonable prospect.of conferring a benefit upon them. Nearly all the Ecclesiastical bodies in the United States, had passed Resolutions favorable to African colonization, declaring often, in no very measured terms, the great advantages to be derived by the colored people from a removal to Africa, their proper li.inie and the facilities afforded by colonization for ridding ourselves of slavery without shock or inconvenience. Whilst, in common with others, I had taken the opinion, that the slaves of the country, where they were humanely treated were, as a class, superior in w-orth to the free colored I, yet saw, that, with one consent, the latter were advised to emigrate to Africa not only on their own account, but for the purpose of christianizing and civilizing that deeply injured continent. .'I fortiori, it seemed to me, that the slave should go, and that now, no one could fail to see and with .delight, that, after years of lamentation, at last a great way for christian emancipation had, in the providence of God been opened, and a safe and happy home found for the poor slave. But no : and hear the reasons. Agfnt. Why do you not send your slaves to Liberia, my brother r' . Christian Slaveholder. ' They are not qualified to go.' A. 'What! none of them ? when you have been advising the free people of color the icorsl, as you allege, in the whole community, to emigrate.' C. S. 'Well, there may be some one or two of them who would do very well in Liberia but they don't want to go. I have i told them they might go, and they positively reluse.' A. 'They do do they? Come now, brother, be honest os before God and tell me what means you have used to persuade them. I suppose, of course, you have correct information concerning Liberia, or you would not have advised any one to emigrate thither. Have you, then, told them of the prosperity of the industrious of the religious privileges the civil liberty ? Have you, communicated to them a knowledge of the facts which satisfied you, that it wr.s the proper home for the black man that it was only there where he could be happy and free indeed? Have you used that persuasive influence which your superior intelligence, and an uniformly kind and ingenuous conduct toward him have necessarily given you ? or, have you, on the other baud, told him nothing about it? Or, otherwise, that Liberia is in Africa inhabited by naked sava jrnj, and lions and tigers, and all sorts of noxious animals, and venomous and devouring reptiles and serpents that, it is six orseven thousand milesoverthe ocean, " I have beard !t sm!pd, and hav no reon for trwihiin the fael tbt a memhrr of a christian church in the Stnte nf Mississippi, wis heard lo say. iht he would be delighted al the opportunity of acting as Kxeeutumer lo a distinguished abolitionist of New-Yoik if we mistake not, a member of jbe I same rbureh. and that, if he chose, after hearing this, he might go and welcome ? Here a pause. Now, you say your slaves are unwilling to o-o ; I will test your sincerity will you permit me to present the subject to them, with a promise on your part, that such of them, as choose to emigrate, may have the privilege of doing so?' C. S. Why, Bir, you are for pushing things forward "a little too rapidly there is a time you know for all things, as Sol imon say3 and great enterprizes move slowly, especially at first. And as for your going anion? my negroes to beat up for recruits, it would only serve to narrass and perplex tnem . - lit 1 many ot them have wives ana nusoana and children belonging to other plantations, it would make such of them as would not go, uneasy and restless, and most likely create a hubbub among the neighbors it would oe cruel to separate husband and tcife parents andchudren. Tins, every one wouid teel. A. ' Then, if I understand you, this whole matter, so far as you are concerned in it, is mere trickery and all your protestations in favor of emancipation if a home could be found for the slaves wind, and notiing else.' C. S. XSot quite so fast, dir. Agent you know very well, it would not do to send out emigrants too rapidly. Suppose, now, that all the religious people of the South were to send out their slaves at once cannot any one, w ith half an eye, perceive, that it would break up the colony ?' A. ' What you say, might, in the case you have supposed, be verified but it is a departure from the question with which we set out. I did not ask the reason why all the relijrious people of the South do not send out their slaves, but why, you do not ? Whatever might be the result, should all the religious slaveholders send out their slaves at once your ten, fifteen or twenty, will not endanger the Safety of the colony, especially if they be not sent away empty.' C. S. 'The truth is, we cannot makesnch a great chanire in our domestic arrangements, as you would require, all in a moment. A little while hence, the colony will be better prepared to receive them, then they can be sent. Meantime, they may be somewhat prepared by education foi he change from slavery to freedom.'