Extracted Article Text (OCR)
lewis m. g-rist, proprietor. Jfamilj ftefospager: Jor of tjte Social, anb Commereial Interests of tjje Sratjj. a year, in advance. VOL.
29. YOEKVILLE, S. THURSDAY, JUNE 21, 1883. NO. 25.
itigwal flftjig. "SOON CUT OFF." JJ Psalm 90: 10. IN MEMORY OF MINNIE SMITH. Jj Each morn, the robins say, bright angels spring r( From brooks that roll flowers in Paradise; -y Their life a love-song trilling on till eve, And then they are seen no more by ravished eyes. Why must we love, when from the dark unknown, Pi Through the bright window, flies the lovely dove; A moment sits and coos, then spreads her wings, ni And through the night beyona makes haste to rove? tt th Life's song's the flutter of departing wings, Life's light, that beamed like morning's earliest smile, But sunset glory shimmering on the sea? Love burns undimmed; Life flickers but a a while! tl "Stronger is love than The dear heart aJ seal Survives all absence and the grave's cold night; oi Love is the holy seal of Jesus' blood, ol Pledging re-union in the realms of light.
fr Hope's withered laurels there shall flourish 61 green; The disappointed wave the rustling palm; Jeans, the death-song, swells her lyre above? th Death's but the Selah in the eternal psalm. ln The paths of those who love the Lord below Draw nearer each to each, and nearer heaven in come; And'fleeting time the fiery chariot speeds To haste the travelers to one glorious Itotes of iravri. A VISIT TO TEXAS. Xotra and Observations on the Advantages and 10 Disadvantages of the Lone Star State. til eo In fulfillment of a desire long entertained ei to visit the great State of Texas, on the hi morning of the 4th of last month, aceom- az panied by our "better-half," we left York- ville, via Chester, for Charlotte, from which le latter point we could avail ourself of the ex- or cursion rates offered by the railroad compa- E.
nies to persons who wished to visit Texas sis on the occasion of the meeting of the South- th ern Baptist Convention, which assembled is at Waco, on the 9th of May. In undertak- so ing the trip, we had two objects in view, is one of which was to visit kindred who had an made their homes in Texas; the other, to is see the country and things of which we had sh read and heard so much. On arriving at Charlotte, we were met at the Air-Line railroad depot by Rev. O. F.
kr Gregory, the pastor of the Charlotte Baptist ha Church. Mr. Gregory, who is one of the secretaries of the Southern Baptist Conven- sit tion, having given public notice that he ij omonmnnonts fnr Via WUU1U III1C lictcxxuj mi all who desired his services in connection po with the trip, and having availed ourself of sit his kind oner, we founa that he had dis- su charged the trust in a manner so very satis- soi factorily, that we had nothing to do except de await the time fixed for the departure of Ci the train for Atlanta. gr After spending a few hours with the fam- so ily of our hospitable friend, Mr. T.
R. Ma- to gill, we went on board the sleeping-car di which had been provided to take our party se: through to New Orleans without change, co When we started from Charlotte, at 1 o'clock lei on Saturday morning, we found as our com- re panions, Mqj. John W. Wilkes and lady, of Chester county; Rev. O.
F. Gregory, Col. C. ea R. Jones, formerly editor of the Observer, let and Master Jennings Kerr, of Charlotte pr Mr.
B. Wilkinson and lady, of Robeson wi county, N. Rev. Dr. W.
A. Nelson, and in "Dr. McBrayer, of Shelby, N. Mr. Rob- sti ert Steele, of Rockingham county, N.
bu besides a number of other persons with th whom we have no acquaintance. re At Gaffney City, we were joined by Rev. an W. L. Brown, who will be remembered as having preached to the Baptist congrega- tions of Union and Yorkville churches last kr year.
Spartanburg was reached about daylight, and Greenville an hour and a half ict later, at each of which places accessions th were made to the At the several so points along the route, where other roads re: connect with the Air-Line, we received pa additions, and by the time the train arrived at Atlanta, it was uncomfortably crowded, be Atlanta was reached at 1.80 P. a dis- wi tance of 276 miles from Charlotte, which Li was made in about twelve and a half hours, of There 45 minutes were allowed in which vc to get dinner and shift the cars to the track' ar of the Atlanta and West Point Railroad, ag when we were off again. Montgomery, in 177 miles from Atlanta, was reached at 8.55 rr P. M. At the former place an attempt was bi made to get supper; nut the attempt re- fh suited in a dismal failure to a great many of cii the passengers, the number, de for the reason that sufficient preparation st had not been made for the unexpectedly di large crowd.
Night having closed in, we in were soon comfortably ensconced in our berth, and in a short time were oblivious of ni our surroundings until Mobile, 180 miles sa from Montgomery, was reached at 4.15 on Sunday morning. eq But a short stop was made, and before it pr was sufficiently light to more than distin- cii guish that we were in a city, we had passed an beyond its limits. After leaving Mobile, sp the country is low and flat and the soil is is sandy and poor. We soon entered what, for a time, appeared to be an endless pine forest, St with few indications of the country being al inhabited, except an occasional railroad sta- te tion with a few houses in sight, steam lum- it: mills at intervals along the road, and ar small herds of cattle grazing on the short til orwl nerouo uriHi fhtttrrmillfl Wl imu VAX Wftllig TV lllVtl was covered. dc At 7.48, Bay St.
