Buffalo Morning Express from Buffalo, New York on March 3, 1895 · 1
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Buffalo Morning Express from Buffalo, New York · 1

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Sunday, March 3, 1895
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TRATEn Ex PEE PART l.-PAGES 1 TO 8. IcnpYHWliTKn.im, l BT OHO. g. UATTHHW CO. J BUFFALO, N. Y. SUNDAY, MARCH 3, 1895. ' 1 PRICE FIVE CENTS. : 4U RIOHTI HMIWIft imi nu pnw II I . II .1 wimmmrm Hi M - ' m I W !THE LATE FREDERICK DOUGLASS THE CUE ATJEX-SL A VE Rochester Honors The Memory of Frederick Douglass. 8CENE8 AT HIS FUNERAL, AND AN EARLY PORTRAIT REM I N I8CENCE8 OF THE DAYS WHEN DOUGLASS EDITED A PAPER IN ROCHESTER. The life, death and burial of Frederick Douglass have been detailed at most interesting length during the past few days. The Illustrated Express today, supplements these details of one of the most interesting "American. " careers with two portraits. One, from his latest photograph, shows how the great ex-slave looked in his old age. Just bow old he was he did - not know, but he wss born probably about 1818. He fixed the date only by remembering that in 1835 be beard his master say one day that Fred was about 17 years old. Our other portrait is we believe the rarest and most Interesting one of him ever made. It accompanied the story of bis Slavery which Douglass published shortly after reaching the North. He reached the North, a free man, In, 1838. The ex-slave's funeral in Rochester on Tuesday, as our pictures show In some slight measure, enlisted such popular Interest, and drew forth such eulogies, as mark the death only of the great -or greatly- honorciL , It was not always' thus with Fred Douglass, even In New-York State. " Throw the nigger printing press Into Lake Ontario and banish FUNERAL Douglass to Canada." This was the advice of a New-York dally, back in the slavery days, given to Roohesterlans. That It was not heeded is something of which Rochester Is now and has been for years proud, though at the time the status of Frederick Douglass, at whom the imprecation waa made, was not an enviable one, except In a limited" oircle of Abolitionlsta. Northern prejudice was one of the greatest enemies which the fugitive slave had to overcome. f '' It was In 1847 that Frederick Douglass first went to Roohester, and he lived In that city for nearly a quarter of a century. " It was there be pent the years of -ids most vigorous iiianhopd,during the period when the institution of slavery in the Southern States was . most arrogant and aggressive, and the opposition to it In the Northern 8tatee was most bitter and unoompromlslng. Rochester was then a stronghold of the anti-slavery advocates, and there was more sympathy for him there than in many other Northern cities. When he announced that he intended to start a paper In the Interests of abolition he met witb nnnoshlon from thoe who had been his warmest friends, as it was beyond the belief ,x , lc (ft y Hk C . of even hit most anient admirers that one who waa but nine yean removed, from the dense Ignoranoe of the plant-atton slave abould be fitted to attempt editorial work. However, he stabllshed hie paper, named it The North Star, but afterward 0 a 1 1 e d tt Frederick Douglass's Paper, and kept It afloat In the faoe 01 did; difficulties until emancipation wa accomplished. It was a good-sized weekly. There were times when all the money of the editor waa in the venture, and hewas deeply In debt In addition. The publishers, editors and printers of Rochester were then In the habit of holding a banquet annually on """iT Soon after Douglass started his paper such a banquet was held In the old Irving house, kept by an old printer named Haskell. Mr. Douglass bad not been invited, a,nd was not ex pected. .But he FREDERICK DOUGLASS AS A From a steel engraving published SERVICES OF FREDERICK DOUGLASS, wentrto the banquet,; nevertheless, accompanied by a young colored man, bis associate In editing The North 8tr. They were dented admission at the door, although they had procured tickets from one of the rrinters In the employ of Mr. Douglass. The matter was brought to the .attention ot tne assembly by Alexander Mann of The Rochester American, who was the presiding officer. The question of admission waa put to a vote, and carried in the