- A. 'In reply, I must say, if no one can do without his slaves, note, and all act upon this principle, the colony will scarcely ever be enlarged ; for the free people of color have almost ceased to emigrate to it. So, that your objection to the present incapacity of the colony for receiving large accessions, may, by the very course you are pursuing, be always sustainable. But, again are you really and earnestly engaged in educating yours for future emancipation and domicil iation in Liberia taking off from their daily labor of twelve, thirteen, or fourteen hours, some two or three to teach them even the elements of learning. I fear, you are trying to deceive yourself in this matter. And do you attempt to instruct them in the religion of the Bible, whilst forcibly withholding from them the fruits of their daily toil whilst you are doing, what scarcely a page of that book leaves uncondernned, and by which they try your character most closely, because they have the deepest interest here ? Has it never occurred to you, how vain and ineffectual is this attempt made by you, or any one in your situation ? And how great is the absur dity to educate in bonds those who are intended to be free? Beside all this, your laws forbid the instruction of slaves, and they are becoming, every year, more rigorous. In all the South there is not, to my knowledge, either day-school, or Sunday-school for slaves. You are a law-abiding man, too you will not violate the law clandestinely ; how, then, tell me, are you preparing your slaves for this important change ? ' C. S. Why, really, Sir, when I come to look the thing right in the face, I cannot affirm, that much is doing in this way. But, the long and the short of the whole matter is, we cannot get along in the South without slaves and would you have us, by removing ourselves, give it up to the undisputed dominion of Belial ? Under such circumstances I cannct believe that slavery, mild and mitigated as it ever ought to be, is so very wrong as it might appear in the abstract.' A. It is not difficult to furnish a full answer to this defence. If oppressing the weak, and wresting from them the fruits of their toil be slavery, it must ever be wrong, allowing the word of God to be the test. No device of men either as individuals or nations ; no surrounding of themselves with circumstances, however peculiar they may be even as peculiar as those now existing in the South, can change the nature of truth, render the word of God a nullity, and obliterate the great obligation of man 'to do unto others as he would they should do unto him.' And if the South cannot be held, even after the sort in which she now is, un der the dominion ot the truth, without a continual trespass against God's law, it is dread proof that God does not intend to hold it and that he is giving it up to a strong delusion for its overthrow. In conclusion, to tolerate slavery, because it is mild and mitigated, is in complete analogy with a defence of ourselves airainst the charge of in justice and oppression, by pleading, that we are not as iniquitous and tyrannical as we might be.' C. S. But, as you have mentioned the Bible there were servants slaves, as I understand it, among God's own people. Abraham was a slaveholder, and the Israelites if not commanded were permitted by God, himself, to hold 6laves. Now does not this prove, conclusively, that in the mere essence of slavery, in the forced and involuntary subjection of one man to the power and caprice of another, there cannot, per se, be any thing sinful or wrong?' A. ' It is very true, that Abraham had servants a large number of them. He was a prince, and one not of very small dimensions for those times. His slaves as you will have them to be went out with him to battle, and constituted, exclusively, the army with which he routed four kings. Their interests were so closely connected w ith his, that he had no doubt of their fidelity. Would you and your neighbors take out your slaves, in companies and regiments by themselves armed cap-a-pie to resist a strong invading foe, who had inscribed upon hi banners liberty to the captive freedom to the slave? Or would not your first apprehension, rather be, that they would make common cause with the invaders, and raise the fierce shout of the oppressed determined to be free, give me liberty or give me death? But if these servants subjects of Abraham were according: toyourtransla-tion, slaves, so were also the courtiers of King Saul, for they are called servants' and the faithful little army of fonr hundred men, who adhered to David through all his persecutions by Saul part of whom he employed in the delicate agency of negociating a marriage between himself ard the accomplished Abigail." Further, if God saw prop er to commute the punishment of death, to which,yr their sins, he had condemned the Canaauites and some of the neighboring nations, for a mild and gentle slavery and to appoint the Israelites, in the latter as well