Louis, was reached. co Here it was announced that twenty minutes would be allowed in which to get breakfast, pi The time was ample, but in consequence of th the large demand and the small supply of Tl breakfast, we fared as we did at Montgome- th ry, and were compelled to content ourself with a cup of cotfee and a sandwich at a a luuch-table. At the expiration of the time cl allowed for breakfast, we were en route again, and were soon skimming along to- cc ward New Orleans, traveling for mile after 01 mile on embankments across the marshes, di and over bridges and trestles that have been cc constructed across the numerous swamps, ai lakes and bayous on the route. As the train sped along, alligators could be seen in large numbers, some with their noses protruding above the water, and others lying 011 the tl banks of the swamps contiguous to the rail- road embankments, or basking in the sun- shine on driftwood and logs. at New Orleans, 141 miles from Mobile, was tl reached at 9.40 A.
M. Arrangements hav- tc ing been made for such of the party as de- ir sired to do so to remain in New Orleans un- us til 12 on Monday, we decided to avail oi ourself of the privilege. In accordance with an understanding be- fore leaving home, on the arrival of the train at New Orleans, we were met at the si depot by Mr. Robert C. Kerr, who was a c( resident of Yorkville from July, 1833, to I1 November, 1834, and an old friend of our tl parents.
We were soon at the residence of s( our parents' friend, where we were intro- tl duced to his sister. There we soon felt at home, and after a short rest and the necessa- ri ry change of apparel, we accompanied our u( hosts to the Memorial Presbyterian Church, where we had the pleasure of listening to a well-prepared and well-delivered sermon by the pastor, Rev. Mr. Flinn, founded on the fa "ith verse of the 4th chapter of Matthew "It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth ai out of the mouth of God." oJ Immediately after the conclusion of the service, we returned to the residence of our ii friend, where we partook of the first square meal we had eaten since leaving Atlanta on the previous day. At night we attended tl service atthe Coliseum Place Baptist Church, and listened to an excellent sermon, deliv- ered by Rev.
(). F. Gregory, of Charlotte, tl N. C. st Just here we will take occasion to men- tl tion that our hosts, Mr.
Robert C. Kerr and his sister, Miss Mary, are natives of the teel Creek section of Mecklenburg county, and are proud of the fact that they are tar-heels," and are willing to acknowledge lat a ripe persimmon is one of the most iscious fruits that grows in the Old North tate! They are not related to the family the same name, some of whom formerly in Charlotte and others in Yorkville. fhile in his teens, Mr. Kerr engaged with le late Thomas J. Holton, of Charlotte, the roprietor of the Charlotte.
Journal, to learn le printer's art. There he remained until had acquired a fair knowledge of the busi3ss, when a desire possessed him to leave le land of his birtn. Quitting Charlotte, le first place he stopped was at Yorkville, here he was employed as a printer by the "VV. C. Beatty and George W.
Williams, ho were publishing the Yorkville Patriot, paper established by them as the organ of le Union Party, of what was then known i York Nullification excitelent then being at the highest. The father the writer was employed in the Patriot fice at the same tjme, and then began the iendship which was cherished by the 1 Tn U1 lilt! Wlilt'I WiliiC 1119 lilt laoitUi xu ovember, 1834, the publication of the atriot was discontinued and Mr. Kerr was irown out of employment. Desiring to see ore of the world, he left Yorkville and ent to Columbia. From there he drifted ito Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Cuba and working as a printer, then as pilot and captain of a he ought up at New Orleans in 1852.
For vre years previous to the occupation of ew Orleans by the Federal forces during ie war, he occupied the position of City ibrarian, from which place he was ousted id forced to leave the city for the reason that 3 would not take the oath required by the ederal commander. He returned to Chartte, N. visiting Yorkville in the meanme. After the close of the war, he remainl in Charlotte for several months, and was nployed by Gen. D.
H. Hill to print for in the earlier numbers of a monthly called "The Land We Love." Mr. err, longing for familiar sights and sounds, ft Charlotte for New Orleans. Upon the ganization of the New Orleans Cotton xchange in January, 1871, he became Asstant Secretary, and is so very efficient in discharge of his duties, the probability that his connection with it will continue long as it may be agreeable to him. He now seventy years of age, is lithe, active id vigorous, in mind and body; but as he a bachelor, we do not know that we ould have said anything about his age.
owever, "what is writ is writ," and he sll remembers that he dandled us on his lees when we were a toddler, and now we ive lived more ban half a century. New Orleans, as our readers know, is on the left, or east, bank of the ississippi river, and by the census of 1880, a population of 216,090. The older rtion of the city is built 011 the convex ie of a bend of the river, which here reeps around in a north-east, east and uth-east course. From this location it rives its familiar name of the "Crescent fcy." However, in the progress of its owth up stream, the city has of late years extended itself for six or seven miles, as fill the hollow of a curve in the opposite rection, so that the river front now prents an outline somewhat resembling two njoined crescents, or, more properly, the tter S. This configuration necessarily ndersthe direction ot the streets irregular.
As a rule, all American cities resemble ch other. To this rule, however, New Orins is an exception. It is a city of surises, and even duringa brief stay, a visitor ill be struck with the great contrasts in the habitants in merely walking from one eet to another. He will find the restless of thcYnnkoc. in contrast with indifference of the Creole he will meet presentatives of every nation in the world, id hear languages and dialects of every untry.
He will soon discover that he is a city requiring a long stay in order to tow much about it. New Orleans, unlike the majority of Amerin cities, is not laid out in squares. Alough a few of the streets are straight, and me parts of the city are built with strict gularity, many of the thoroughfares are Tallel with the bends of the river. The dest and real business part of the city has en built into a curve in the Mississippi, hile the new parts lie in the direction of ike Pontchartrain, five or six miles north the city. A few bayous and canals tra(rse the city in various directions, which especially useful in removing the garble and filth which necessarily accumulate a large city.