affirmative. This little episode In the life of. Mr. Douglass In Rochester worked greatly to his advantage. Jacob K; Post ot Rochester recalls the following: "I remember that when Douglass, who had lived with my father on first coming to Rochester, left our house to go on a lecture tour wq found In his room a slip of paper on whioh was written a long list of words in common use. They were hard ones for Frederick, foraorossthe top of the slip he tad written, ' Words that I find hard to Bpell.' " He liked to tell jokes about his raoe as well as at the expense of any other. On-e when he was In Dublin he felt verv lonesome. ,He was wandering about the streets, when he was attracted hv two violins In the window of Y 1 - (y 1 Y- JA;tfe : : "l - ' r-i: , a second- band dealer. Frederick entered and asked the price of one of the Instruments. " 'Five shillings, sor,' said the Irish dealer. " Frederick tuned the vlollu and began to play Rocky Koad to Dublin.1 Boon the proprietor's wife heard the music and entered the rear door. Then Frederick sUrted In on ' The Irish Washerwoman,' and theoouple began to daooe for dear life. When the uiusio and danolng stopped, Frederick tendered the dealer the Ave shillings, but his performance on the violin had greatly enhanced Its value lu the mind of the storekeeper, and, as he hurr ried it away to a place of security, he exclaimed: '"Ha black nagur can git stub chunes out of that fiddle, I'll nlver sell it at any prloe. begorahl"' . ' r. The father of Mr. Tost, Isaac Post, was one of Rochester's greatest Abolitionists during the War, and many a fugitive slave was sheltered and aeoreted In Mr. Poet's barn and helped across the Canadian line to freedom. " The most we ever had at our place at one lime," saia Mrs. Amy Post, "waa 11 Thev were brought to me without a word of warning one Saturday, and they staid over Sun- oay. luey were so happy to think that flhatweTraoTlart work to keep toemoutof iney were so tar KortIv o near Canada, I sight. Many a time I crept out to the barn after dark with a basket of food." It was Frederick Douglass who secured this retreat for the fugitives, and many others he secured aa well. He was in see ret communication with the leading anti-slavery peo ple in au pans 01 the country. It was well RotVwedoi-s-isat nesa at underground railroading in those years, but the officials were too circumspect for detection. Douglass was the superin-tedent of than termluua of the road. " 1 remember," says an old neighbor of Frederick Douglass, "that sometimes father and the horse and wagon would drive away early in the evening and be gone all night Wa never asked any questions, nor saw him go if we could avoid It, but he would be remarkably oheerf ul at breakfast, and possibly let out something If we pressed him hard, but that was against the rule. The excitement was like that of living on a smuggling oast." It was when the Fugitive Slave bill was passed that the indignation of Frederick Douglass found Its fullest vent. His ''assault on compromising legislation, the highest attainment of his eloquence, was listened to by those who packed the hall where he was to speak.- There was one scene In old Corin- YOUNG MAN. in 1846. CENTRAL CHURCH, ROCHESTER, thian Hall that is recalled, and wilFnever be forgotten by those who were present. Douglass waa oondemnlng the bill, and said : , " Is there a man here who dares to say that he has a right to sell his brother! A voice clearly responded, " I do." In an Instant every eye saw the speaker the finger ot Douglass pointing him out as he stood. "Turn your face to the wall, then," said Douglass In contemptuous sarcasm. An Intimate friend of Douglass relates an Interesting anecdote about how Douglass and others helped three negroes to escape. They were all men, two brothers and a cousin, and said to be exceptionally Intelligent. One was harbored at the home ot Mr. Douglass, another at the home ot Asa Anthony, and the third at the borne of a farmer In Irondequoit, north of the city, near the lake. On the day It had been planned to get the fugitives safely out of the city there happened to be held an anti-slavery meeting, at which someoody foolishly mentioned the fact that the negroes were in the city. Bo it was thought best not to Continued on page . MARSHALJF FRANCE This unitary Title Has Now Passed From History. ' THE