as in the former case his executioners, they tiie Israelites are equally guiltless in both.' Again the Israelites were commanded to 'exterminate the Canaauites, and they did destroy great numbers of them: Do men go about nowadays, kjlling their neighbors and plead in justification or excuse the carnage of the Canaauites! Or is polygamy contended for, at the present time, because Abraham, Jacob and David were polyga- tnists? Thus, Sir, you perceive that, when applied to cases completely analogical, your reasoning leads to conclusions against which every well ordered mind must revolt, lie- sides, when we come to examine, a 1 little u of more closely, the instance cited by yo the Canaanitish bondage it will be found to differ, widely in some of its most import ant features, from negro-slavery as it is seen ocation, to bowstring him. Under sack, eir-in this country. God specially directed the cumatanccs where neither the Covernwke Israelites to hold in gentle servitude, as a nor public sentiment acknowledges any Bria-merciful commutation of punishment, na- ciple sanitary and corrective of oppression, tions, or parts of nations, who, for their ini- efforts tending to any other object titan die quiiies, had been expressly condemned to reroval of the oppressed from the scene ef utter extermination. To the people of this their sufferings would, justly, be deccowj country he has given no direction to hold enthusiastic end absurd, their African brethren, who, so far as we But how widely different 13 the case here know, are not condemned to destruction in Does the advocate of slavery assert, that i a bondage so rigorous, so merciless, that, right to oppress a feli'ow-cresture.bectuje whilst it wastes and destroys the body, it God has given him a complexion unlike im tramples under foot every energy and kills he has bestowed upon us ? to subject bi every hope of the soul.' I will not say, that to all the weight of the law, whilst there the whole of the above argument, thrown, wrested from him all its poteer for huprvtrc-for convenience, into the fonn.of a dialogue, tion ? Does the slaveholder say, it u ririt was presented on any single occasion dur- that slavery, with all its soul-killing erjonr. ing my agency in the South-west But, it tesi as well as with its lesser evils, should W does exhibit a fair sample of the reason- continued ? To meet this, with what po. ing by which Christian-slaveholders quiet erful armor has God clothed the America their consciences, and satisfy themselves patriot and christian ! Shall he consent in that slavery is right, in their peculiar circum- extinguish slavery, by removing its runta. stances. How far it indicates the advance of dancy? a process that may be carried on correct sentiments on the subject of slavery for a hundred years, and, then, leave our among slaveholders and to what extent 'last state worse than the first-' Ortocon-their excuses and subterfuges are upheld by pass sea and land, that he may find some bo! colonization principles, as they are actually addressed to the community I shall leave for others to determine. 2. I now propose, in the second place, to speak of the influence of the spirit of colon- ization upon the free people of color. It will be admitted, I think, by every one ac- quainted with its history, that it originated there read words that are eternal in the Hew-in feelings of kindness toward the colored ens, 'whatsoever ye would that men shoidd it people, as well as in prospects of future ffood unto you, do ye even so unto them! with ib to tne whites. So long ago as 1777, Mr. noble commentary 'all men are created eqvd, Jefferson proposed to the legislature of Vir- and have rights that are incdienable, to lift, ginia, that all the offspring of slaves, born liberty, and the pursuit of happiness ?' ShiH after that time, should be free at their birth he not rely upon the salutary operation of brought up at public expense educated, great principles sanctioned by God, and de-according to their geniuses, to the arts, sci- clared by man to be 'undeniable? that are ences, or tillage and furnished with every of sufficient efficacy, wherever they are ably convenience for emigration to such place as and honestly urged, for the reformation of might be provided for them. Mr. Jefferson every unjust and pernicious usage in the was but a little distance in the rear of the land rather than npon some poorshift, some abolitionists of the present ay his scheme conscience-calming expedient for the pre-embracing an immediate abrogation of slave- ent exigency, whilst future exigencies ry, except in reference to the slaves then in going into eternity, it may be to which it being ; and leaving emigration as it would is totally inadequate, are left entirely unpro-seem right it should be entirely to the fu- vided for. .,' ture option of the colored man. It did not The error of Dr. Finley, and of those who wring from the weak their ' free consent' to thought with him, is to be found in their at-removal, by presenting