Those streets next to the yer are in the centre of the business life it if you follow their windings, you will id yourself in the quieter portions of the ty, and finally be lost among private resimces, alleys and gardens. A number of relight avenues cross the squares in various rections, converge and deverge, and lead some places to the river, or to the lake, vnol Ihu CVU UClYlil? il lUil VI VI1V ultiplicity of streets, but few run in the me direction. New Orleans is divided into two almost ual portions by Canal Street, which is the incipal and most beautiful street in the ty. It is the Broadway of New Orleans, id shows us the whole continent in the ace of a few miles, a street whose one end Europe, and whose other end is America, 'hat Broadway is to New York, Canal reet is to New Orleans, alike impressive, ike grand and perhaps even more characristic. The manner in which it is laid out, appearance, the crowds of pedestrians id vehicles of every description, the beaut'ul residences, intermingled with immense arehouses, showy shops and stores, one by the sudden contrasts, and this ntinues for miles.
The whole of Southern Louisiana is avast ain, but the land immediately adjacent to river is more elevated than elsewhere, here is, therefore, a gradual descent from te river to the swamps lying in tne rear 01 ew Orleans, at a distance of a half mile to mile and a half from the levee. It is a laracteristicof the Mississippi river at this lint, that it is higher than the surrounding mntry, rendering the levees necessary, in der, so far as practicable, to prevent munitions. The swamps in the vicinity are ivered with a dense growth of cypress trees id underbrush, affording a habitation for lultitudes of alligators and other reptiles. Texas being our objective point, just ifore noon on Monday, it was with regret nit we took leave of our friends in New rleans, and were soon at the ferry-boat hich was to transport the train of cars ross the the Mississippi river to Algiers, te depot of the New Orleans and Railroad. Securing a berth in a sleepig long night's ride being before were soon landed 011 the west bank the river.
Here we will mention that we innocentr inquired why it was, with all the wealth, lergy and enterprise, visible on every de, that a railroad bridge had not been instructed across the river at this point, nagine our surprise, when we were told rnt it would be impracticable, for the renin that the varying depth of the river in if? vicinitv. is from one hundred and fifty two hundred feet! The width of the ver where it is crossed by the ferryboat, is early three-fourths of a mile. After a little delay in completing the taking up of the train, we were under ay; and soon found that a number of new ices had joined our party. Among others, were pleased to Rev. Dr.
Griffith, ho is known to a number of our readers; nd Col. James A. Iloyt, one of the editors the Baptist both of whom were ound for Waco, for the purpose of attendig the meeting of the Southern Baptist onvention. Only a few miles on the route, we entered le sugar and rice plantations, which roller this section famous. Looking over the as the train rushes along, we saw le pale green sugar fields, under a high of cultivation the fields of rice with le tiny blades just protruding above the ater; ditches running here and there fords looking hazy-blue in the distance; and sugar mills, with their tall chimneys, on the J1 plantations near at hand.
Farther on, we 11 catch glimpses of cottages, gardens and busy I workers in the fields of sugar and rice. On i we go, cane fields, rice fields, corn fields, i dark forests, low shrubs, tangled vines, prai- rie lands, lumber and sugar mills, houses and hedges on both sides. As we pass i through dense swamps, with water in the ditches on each side of the railroad track, alligators could be seen basking on the logs and brush, or with noses protruding from the water. The especially 1 our young friend from the 1 trains sped along, frequently made them targets for their pistols; but without further result than that the ugly reptiles would plunge into and under the water and disap- pear from sight. Further on we came to cypress and water oak swamps, the resort of alligators, turtles and water snakes.
Here and there were i large numbers of cypress logs which had been cut in the swamps and floated on the water to the saw mills located where the i logs could be conveniently gathered, and whence the sawed lumber could be shipped to points where it is in demand. Vermillionville, the supper house, 1 144 miles from New Orleans, was reached about nightfall. Profiting by the experi- ence gained at Montgomery and Bay St. Louis, Rev. Mr.
Gregory, who was the .1 major-domo of our car, had telegraphed the coming of the crowd, and, as a result, the majority of the passengers succeeded in par- 1 taking of a bountiful and well prepared supper. Being one of the lucky number, i and feeling well satisfied that such was the case, after a short interval we retired to our 1 berth and were soon asleep. 1 Consulting the railroad schedule for infor-. mation, we find that our train crossed the Sabine river, which is the boundary line at that point between Louisiana and Texas, on Tuesday morning, the 8th of May. The map of Texas shows that we entered the State in Orange county, and upon investigation, we find that it has an area of 396 square miles, and a population in 1880, according to the census, of 2,938, of which 16 per cent, was colored.
Our information is that the county is situated between Sabine and Neches rivers, and that the general surface of the country is a slightly undulating plain, the southern portion being mostly open prairie, and the northern uplands covered with a heavy forest of pine and several kinds of oaks while in the bottoms of the rivers is a growth of water oaks, white oak's, beech, hickory, cypress, walnut, and other varieties of hard woods. The soil on the streams is a dark alluvial. On the timbe red uplands and the prairies the soil is light, interspersed with a dark loam. The lumber business is the chief pursuit, and pine lumber is worth from $10 to $12 per thousand feet at the mills. Unimproved land, suitable for farms, is quoted at from 50 cents to $2 per acre; well timbered pine lands at $5 to $8, according to location; improved tracts are worth from $3 to $10 per acre; and land in cultivation rents for from $3 to per acre fencing costs $100 per mile.
With or- a dinary cultivation and good seasons, cotton a trinlrla frAm OAfl tn .1 flA "rvAii nrlo nf lint nor ItiUO liVUl IV VI Alii corn 20 to 30 bushels. For domestic purpo- ses cistern water is almost exclusively used, The town of Orange is the county-seat, and it is claimed that it has a population of about 2,500. The next county entered was Jefferson, The area of the county is 1,032 miles. The population in 1880, was third col- ored. All the southern part of this county 1 is represented as nearly level and almost en- a tirely devoid of timber, the soil being light and not well adapted to farming purposes.