LONG LINK OF MARSHALS, EXTENDING BACK 8EVEN CENTURIES, CEASED WITH THE DEATH OF CAN-ROBERT, TnE 834TH ON THE ILLUSTRIOUS ROLL. D'Artagnan, grown old, was sent by his master the King Into Holland. His old success followed him, and after capturing a dosen towns he waa on the point of carrying the 13th, when a small coffer arrived from Minister Colbert. The captain of the guard flushed with- Joy, when a bail came along from the enemy, striking him In the breast and shattering the coffer, from which rolled under the band of the dying Musketeer, so that he grasped It In bis last moment, the baton of a Marshal of Franoe. The honor wblotr thus came to D'Artagnan at the Instant of death, crowning a life of ad venture and representing the highest glory w hioh the Must Cbriatia King ' eoulcf bestow upon his magnificent soldier of fortune, Is no more. , The title of Marshal of France is ex tinct. After a history more than seven oen turles long, .and -full of . associations of romance and glory, It has vanished, with the Certain Canrobert, whose. portrait we give on page a Canrobert waa the 824th on the roll of Marshals of France. Alberlc Clement I Seigneur of Mela, was the first, and from 1185 to the day of Canrobert's death there waa a continuous line of marshals, exoept for a temporary break in the succession during the Terror, lust 100 years ago. The office of marshal runs far back In Franklsh history. The word means one who takes care of horses, and it was not until the 15th century that the autles 01 master or the horse- finally were alssociatea irom tnoee of marshal. Slnoe that time toe office of marshal has im plied solely the command of armies. During feudal times every baron had his marshal, and It waa to distinguish the King's marshal from these other marshals that the title of Marshal of Franoe was ores ted. In the beginning there was but one Marshal of Franoe. SL Louis, a century after the institution came Into being, added a second, Francis L made the number three and Henry IL Inoreased it to four. The States of Mlois, In 1577, tried to limit It to this figure, but when Henry of Navarre came to the throne he disregarded the ruling probably because he found that bis enemies had named all the marshals there could be under the law and raised the number to six. Louis XIII. and Louis XIV still augmented It. There were 16 marshals In 1651 and In 1703 after the " great promotion "there were 20. D'Artag nan would probably have been the 21st, bad he lived. During all the 18th century there were 16 or 18. up to the time of the Revolution. On March 4, 1791. the number was reduced to six, but Louis XVI. named two extra marshals, making eight. Then came the decree of the National Convention of February 21, 1793, proscribing the Institution as aristocratic and declaring Its abolition. Under the First Republio there were only FEB. 30th. generals. Napoleon came to the throne in 1804, and a new order ot marshals arose, the Marshals of the Empire. Now tor the first time a qualification beyond mere seniority and royal favoritism was required. To beoome a marshal an officer must have woo at least one pitched battle or else have captured two fortresses, i Bonaparte created 18 marshals at the outset, and most of them were soldiers whose tame is still bright. One thinks of Napoleon and his marshals as of Charlemagne and his paladins. Bernadotte,Davoust, Junot, Keller- mann, Lannes, Maoaonara, Massena, Murat, Ney and Soult .were some of the Marshals of the Empire, t iwo oi mem leu in action Lannes and Beasleres. From 1804 to 1814 seven more were created. ' Grouchy was one of the latest, and It Is notable that he was one of the few of Napoleon's marshals who did not anrinir from the lower classes. At the fall of the Empire there , were 15 marshals. From 1818 to 1829 there were not over 12. In 1832 there, were 15, and In 1835 a dozen. In 1839 the law reduced the number in six In the time of peace, with the privilege nf inormising It to 12 In war. Finallv came Napoleon III. with 15 marshals, the last of mi , r JlfHi whom were Baulne, appointed In 1864, and Le Boeuf, In 187JI Canrobert was made a marshal In 1856, After the fall of the First Empire, the earlier title of Marshal of Franoe waa restored, and remained to the end. The Third Republio decreed that, after the last holder of the title died, the title