the alternative of tempt to convey away the bitter waters, hopeless slavery on the one hand, and ban- whilst they left in full flow the fountain that ishment from their native land, on the other was continually renewing them; in their but left them free, to choose whether they essaying to remove the free colored people would remain here as freemen, or migrate, from the influence of a false and destructie in the same character, to another home that principle, whilst the principle itself was still would please them better. This plan, taken permitted to exist, vigorously producing and in connection with Mr. Jefferson's eenti- reproducing its baleful effects instead of ments expressed, elsewhere, on the subject meeting it at its very origin and stoppin; it of slavery, leaves no doubt, that the primor- there. The wrong practice of oppression dia of colonization, orginated in charitable the unjust denial to the free colored clasi of feelings towards those who were sufi'ering the charitable conduct of a refined and chrii-before his eye3; for, whatever may have tian peoplp, should have been boldly met by been Mr. Jefferson's sentiments on other the right principles of men's equality, and subjects wherever human liberty, or nation- their duty to each other as social beings, al justice was restrained, he was the friend 'nt '.wa " lone before hc. benevolent objert and advocate of all from whom it was with- held be they while or red or black. Nor will I attribute to the excellent Dr. Finley, in whose mind the whole scheme of colonization first attained it3 full devtlope- ment, any other sentiments, how much so ever they may have been mingled w ith in defensible error and prejudice than those of the most charitable kind toward the free colored class, when, in a letter to a friend he says 'The longer I live to see the wretch-' edness of men the more I admire the virtue of those who devise, and w ith patience labor to execute plans for the relief of the wretch- ed. On this subject, the state of the free Klol- , i l , blacks has very much occumed mr mind, lheir number increases rrreatly and their wretchedness, too, as appears to me. Every thing connected with their condition, includ- inr their cnlnr i arroind l,om. ; , ,l ing their color, is against them ; nor is there much prospect, that their state can be crreat ly meliorated whilst they continue among us. Loufd not the rich and benevolent de vise means to form a colony on some part of me coast oi wnca, similar to the one at Jsierra iieone, which might gradually induce many tree blacks to go and settle devising for them means of rrottinrr therp. nnd nf nrn. tection and support tilfthey were estab - u&neu, M, OiC. r With Dr. Finley, the object was one of a very simple and unmixed character: one to ..,t.;k , l.i- . ' u , ; a 'v?"1 wujecuon couia oe siaiicu, uuu men, i iu luciiuea io ininK, would, if confined strictly to its proper lim- its. answer better than the nrpspnt mnrp ov- tended scheme, for building up a Christian . t j i j- colony, and for civilizing and christianizing Atrica. .but in that we see no pretension to its oeinjr the practicable, tae only prac- ticable, plan of re leving our country from 1 , 'ha"1'-h "f slavery, t-avrrJ ! 3 conscious of the want, unable to appreci aiotiy. vantages of education our families cut Dr. xinley, doubtless, intended, by his scneme, me permanent beneht and exaltation l r tx u-liri!4 f,ca ftf nlc If cn l.o i.i .t, t ,u' I I e I, T. '"c,cVur "?L" which, I think, he fell, by contemplating, with great intensity of feeliner, nothincr but the down-trodden 6tate of that people amono- . i . , . p. i,;,.;! u- i j V- & , his Tiaion the causes which produced It, and us iiirowinsr aiiooferner out. ot thf mnnro r torgetting the energy of those great princi- p.es, asserted nrst Dy this nation, and even yet received by a creat maioritv of it as un. deniable and self-evident, and which nuht still be plucked lrom their drowning state, for its fuller melioration and correction here. He suonosed. it wa pn:.pr tn rcrr.n.. Vnm the country those who were the subjects of 1 1 1 - . vr 1.U111 ... iiuui this degradation, than to successfully combat ano overthrow me prejudices and false pnn- ciples which produced it. He fell into a sici- 1 . 1 ... . . .. ... uiirai-, niiu unun. uiai 01- very can be exterminated by transporting to another country, such of the slaves as may isrtnuhtn inlh V V:t. ..