The Courier News from Blytheville, Arkansas on April 13, 1953 · Page 10
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The Courier News from Blytheville, Arkansas · Page 10

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Blytheville, Arkansas
Issue Date:
Monday, April 13, 1953
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Page 10
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PAGE TEN BLYTHBV1LLE (ARK.) COURIER NKWS MONDAY. APRIL 13, 1953 U.S. Newsmen See Russian Cars, Candy, Bread Made (Editor's Note: This " nuther Re_ .._ • ob) of a week's visit to the uv,=. ~.iion. Miss Gross was in „ party ot 10 travelers who received visas to enter Russia. She forwarded this chapter from London, while en route home. She is eo-publisher of the Lock Haven (Pa.) Express. By REBECCA F. GROSS (Written for The Associated Press) LONDON W—Three Moscow factories, using the continuous-process technique for making candy, baking bread and manufacturing automobiles, were visited by the American editors during their week's visit to Russia. The Red October chocolate factory was described by Its managing director, Lobov, as the largest factory of its kind in the Soviet Union. In an office hung with pictures of Lenin, Stalin and Molotov, plus a chart showing day-by- day production in percentages of the assigned Quota, he told us that all the ingredients of Red October candy, except cocoa, come from the Soviet Union, . The factory got its name from the fact that some of its workers had taken part in the original 1917 revolution. The buildings, he said, are 80 years old but the equipment has been changed entirely and production has been multiplied eight times in the same floor space since the revolution. 10 Types of Bread The Krushev baker makes 10 types of white bread, according to Its chief engineer, Shmagin, with a daily production of 250 tons delivered by truck to 250 stores In Moscow. At the Stalin automobile factory, largest automotive plant in the Soviet Union, we talked with Assistant Director Karzov, a brisk, authoritative man. He sat at his desk rolling .his pencil between his fingers, with a battery of six telephones at his elbow. Above his head hung a row, of pictures of Soviet leaders, Stalin in the center, and on one side of the room stood a cabinet filled with tropies. The Stalin plant produces the Z1S limousine, the government's official car, similar to the American Packard. Its name means, simply, the Factory Named After Stalin. A similar factory named after Molotov produces the ZIM, looking ltk« the American Bulck, It can be bought by private citizens. Two smaller types of car are alio manufactured in the Soviet Union. The Pobeda, or "Victory", resembles a Chevrolet and has a .motor like an American Jeep. The Moskvlch Is smallest and cheapest car, selling for 8,300 rubles—up to a year's pay for on average worker in a factory like the Stalin works. The Pobeda costs around 16,000 rubles. The Russian government pegs the ruble at four to the dollar, but this Is strictly an arbitrary rate without meaning, since the ruble Is not traded In any free market. More For Market The Stalin factory, however, does not manufacture curs for the market. Its output of ZIS automobiles, representing about one- twentieth its total production, is turned over to government enterprises exclusively. Its major production Is trucks. We saw trucks coming off the assembly line at the rate of one every fi\ie minutes, a figure given by Karzov but checked by our own .watches (is we walked through the final ns- eembly department. The Stalin plant also makes passenger buses, bicycles and refrigerators for home use, Karzov said. We found certain striking similarities in all three of these manufacturing plants. To me, the most interesting was the high proportion of women. At the Stalin plant Kar- sov said 40 per cent of the workers are women. In the blacksmith shop and foundry, nearly half the workers in view appeared to be women. Most of the 250 persons working in the bakery were women too. The candy factory's chief engineer was a woman of early middle age who Joined us for tea and questions. The spokesman for all three plants put much emphasis on the arrangements made for housing their workers and care for children in nurseries and kindergartens. The manager of the candy factory, for instance, was proud it had" been given an eight-story apartment house last December housing its workers. He said rents for these apartments, containing at least a living room, kitchen and bath, amounted to 3 to 5 per cent of the worker's income, depending on space. To visit both the baker and the candy factory, each of us donned a white overall type of coat. We wore the same over-garment to inspect the kindergarten connected with the candy factory. Some of the children were finishing their lunch and white-gowned women were gathering up the dishes. Across the playroom were dolls, doll furniture and other toys. Most oi the children were bedded down for an afternoon nap, each tucked into a white-painted cot.^The children were 3 to 7 years old. Younger Infants, the intourist guides told us, were looked after In nurseries. Rates of pay for workers range upward (rom 100 or 800 rubles monthly, according to the managers. Karzov explained that wages vary In Russia for different professions and different branches of industry, and in different departments of the same plant. In the Stalin auto plant, he said, the workers in the blacksmith department get higher wages than those on the assembly line because work- Ing conditions are less pleasant, while workers ot greater skill and hltfbn qualillfcatlons get more pay. The wage tariffs are set by a hours of overtime weekly, he said, with pay at the rate of time and a half for the first overtime hour and double time for the second. The average wage In the Stalin plant runs from 800 rubles a month to 2,500 or 3,000. The lowest wage In the bakery is 700 