should be abolished, and this event has just oometo pass In the death of Canrobert. " The title of Marshal of Franoe, once won', belonged to the winner for life. There Is but one lnstanos where It waa taken away, and that was In the case of Monoey. Duke of Conegliano, one of Napoleon's marshals. He refused to preside over the oourt which was to try Ney. and his rank was taken away from him and he spent three months in prison. A year later, however, his grade appeared once more on the official list, and be died, In 1842, a marshal. The baton which brought to. D'Artagnan the newa of his creation as marshal was a little stick about 20 Inches long, Its surfsoe sown with fleur-de-lis. ,. The fleur-de-lis was the symbol of French royalty, and up to the time of the Revolution the Marshals of Franoe bore It upon their batons. Under Napoleon the lilies were replaced by bees. - At the Restoration the lilies resumed their place, but only to give way, In 1830, to stars. The baton was finished at each extremity by a gold ring, on which, In recent years at least, was engraved, at one end, the marshal's name, and at the other "Terror Belli, Decua Paols", which means "terror of war, ornament of peaoe." The baton dates from the time of Francis I. Louis XIII., In entering Hesdln through a beach In 1639, stopped and extended his cane to- M- de la Mellleraye and created him marshal, saying " Here Is your baton" ; but Louis XIV. probably saw that It would be rather expensive for him to give away his cane each time be created a marshal, so be merely Inserted it within the hands of the appointee and then withdrew it. Of late years the baton .did not figure on the field of battle In the way It did in the old days. Marshals carried their batons only on state occasions and in their pictures. - There was an exception to this, however, in the case of De Castellans, kinsman of the Count who Is to marry Anna Gould next Monday, De Cafstellane, who was made a marshal In 1852, was as punctilious as Gen. Scott about the insignia of his rank. White-plumed hat, embroidered uniform, baton he "used them all. He Ten practiced 'peculiar manual of the baton, as it might be called.' He made use of this manual in returning salutes, and the flourish he made with his baton was longer or shorter according to the rank of the officer saluting.- An old -drum-tnajor-could hardljr have reduced his salutes to a finer system than did the Marshal De Castellane. , ' Marshal Canrobert, last - of the distinguished line of marshals of France, will go do w n . in. history aa a gallant soldier - who shrank from responsibility, and a general who was--torrstrbseTvtenttottie-wTgties of KftjWteon III. He was born at Salut-Cere, in 1809. His father,' a Breton, was of the nobility. The Marbhal went to Saint-Cyr in 1825, and was graduated In 1828. He entered his first campaign as a lieutenant, , In 1835, in Algeria, under Col. Combes. In 1836 he was at the battles of Slkkak and Tafna, against Abd-el- Kader. In 1837 he became a captain. He took part In the Constantino expedition, and obtained great distinction in the bat tles against Ahmed. . In 1831) ha was ap pointed chief of a battalion formed of Carliat refugees. Ills exploits in Airlca obtained lor him the grade of lieutenant colonel. In 1847 he was a colonel. After more fighting, in all of which he dis tinguished himself, he became a general of brigade in 1650 and a general of division in 1853. He went to the Crimea in oommandoi adlvlsioit, was wounded at Alma,-succeeded Marshal Bt. Arnaud as commander-in-chief of the French army and began the siege of Sebastopol. But be could not agree witb the English commander, and came to be looked ,1 ", ) t n I til "fe.; f U J : ;-. kiii '- w "" "i-i''-l.".Y'";-Y't't'''-v' THE FUNERAL OF FREDERICK DOUGLASS: TEN ROUTE TO MT, HOPE. U Li Stl I'M Li-', I hSasjiwawiesCsflM aat.-A-s RAILWAY TRAIN ON THE TRANS-SIBERIAN Prem m photograph "tithe iitwn i upon with suspicion- as a creature In the bands of the Emperor, attacking Or- holding back, not as, the military situation advised, but as the Intrigues of his master In Paris suggested. ' In May, 1855, be resigned the command to Pellisier and returned to France, with a reputation ot superb personal bravery, but also with the reputation of an Indifferent commander. At the begtnnlng'ot the Italian campaign Gen. Canrobert received the command of the Third Army Corps, and he greatly distinguished himself In the battles of Magenta and Solferino.'