1 The northern portion of the county, con- 1 tiguous to the streams, is covered more or less densely with different varieties of oak, hickory, ash, cypress, pine and other kinds I of timber: From about ten miles above 2 Beaumont, heavy pine forests extend for about 120 miles northward. The lumber 1 and stock interests are the leading and most i profitable industries of the county. Unim- nrnvprl farming lnnrl? nrp minfpd fit, from SI to $5 per acre anil pasture lands at from 50 cents to $1. Tracts with a portion in cultivation and the necessary houses, are held at $10 to $12 per acre. Fencing costs from $100 to $125 per mile.
Cistern water is pre- ferred for domestic purposes and is niost r. generally used. Beaumont, the county seat, is claimed to have a population of about 1,500. The next county traversed was Liberty, The area of the county is 1,172 and the population is reported by the census of 1880 as colored. We are inform- ed that the surface is generally level.
The Trinity river flows from north to south near- a ly centrally through the county and the East San Jacinto river through tne north- west corner. The bottoms of the rivers are covered with several varieties of oak, to- gether with ash, elm, walnut, pecan, gum, etc. Unimproved lands are quoted at from $2 to $5 per acre. Improved lands at from 1 $5 upwards, according to quality, location, and the proportion of enclosed land. Farms, with houses for tenants, are rented at from i $2.50 to $4 per acre, or more generally a share i of the crop.
Fencing costs from $100 to $150 i per mile. Cistern water is preferred for do- mestic purposes and almost universally used, i It is said that the best lands, under proper tillage, with good seasons, will produce trom i 1,000 to 1,200 seed cotton per acre. 1 Liberty is the county seat and has a popula- i tion of about 500. Daylight found us in Harris county, at i East San Jacinto river. We were soon up and dressed, and on the lookout for the won- i ders of Texas.
After passing out of the i timber adjacent to the river, we expected i to see the prairies covered with thousands of fat cattle, tall grass, blooming flowers, verdant fields of corn, wheat and oats, beau- tiful residences dotted here and there, with everything to please the eye and gladden the heart. But the reality disclosed few of 1 these imaginary sights. On the contrary, 1 the settlements were few and far between, and but little of the land contiguous to the railroad was in cultivation. Small herds 1 of cattle, in fair condition, could occasional- 1 ly be seen grazing on the short grass afford- ed by the prairies. The surface of the prairies presented an alternation of long and i gentle swells and depressions, dotted here and there with solitary scrubby trees.
As T. we approached Houston, the county-seat of Harris eountv. the character of the countrv 1 changes. Timber is more abundant and 1 we pass through alternate" strips of prairie and timber situated on the margins of the creeks and bayous along the route. The 1 soil of the prairie in the southern part of 1 the county, is a black, tenacious lime land; that nearer the city is a dark friable earth, with an admixture of sand.
On the mar- 1 gin of the prairies, where there is a growth 1 of small pines, it is a light grey or yellow- ish, compact soil. Cotton, corn, oats, are grown in the county. The popula- tion of the county in 1880 was 1 per cent, colored. The area of Harris coun- ty is 1,800 square miles. It is estimated i that there are only about 30,000 acres in 1 cultivation out of a total of 1,152,000 acres.
1 Unimproved lands suitable for farms, are 1 are quoted at from $1 to. $5 per acre; and tracts with a portion in cultivation, witli Am 4.,. I necessary uuuumgs, uu irum pei acre. The rental of farms, with houses for tenants, is from $3 to per acre. Fencing 1 costs about per mile, and sawed lum- her from $18 to $22 per thousand feet.
For all domestic purposes, cistern water is 1 preferred and most generally used; but it is claimed that in some sections of the i county, palatable water can be procured from wells and springs. We reached Houston at 6.4"), A.M. Ac- cording to the censijs of 1880, it had a popu- I lation of 18,610. The population in round number, is now estimated at 20,000. The 1 city is situated on the west bank of Buffalo bayou, at the head of tide water navigation on" that stream.
It is the chief railroad 1 centre of the State, eight railroads radiating from this common centre, to different parts of the State, viz: The Houston and Texas Central; the International and Great I Northern the Galveston, Harrisburg and San Antonio; the Texas and New Orleans; i Galveston, Houston and Henderson; Houston East and West Texas; the i Texas Western and a branch of the Gulf, Colorado and Santa Fe. The manufactur- ng interests of the city are of large and con-1 increasing importance. After a short delay, we left the car in which had come from New Orleans, and boardid one of the cars of the Houston and Texas Central Railroad. We were soon en route md outside of the city limits. The first entered after leaving Harris county, was waller.
Hempstead, the county seat of Waller county, is 51 miles north-west of Houston, by the line of the Houston and Texas Central Railroad. The Brazos river orms the western boundary of the county nkAiit miloo Ul iv UlDtaucu ui avwut jourse of the stream, and its bottoms are said to be covered with a growth of timber, consisting of several varieties of oak, plack walnut, hackberry and elm. The soil of the Brazos bottoms is reported to be juite rich. The section of country througli which the railroad passes is principally prai ie land. The soil lignt, sandy loam, covered with a short grass, having the general appearance of the grass which, grows on worn out old fluffs of York county, rhere are but few settlements along the line )f the road between Houston and Hempstead, and the cultivated farms are few and 'ar between.