rubles, rising to 900. The candy factory's lowest wnge is 600 to 700 rubles, but the best workers get 1,000 to 1,200 .All these are the managers' figures. Equipment Russian-Made All three factories emphasized the Stakhanovlte campaign for increased production. Pictures of workers showing the greatest increase in production were displayed. The candy plant manufacturer said all his current equipment was Russian-made, hut we noticed a few machines with German markings. The plant had belonged to a German named Naum before the 1917 revolution, and, at that time, had been equipped with German machinery, Lobov told us. It was easy, to see that about half the wrapping machinery was almost new. The rest had been painted and repainted. The heavy pressed used for making finished castings In the auto plant Included some which carried trade names that looked familiar to an American—such names as Chambersburg, National and Erie. All three plant managers talked of health and safety programs. for a white working garb, and the manager said they also had the services of a barber and manicurist, and were required to take « shower before starting work. But the bread went out unwrapped, was soM in the stores unwrapped and often was carried unwrapped TOE«? ARE USEFUL—After breaking his hip in a fall from a ible six-month-old Raymond Parmiter of Walsenburg, Colo., finds his toes are useful to hang toys from. Little Raymond must stay in the traction device in a Pueblo, Colo., hospital four weeks. clinics for workers, health examinations, vacation camps or sports programs. In each office there was a collection of trophies and certificates, usually lor production. Karzov said football (soccer) was the favorite sport of his workers and -last year 70 teams were orga- nized. Although Karzov mentioned a safety program, we noted a lack of goggles on workers doing Jobs for whicn American factories ordinarily require snfety,glasses. Bakers Wore White The bakery workers, as we saw. wore white gowns at their work or changed their outdoor clothes j through Uw itrtcta by th« purchaser. . At all three plants we noticed numerous youthful workers. Our questions about them brought the reply that boys and girls of 15 and 16 could begin working about six hours a day, after reaching a cer- tain point In school. The regular work week at these plants and throughout the country !s eight hours a day, six days a week. We also saw older workers. We had smiles and handshakes all around from the veteran worker at the candy factory, a friendly old man aho told us, through th« Interpreter, he Was 16 and had worked at the plant for 62 y«att. We did not get specifto fact* on pensions. We were told that they were based on many factori, Including length of service, ratee of pay and other such data. 1 Mellow as Moonlight MELLOWED BY NATURE TO THE PEAK OF OLD-FASH'N'GOODNESS § , ' ' J ^CASCADE. .. ind only CASCADE, gives you the light, „ smooth richness of the George A. Dickcl 1870 forrntilal 11 KENTUCKY, STRAIGHT BOURBON — , from thc /;/ , 1 and viyor of the. grain" | wo A wotti tmimtot tamw, loimmu, nmm^tt,nu»^• ™Jj^^'™iy^__^j^^^,_^^^^ FREE! the price of the unpriceable Water is beyond price, yet at intervals you get a water hill. Water is free, yet someone has fixed a dollar and cents value on nature's unpriceable gift. By what right? Go out into the country and you'll find the farmer getting all the water he wants, merely for the effort of digging n well and working a pump. He gels no water bill. Go up into the unspoiled mountains, dip your cup in a bubbling spring anil drink your fill. Bring home a few barrels full. No one will impose any charge for what you take. Go down to the nearest river bank. Til! as many buckets as you can haul away. You won't have to pay a cent for their contents. Or the next time it rains, put out tuhs and basins. Or do as they do in Bermuda: make your entire roof a collecting system leading to a cistern. No meter will register payments due. But ask the farmer what it cost to dig his well and how much energy is consumed in operating it. Figure the expense of your trip to the mountains, not forgetting the price of the barrels. Compute (he value of the time consumed in hauling river water, adding the doctor's bills in case you fail to boil it before usinfe. And compare the amount of water you obtain with the cost of installing and maintaining a Bermuda-type roof collection system. Water is free to all. But it isn't always available where people want it in a condition safe for them to use. It's the water works' job to take over the task of collecting water, transporting water and making sure that the water delivered is safe for human consumption and suitable for human use, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. And (hat's what you pay for when you pay your water bill. Blytheville Water Co. "Water Is Your Cheapest Commodity" Regular $54.95 Zenith FM-AM RADIO With the Purchase ol Any 21" Zenith TV Set now in stock! This Offer Good through April 30! Just In Time For Baseball Major league baseball teams open the season tomorrow. Now you can follow your favorite team with this powerful FM-AM Zenith set which is y o u r s absolutely FREE with the purchase of any 21" television. Come in today and take advantage of this opportunity and save $54.95. Offer closes April 30. For Unmatched Performance "COVENTRY" Zenith console with giant 21" screen. Graceful cabinet of fine hardwoods with lustrous mahogany frnish. Outstanding value at this low price. The COVENTRY Zenith 21" Table Model The "Greenville" offers you a large 21" picture that is without peer. Mahogany-color Pyrox- ylin cabinet adds to the appearance of your living room. Powerful Zenith chassis gives sharp oicture at all times. Call or See Callihan for All your Television Needs-Your Complete Satisfaction is Guaranteed! FRED CALLIHAN Phone 2642 RADIO SHOP B| y theville

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