. At the close of the war hewas made a Marshal of France, and " received a grand cross of the Legion of Honor. Karly In the Franoo-Pruimian war Marshal Canrobert found himself shut up in Metz witb Marshal Baxaiue's army, and when Meta capit ulated he was sent to Germany as a prisoner of war. - When peaoe was signed he waa re leased, and returned to Franoe. In 1874 and again In 1875 he declined the offer ot a candidature for the Chamber of Deputies, but in 1876 he was elected to a seat In the Senate for the department ot Lot, his term expiring In 1879. He was defeated tor re-election. Later In the same year he wu elected Senator for Cbarente, to fill a vacancy.- Slnoe the expiration of his Senatorial term he has lived In com parative retirement. What may be regarded as his last public appearance waa when he attended the funeral of Marshal MacMahon, Oc tober 22, 1898. He died on January 28th, and waa buried in Paris with the highest military honors. i if. A MONUMENT TO STBVBNSON. San Francisco is to have the first substantial tribute to the memory of Robert Louis Stevenson. In the heart of the oldest part of tie city lie a ploturesque plaza, known as the " Old Flaza. " It marks the lower end of the Chinese quarter, and from the plaza seats the eye roams over a combination of old and new elements of the town. Stevenson, during his checkered" days In San Franolsoo, made early and Intimate acquaintance with this park. It was there be gathered much of hla Inspiration from motley crews thst floated in with low, rakish craft through the Golden Gate, with ourious cargoes from the Orient and the Islands of far Southern seas, and told thrilling tales of shipwreck, and piracy, and smuggling, between drinks, at the old Spanish tanglefoot shop on the obrnsT'that led "dowr to the docks. ; f?-.:'r ::;:: Now that he It gone the Guild ot Arts and Crafts will place a fountain to his memory on the spot where he lolled and dreamed and made the sea give up its tales. A shaft of marble -with classical detail In harmony with the architecture about the square will rest upon a marble pedestal. A bronze capping over the shaft will show a ship with sails spread. On the front, to the top, will be a sun-dial and - below- the pipe- through- which the water Will flow. On the back of the mon ument mrje the ptlgrtrnVsuff arid sortp, suggestive ot the wanderer, and the flageolet that Stevenson loved to play. Chiseled on the faoe of the marble will be the novelist's name and a paragraph from bis Christmas sermon. Here is the selection from that sermon: " To be honest to be kind to earn a little and to spend a little less to make upon the whole a family happier tor bit- presence, to renounce -when that shall be necessary, and not to' be embittered, to keep a few friends, but these without capitulation above all, on the same given condition, to keep friends with himself here is a task for all that a man has Of fortitude and delicacy. He has an i bltious soul who would ask more." GEOSGB OVERDID XT. From Harper's Bazar. ' - - . " You are the only woman I ever loved, darling," he,wblspered, after she had accepted hltn. " Impossible," said. she. "I know better. Yon make love like an old hand; you cannot deceive me, George." - . ,J i Si' j V. LINE. Carpenter's Trip Over the EasU era Section of the Line. THE GREATEST RAILROAD BYSTEM ON ' THE GLOBE, AND HOW IT 18 BEING BUILT A NIGHT-RIDE IN A THIRD-CLASS CAR SIBERIAN " SIGHTS AND SENSATIONS, - , ' ' . (f ftjrigktti, f, Frank G. Ctrfenkr ) The Trans-Siberian railroad la being pushed all along the line. Since the breaking out of the Chinese-Japanese war the work hat beea more earnest, and a large force of men are grading the routes and laying the rails as fast ss possible. The original Intention waa that the road should be finished In 1905. The Indications now art that It will be completed long before that time. In my last letter I described the city ot Vladivostock. the Paclfio terminus ot the railroad. : It was here that the -first, work was done In 1892, The present Czar, who waa then taking a trip around the world, had oome across Siberia along the line of the proposed railway, and it was with great ceremony that the first stone of this, the greatest