Occasionally, small herds of and small flocks of sheep could be seen, rhe timber in sight of the railroad is mainy scrubby post oak and blackjack. Unimproved lands in Waller county are quoted it from $2 to $3 per acre; bottom lands, $5 per acre: improved tracts, with necessary arm buildings, at from $6 to $15 per acre; arms are rented at from $3 to $4 per cultivaed acre. The Brazos bottoms, under favorible conditions, are said to yield from one lalf to a bale of cotton to the acre; and from to to GO bushels of corn; but the average ponntv will not, rpnnh nnp-half outside figures. In this county it is isserted that pure water, for domestic purjoses, can be obtained from wells at different points throughout the county, at an average depth of 40 feet. Cistern water is also ised and is esteemed the more healthful, rhe area of the county is 499 square miles, md in 1880 contained a population of 144 per cent, being colored.
Hempstead, the county seat, claims a popllation of about 2,000. It has four churches or the Presbyterian, Baptist and handsome resdences and a number of substantial business louses. At this point, the branch of the louston and Texas Central Railway, leadng to Austin, 115 miles distant, connects vith the main line. Skirting along east of Brazos river, with kVashington and Burleson counties to the vest, we crossed Navasota river and entered he southwestern corner of Grimes county. Che population of this county, according to he census of 1880, was 18,603, of which 10,280 are colored.
The area of the couny is square miles. Three-fourths of the is represented as being tableland, uid the residue river and creek bottoms, i.hont two-thirds of the whole hein? covered vith timber, efnbracing the several kinds oak except white and live; hickory, elm, ish, pecan, mulberry, pine and cedar. It is iaimed that in this county there are nunerous bold springs of pure freestone, as veil as limestone water, and that wells of squal ly pure water are obtai ned at a moderate lepth. The soils of the uplands range from light, thin, sandy land, to a dark, deep oam, and where timbered, usually covered vith a growth of post oak and black iack. flie Brazos river, bottoms are of a reddish irown alluvial soil and are very productive.
The yield per acre, under proper tillage and vith favorable seasons, on the uplands, is, cotton in the seed, 800 pounds. On the lottom lands, 1,200 pounds of seed cotton 15 to 40 bushels of corn; 40 to 50 bushels of Fencing costs about $00 per mile. Jnimproved lands are quoted at from $1 to 15 per acre and tracts with a part in cultivaion, and necessary buildings, at from $5 to $25. Lands are rented for one-fourth of he cotton and one-third of other crops. Anderson is the county seat of Grimes lounty; but Navasota, situated on the IIouson and Texas Central Railroad, 71 miles rom Houston, is the chief commercial town, rhe Gulf, Colorado and Santa Fe Railroad extends easterly across the county from We next passed almost centrally through he county of Brazos, which is situated in he southern portion of Central Texas.
The jopulation ot this county, in 1880, was per cent, colored. Its area is 519 rsf nines, nut mure uiuii uuc ujiilu ui is reported to be under cultivaion. Along the line of the railroad, the soil is thin, interspersed with prairie and imber, the latter being generally scrubby jost oak and black-jack. The usual yield of per acre is reported at from one-third one-half of a hale; corn, 35 bushels on jottom lands. Unimproved lands are quoted at from $1.50 to $5 per acre.
Uplands, a portion of the tract in cultivation, tnd the necessary farm houses, are held at 53.50 to $10 per acre; whilst the bottom lands ange from $8 to $20, according to quality md location and the character of improvenents. Fencing costs $90 per mile and tawed lumber $18 per thousand feet. Lands, ent at from $2.50 to $5 per acre. For donestic purposes, cistern water is preferred md generally used. Bryan is the county seat of Brazos county, md has a population in the neighborhood if 2,500.
It is a thriving, enterprising town, tnd is the seat of considerable trade. Four niles from Bryan, on the line of the rail oad, is located the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, a branch of the hate University, liberally endowed by the itate, and also in part by the United States, rhis institution not only furnishes without charge to all its students, but loard as well to ninety-three students se ectod by competitive examination from the hirty-one senatorial districts of the State, is at present under the management of Professor James R. Cole, formerly of Greensjoro, N. we were pleased to meet in the train between the College and Bryan. Robertson is the next county through vhich we passed.
Its area is 869 square riiles and in 1880 had a population of 22.383. rhe general character of the county along line of railroad, is much the same as of Brazos county. Our information is about four-fifths of the county is with timber, consisting on the uplands jhiefly of post oak, red oak, black-jack, lickory ana elm, and in the bottoms, contiguous to the streams, of walnut, pecan, ash, cottonwood and other varieties. Hie uplands, yield from one-third to oneialf, and the bottom lands, from one-half a bale of cotton per acre. Uplands from V) to 30 bushels of corn, and the lowlands 15 to 50 bushels.
Unimproved uplands are quoted at from $2 to $5 per acre; bottom ands $5 to $10; and improved tracts at louble these figures. Cultivated uplands for from $2 to $4 per acre; and bottom ands for from to per acre. Pine lumjer is worth $17 per 1,000 feet. Cistern tvater is preferred and generally used. Franklin is the county seat of Robertson jounty.
There are several towns in the xjunty of considerable size. Calvert, has i population of about Hearne, about 1.200; Breinond, 700, and Franklin, 400. Jalvert was formerly the county seat. Hearne is the point of junction of the Houston and Texas Central and International and Jreat Northern Railways, and Bremond is the point of deflection of the Waco and Northern division of the Houston and Texas Central Railway. At Bremond, we left the main line of the Houston and Texas Central Railroad, cars being transferred to the Waco Branch of the same road.