-. be liberated among us, without having first frauds, the louder will be ihe plaudits yoo will gi-given the death-blow to slavery, itself the " for G001 rW to the poor Indian. Wbeie are producing vrinciole. and fenrettin". that the few who would be emancmad. n Pr erh r w.. -.iuuiiibiumf8, woum ue oniy me superfluity utcas mneu dv me general ve Dower rr trip principle, and their abstraction butlopDinf off the dead and unsightly branches of the Unas. and giving to it more comeliness and vigor. Had he been in Turkey, aud meta so thousands of christians in the same condL tion as that occupied by the free coloredpT pie in the United States, rearing their lies under all the oppressions of that renw ruent as they are exercised upon those are even nominally christians, it would a been an act of benevoleDce, to persuade th to remove albeit, to a wild and anseui coast, and, of still greater benevolence, if have provided the means for their trvaj tation. Why ? because, neither the ftt wienl of Turkey, nor the moral ttrvctitntr Turkish society contains in it any princini acknowledged by all to be undeniable, St. evident,' which could be held up D&xuti and traced in its consequences, bef. people and those in power, of sufEciect effi cacy to condemn their practice. The both, constituted upon the principle, thVtit isrrgMto persecute a ' christian doff'-jT kick him, spit upon, deny him all legal orirL - 1 leges, and if he give any, the slightest nm. or corner for the thrusting away of the tree colored man, sad, sick at heart, by reason of oppression? that the slaveholder marnv I pose in all the voluptuousness of the moat undisturbed quiet ? Or shall he not rather raise the slaveholder's earth-directed visioa to the clear arch of the sky, and bid hia ' ,l"ev V? jpre?l,.T.PerTe.r,wfi ant ".bc?,si that was intended lor the fiee colored man hit ck'f aim. was made secondary to the policy of saodivr him away. Al firil, tbo apparent beuerolcnce ef the enterprise moved the spirits of some of ih &e people of color, and not a few of ihera were preparing. ilouhl!ess as true heralds of the cross, la blew benighted Africa. Emigrants offered themselves ia greater numbers than the means of the Society competent to send out. Seeing this, the philanthropy of the enterprising .was thrown somewhat iatfce tack-;round, or became, with many, merely aacif-tary to tlio policy of senriiug out of the country lfc w hole of the free colored population. In this " it was recommended to the most determined slave- bolder. He was reminded, thai the free colored mu wa a uisance' to the white a source, almost u H c",e' of "'.f1 1Bd: d'sc"c1ut l" '.. I:T ,1,al ,,e was boundlessly degraded and vicious, pol- i,, ,,i ..n.... if. i .i.J..i. fact of his lieinr so. miht alwavs remain assuonr as 'l "n was fr sustaining'- such an argument, it was asef,ed w"h ceaseless repetition, that in u degraded slate he must continue as long as he rer dcd arnonff us,ba, her. hl. co.:.r..oa , irrrt,iev able, hopeless: in fine, it was an nrdinalioa of Providence.' All this was surmounted by paant f our humanity. And the free colored man, forni encouragement was told, that the whole field of honorable ambition lay open before him ; that, he miph of legislation in the solemn ministrations of lbs in ine unu oi ins tamers, engage in the nignouK altar and ' la''"5 he foundations of a great pw ple,a mighty christian nation, before whose feet lbs lAltJ0' All this souuds well. but it will he found, en Mr a'n'"ation,to contain principles at variance iiheae L n,u,ua"Jr oesVucuve. ii os suPP-. these motives to be addressed lo an intelli'eal ut msn of color, would not bis train of reflections, mo probably, be somewhat of this kind T I belosgi I then, to a clasc. which the white man declares loba I nuisance. If this bo true, what has produced f .7' .hiskbe" bu-S OI ys,cmatic neglect, contempt, abuse withnoloiiie from us every franchise a4 immunitv of the rovw I ment whose tendency, ha says, is to'clevata aad noo,e wno exercise them. We were taro associates, except the degraded slave, or iba polto- 1m.here reminded of the very Vreat res- blance this case bears, io its most promiuenl features, to that of the Indians, who have been moved opoa, in nearly the same manner, to consent' to leave u,e'r lands within die limits of several of the siate- Tn lhpcp imlmnnff nrnnta .. I. -. i .... ut1v . . rrv t vy ".tii.iiy iwcaunw j treated by those upon whom ihev. as children, cart themselves for protection-!,. waY 'JLi T,VoW croaehmems and lawlessness of the whiles wouM render their situation, whilst ihev remained aar them, too grievous to be 60 rue that, they would be far happier when separated from us, in a eoontry entirely under their own controland, in conclusioa, that this advice was dictated by humanity v f rca'd for their welfare. What was the ladiaa'l reply T Tis true, our situation. owin to the eanse 1 . - "1 " NL,".f .rkT6"''. .1 ,s had r.n?uh but is H and disrerar .hVf, L.V?.V?. Vl;, I .ivniu vuuvidunni 1 HI Will yoa.byye injustice your fraud your force, create lh si!.v which makes it expedient for us to tetoote to t . -. . -----, -v , ., tlS JSSa? since ti u.h. . .1.. ' ' i.:l !vTt -1.... wliaemMS. DDd 111 n hv nN.i!m in In fl ItvB 7our JLre?,ies: hy wh!ch ou are bound olemnly ne- rJUod b to. J"' J0?""" JT - wira us, at least, with justice 1 l. tell yo ew trymen to restrain their ava rice, withhold ibf lwce 1 repress tneir iniustice oontv ana elevate tneir and oot PProacB " ibedisfhnfraKiew- V de -f .fL" r.'Jd I humanity. I on selfishness, we'll none of it.'

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