railroad in the world, was laid there on the 12th of May. 1891., The roadwhm completed will be more than 7,000 miles long, and it will cost somewhere between two am) inree hundred- millions of dollars. (The Russian estimate is 850.000.000 roubles). It will give a continuous railroad line from Vladivostok to St Petersburg, and the Droba- blllty is that a branch line will nowberua down through Corsa, aud Japan will be brought within a day's ride of this terminus. ' When this Is done the Japanese can make a trip to Paris with a water voyage ot less than 24 houra. I have already written of my trip over the new Chinese railroad. : This Hoe now runs to the olty ot Shanhaikwan, where the great Chinese wall juts down Into the sea. There is a breach in the wall at this point, and though the superstitious Chinamen would hardly permit the cutting of the wall for a railroad, they have allowed It to go through thlr breach, and It Is now being pushed on Into Manchuria, It wlli'evenboVlly reach the' Russian frontier, and will probably connect with the Trans-Siberian railroad, and then we can go from Pekin to Paris by land. , ... , '. ; TEA AND SILK. -V It is impossible to estimate the cnances whioh this great railroad will make in Asia. The tea trade of Europe will undoubtedly go over it, and the great bulk of the exports from China, Japan and Cores will .be carried through Siberia to Europe. As it Is now, the fastest ateamera are. JiaedfM.-tbe-4ea-trade.- -The new tea brings the highest prices In the market, and ocean steamers go up to the city - -of Hankow, situated 700 miles In the Interior of China, and as soon as they can load " they sail with tuli steam to London. " They go by the Suez canal, and it takes them ahnnt 45 days to make the voyage. The Chinese have already planned a railroad to the center of the tea districts from Tien-Tsln, where their new military railroad begins, and the tea will be shipped right north to Siberia, and . get to Europe within 15 or 18 days. Tea car ried overland is said to be much better than ' that whioh goes by water, aud this will make a revolution in the tea trade of the world. At present the foreign trade ot China amounts to about $300,000,001) per year, and the great bulk of this is msde up of costly articles like . tea and silk- These can pay high freight rates, and they will undoubtedly be shipped by rail. There are now ia the neighborhood of 600,000,000 people In China, Japan and Cores. There are about 4,000,000 inhabitants in Siberia, and this road has the trade of nearly line-halt the world to draw from. ' v THE ROAD AND MANUFACTORIES. It will probably make Russia a great manufacturing nation, and the Russian Iron will be shipped over it to China. There Is no Iron In the world bettor than that of the Ural Mountains, and the Chinese are ready to pay high prices for good iron.; Most of , their tools are now made by hand, and they must have the best of raw material. At present a large part of the iron used in China is made up of cast-off horseshoes, which are sent out from Europe by the shipload. The Chinese make razors, kuivee and all kinds of implements out of this Iron, and there is a great demand for It all over the empire. There are great Iron deposits at different points along the Trans- -Siberian railroad, and big factories will spring up at all these points. The Russians are good mechanics, and they have vast lroa works near Moscow and at Tula, which make as good hardware and guns as you will find anywhere in the world. . . THE TRANS-SIBERIAN ROUTE. As the line Is now planned and being built It Is to run from Moscow right through (ha southern part of Siberia, making an almost straight line through this immense territory to the city of Vladivostook. . It goes through rich gold mines. It taps vast areas of rich soil, and It will probably build up an empire in Southern-Biberia. , The first section of the road is at the west- It begins In the Ural Mountains, and there is an army at work building it. : The next section Is to run from the town of Omsk oh the river Ohl, aud the contractors are also at work here. In the middle of Hiberia there is another army faying track, and the road is being pushed a fast aa possible from Vladivostok to the west - It crosses great livers, which have to be bridged

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