We soon entered Falls county, the railroad running east of Brazos river to Waco, in McLennan county, 42 miles distant. Falls county has an area of square miles. Thepopulationin 1880was per cent, colored. The surface of the country along the line of the railroad is level or gently undulating, with a general and gradual declination towards the streams. The Brazos river flows nearly centrally through the county from northwest to southeast, a which, together with the other streams, furnishes a good supply of water to differ- 1 ent portions of the county.
Cistern water 1 is generally used for domestic purposes, 1 although it is claimed that wells ol pure i water are easily obtained at a reasonable depth. Unimproved uplands are quoted i at from $1.50 to $5 per acre, and tracts, i with a portion in cultivation and ordi- nary buildings, at from $2 to $15 per acre, i Cultivated lands are rented at from $2 i to $4 per acre. The soil of the upland prairie is generally what is called in Tex- as, "black waxy," and very well suited to 1 com and cotton of the post oak and black jack lands, a gray, sandy the bottoms, a reddish hrown alluvium. The usual yield per acre on the best lands, with good culti- 1 vation, is, oi cotton in tneseeci, auuto 1 pounds; corn 30 to to bushels. Fencing costs about $12o per mile; and pine lumber $18 to $20 per thousand feet.
1 Marlin is the county-seat, and is situated near the centre of the county, on the Waco 1 branch of the Houston and Texas Central Railroad. It is credited with a population i of 2,000, and is the seat of a considerable trade. The next county entered was McLennan, the county-seat of which is Waco. From i the edge of Hill county to Waco, the gener- al characteristics of the country are main- tained. We reached Waco on Tuesday af- 1 ternoon, May 8th, at 0.30j having traveled a distance of 1,388 miles since leaving York- ville.
1 Soon after our arrival, we were taken in charge by Mr. E. Rotan, and conveyed to the residence of Mr. C. II.
Higginson, where i we had been assigned by the committee of 1 hospitality. We were kindly received and introduced to the members of his family, and two of his guests who had preceded us 1 to his hospitable abode, Mr. and Mrs. John W. Givens, of Providence, Kentucky.
We were soon comfortably quartered, and take this occasion to say, that if the other stran- gers in Waco fared only half as well as we did during our stay, they have but small room for complaint. i The next morning, after breakfast, we strolled out to look about the city and ac- ourselves with the surroundings. 1 'artly from force of habit, we wended our way to the office of the Daily Examiner, where we made the acquaintance of several i of the gentlemen connected with the estab- lishment, and especially, Mr. John R. Luns- ford, the city euitor, who was formerly a i resident of Charleston.
Inquiring of him 1 as to the names of South Carolinians resid- ing in the city, among others, he mention- ed the name of Minter. Recognizing the name as one familiar in York county, and a mentioning the fact to Mr. Lundsford, he kindly proposed to go with us and introduce us to Mr. Minter. We soon were at his place, and after an introduction, it was develoDed that we had found Mr.
W. A. I Minter, who merchandised for a number of 1 years previous to the war, at Sandersville, i Chester county but is now the landlord of the Grand Central, one of the principal hotels in Waco. An hour was spent very 1 pleasantly in social chat with regard to 1 things in Texas, and persons and things in (. Chester and Yorkville.
Subsequently, we had the pleasure of meeting Mrs. Minter, i nee Dunnovant, a sister of the late Quay 5 l)unnovant. This being the of 1 ed for the 28th annual meeting of the South- ern Baptist Convention it convened at 10 o'clock, A. in the Baptist Church i of Waco. This is a largeand handsome brick building, with a seating capacity of 860 per- i sons, but proved to be entirely inadequate to the accommodation of the delegates and the large number of visitors who desired to witness the proceedings.
The Convention was called to order by the i President, the venerable Rev. Dr. P. H. 1 Mell, of Georgia.
The secretaries, Revs, i Lansing Burrows, of Kentucky and .0. F. 1 Gregory, of Charlotte, N. were prompt- ly in their places. After devotional exer- 1 cises, delegates were enrolled from the I States of Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Ken- 3 tucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia, aggregating G34, of which about 60 were from South Car- 1 olina.
A ft XI 1 1 .1 1- Alter me names ox ueieguies nuu ueeu ku- rolled, the Convention proceeded to the election of officers for the ensuing year. P. H. Mell, LL. of Georgia, was re-elected President, by acclamation.
The following were elected vice B. Maxey, of Texas Joseph E. Brown, of Georgia 1 Rev. J. C'.
Furman, of South Carolina; Rev. J. W. M. Williams, of Maryland.
Lansing Burrows and 0. F. Gregory, were re-elected secretaries. After the reading and referring to com- mittees of sundry reports, Rev. Dr.
B. H. 1 Carroll, the pastor of the First Baptist i Church of Waco, by permission, made an 1 interesting speech of welcome to the Con- 1 vention, which was felicitously responded i to bv Judge Stewart, of Georgia, President 1 of the Baptist Home Mission Board. Among the distinguished delegates in at- i tendance, were Joseph E. Brown, United States Senator for Georgia; S.
B. Maxey, 1 United States Senator for Texas; Major W. E. Penn, the Texas Evangelist; Rev. Dr.
1 J. L. M. Curry, the agent of the Peabody i Fund; Kev. i)r.
J. k. craves, eairor 01 ine Memphis Bapti.it', Rev. Dr. Tupper, of Rich- raond, Rev.
J)r. Pritchard, of Kentucky Rev. Dr. Nelson, of Shelby, X. Rev.
Dr. Lawton, of Atlanta, Geo; Rev. i Dr. J. A.
Broadus, professor of Old Testa- i ment History in the Southern Baptist Theo- i logical Seminary at Louisville, Ky; Rev. i Dr. W. M. Williams, of Baltimore Rev.
i Dr. Bailey, of Alabama. 1 The convention was in session for live days, having adjourned on Sunday night the 13th of May, to meet next year in Bal- 1 timore. 1 The delegates and visitors in Waco during the sitting of the Convention, numbered between 2,500 and 3,000. The most open- handed hospitality was extended to visi- tors and delegates alike, and each and every visitor was made to feel that he was better i cared for than any one else, and that special preparation had been made for his individ- i ual comfort.
1 Waco, is the county seat of McLennan county, and is one of the chief interior cities i of the State. It is in Central Texas, and is 188 miles north west ot the city of Houston, 1 by the Waco division and the main line of the Plouston and Texas Central Railway, i The city is eligibly si tuated on a commanding i eminence on the west bank of theBrazos riv- i er. The place was tirst settled in the year i 1849. Up to the close of the war, the popula- 1 tion did not exceed one thousand. It has now grown to a city with a population of not if icj nrnhoMn 1 iroa tiuiu it'll tiiuuiXiiiUj auu i 10 I that a larger number of of cotton are i purchased in this market from wagons, than i at any other point in the State, the receipts aggregating about 50,000 bales annually.
1 The city's estimated annual sales of gener- al merchandise, aggregate the receipts and shipments of wool, 700,000 Its; hides, 400,000 tbs; live stock, 7,000 head; and miscellaneous articles valued at $300,000. 1 The city is chiefly built of brick, includ- ing many elegant public buildings, private residences, business houses, manufactories, shoos, etc. Its manufactories are represent- i ed by one cotton factory of yarns and seam- a less sacks, one cotton seed oil mill of large i xi ii I cupacuy, uireu wen equippuu iiuumig two iron foundries and machine shops, one manufactory of rotary plows, and an extensive manufactory of carriages, wagons and agricultural implements. The price of building material in Waco is for pine lumber $21) per 1,000 feet; bricks, $10 per thousand; shingles, $11.50 to $5 per 1,000. Its transportation facilities are very tine, this being the point of junction of the northwest branch of the Houston and Texas C'en- tral, the Missouri Pacific, and the Texas and St.
Louis Railways. The Brazo river is not navigable at this point. It is, however, scanned by three bridges. An iron suspension bridge of 475 feet span; and the bridges of the Missouri Pacific and the Tex- si as and St. Louis Railways.
1 McLennan county occupies a central po-: iition in the great belt of black lime lands, extends in a somewhat north-eastery direction from the Lower Rio Grande to lied river, and also in the live oak region, lere about fifty miles wide, which extends learly north from the Gulf, through the State. The surface is elevated and oiling, two-thirds of the area being prairie, md the remainder lying for the most part dong the numerous streams, covered with more or less dense growth of live oak, jost oak, Spanish oak, walnut, pecan, cedar, The soil of the upland prairies is. for he most part, a black, tenacious waxy lime and; of the valleys, a dark, friable loam the timbered uDlands. a lierht or srrav sandy, with a substratum of red clay; anil )f the Brazos bottoms, a dark, or reddish jrown alluvium. We were informed by a eliable gentleman in Waco, that with fair seasons and proper cultivation, the ordinary field of cotton per acre, on upland, is one lalf a bale; on bottom land three-fourths to bale; oats, on good lands, 45 to GO jushels; wheat, 15 to 20 bushels; corn, 25 40 bushels.
Unimproved lands, suitible for farms, is worth from $3 to $10 an lcre, and improved tracts from $5 to $40. Cultivated lands rent from $4 to $5 an icre, or one-third of the grain and oneburth of the cotton. Fencing cost from 5135 to $200 per mile. Never-failing springs water, but more or less impregnated with ime, are found in many sections of the and wells are easily obtained, but are preferred and generally used or an domestic purposes. On Saturday morning, the 12th of May, took leave of our kind host and his famly, and at 7.35 started for Corsicana, in Navarro county, over the Texas and St.
Louis Harrow Gauge Railroad. After leaving Waco, we traveled for about ten miles when entered the north-west corner of county, and crossing the south-eastern orner of Hill county, were in Navarro Limestone, the lirst county enterHi, occupies the dividing ridge between the rrinity and Brazos rivers. The surface is somewhat broken and uneven, without risng into abrupt hills. In the valleys near he streams, the soil is a deep alluvial; on prairies it is divided between a deep flack and chocolate colored lime land and in the uplands it is usually a compact gray, land on a clay foundation. In the ireas that are called "sandjack flats," the soil is loose, sandy and of very inferior quality.
Contiguous to the streams there is timber, consisting of ash, elm, lickory, hackberry, walnut, pecan, etc. On uplands, the timber consists principally )f scrubby post oak and blackjack. Along he line of the road, at frequent intervals, observed nice farms under a good state cultivation, and the crops, including corn, wheat and oats, in a flourishing condition. The settlements were nearer together than we had observed at any other except contiguous to towns and n.f 07 1 uir twuiuy uwnuiim an aiui 1 rules, and in 1880 had a population of 10,246. acres in the county, it is estimated ihat only about 45,000 are in cultivation.
proper tillage, the yield of cotton is rom one-fourth to two-thirds of a bale of otton to the acre corn, 25 to 35 bushels. Unimproved lands are quoted at from $1 to per acre; and improved tracts from $5 to The usual rental is from to per icre. Fencing costs about per mile. Pine lumber per 1,000 feet. In the saniy sections the wells and springs afford palitable water; but in the lime lands, cisterns ire in general use.
Ilill county is in Central Texas, embraces in area of 1,030 square miles, and in 1880 had i population of 16,554, about 500 of the numaer being negroes. The section of this through which we passed, is composed of alternate strips of rolling prairie ind timber. Near the water courses, the common to the bottoms, and on the iplands, post oak and blackjack. Well farms were frequent on either side pf the railway track, and the growing crops ivere in a flourishing condition, and neat, frame farm houses were to be seen at short ntervals. In this county, unimproved land, juitable for farming, is quoted at from to per acre; improved farms from $16 to iccording to the proportion of cultivated land and value of the improvements.
Fencing costs about $150 per mile; pine lumber $20 per 1,000 feet. Water for domestic purposes, is obtained from springs, wells and nsterns. Corsicana was reached about noon. We were soon at the residence of our kinsman, Mr. Frank M.
Holmes, in the suburbs of the town, where we had arranged to remain for several days. After the greetings usual on rnch occasions and a hearty welcome, we were soon comfortably quartered. Corsicana is situated on gently rolling ground in an extensive prairie, and contains Detween 2,500 and inhabitants. It has i handsome court house, built of stone which was brought from the neighborhood of two large and commodiousschool for the whites and one for the Mucks; six churches, several of them spanous and tasteful structures; a very large md handsome hotel building, handsome private residences, and numerous built brick business houses. The aggregate annual trade of the town, much of which is wholesale, is put down at about $,500,000, large quantities of goods being iold to dealers in the villages and at the traling points scattered throughout the county, rhe general health of the town is considered For domestic purposes, cistern water Is almost universally used.
The Houston md Texas Central Railroad, running north md soutli through the county, and the Texis and St. Louis Narrow Gauge Railway, mi mi in or enst nnd west, form a junction at piuce. Navarro county, of which Corsieana is tlie seat, has an area of 1,055 square the size of Spartanburg county, a population, according to tne jensusof 1880, of colored. The surface of the county is, for the most iart, rolling prairie, without being broken md rough. The Trinity forms its northeastern boundary for a distance of thirty-five niles, and Chambers and Iiolaml creeks flow the county.
Tributary to these are i large number of smaller streams. The jottom lands are covered with a growth of mk, hickory, pecan, cedar, etc. Mesquite, i species of locust, is scattered over the muries, and post oak and black-jack are bund on the sandy uplands. It is estimated hat about one-fifth of the area of the county 1 covereu Willi uuiuer. nil' unan itviiviD, are generally prairie, predominate, ind are considered best adapted to cotton md grain.
The sandy post oak uplands are lardly worth cultivating. Unimproved jrnirie land is quoted at from $3 to $10 per icre, and timbered land from $8 to $20 1111jroved farms are held at from $10 to $25 per icre. Fencing costs from $175 to $250 per nile. Under proper tillage, with good seaions, the yield of cotton is, on the best lands, rom one-half to three-fourths of a bale to she acre; corn 25 to bushels. Cistern vater is preferred and generally used for lomestic purposes.
We left Corsicana on the morning of the 5th of May, by the Houston and Texas Jentral Railroad, for Deunison, in Grayson this county being separated from Indian Territory by Red river. After leavng Corsicana, the counties through which ve passed are Ellis, Dallas, Collin and Grayson. Ellis county has an area of 940 square niles. and the census of 1880 ffives it a popu ation of 2lj294. Its general surface is high oiling nrairie.
Only about one-eighth of he land of the county is in cultivation. favorable conditions, the yield of per acre is 800 lbs in the seed; corn, 55 to 30 bushels; wheat, If) bushels. Unimproved lands are quoted at from $3 to $10 per acre; and improved tracts at from $10 to according to location and improvements. Fencing costs from $150 to $175 per mile. lumber is worth $18 to $20 per 1,000 eet.
Well water can be procured at a lepth of 18 to 25 feet, but cistern water is preferred. Waxahatchie is the county seat md is said to have a population of about 5,000. The next county on our route is Dallas, situated in North Central Texas. Its area is 900 square miles, and in 1880, according to the census, had a population of of which were colored. With one exception, it had the largest population of any county in the State.
Much of the area of the county is high, rolling prairie. The Elm and east and west forks of Trinity river, and Mountain creek, about equidistant from each other, flow in from the westward and unite their waters near the centre of the county, forming the main river, which passes out near the southern corner. Along una Between tne ioras 01 the river and on the main stream, is found several varieties of oak, cedar, pecan, walnut, hickory, bois in York county as Osage and cotton latter a species of other varieties suitable for fuel, and which can be used for fencing purposes. Fences, however, are generally constructed of posts, plank and barbed wire, the usual fence of one plank and only two wires, costing about $225 per mile. Pine lumber is worth from $20 to $22 per' thousand feet.
The prairies are generally of a black, tenacious, waxy soil, and on walking over places where there is no grass, when the ground is wet, the soil sticks to the shoes like wax or tar, and is about as difficult to remove. Where there is timber on the upland prairies, the soil is a light sandy, and in the river and creek bottoms it is a dark loam. The black-waxy soil and the soil of the bottoms are very productive. With favorable seasons and proper cultivation, the yield per acre is, of cotton, onethird to three-fourths of a bale; corn, bushels; wheat, 15 to 20; oats, 40 to 60. Unimproved land is quoted at from $5 to $20 ner acre, according to location and dual ity.
Tracts, with a portion in cultivation, and the necessary buildings, range in price from to The rental value of cultivated lands is from to per acre. Farm laborers command from $12 to $15 per month, and are difficult to obtain. Work horses range in price from to $80; mules from $80 to $150. Water can be obtained from wells at a reasonable depth, but cistern water is much preferred and generally used. The city of Dallas, is the county seat of Dallas county.
It was first settled in 1841, and named after Hon. George M. Dallas, of Philadelphia, who was viee-President in 1844. In 1850, the census of the city showed less than 3,000 inhabitants. In 1870, the population of city and county, was 13,314 but now, the population of the city alone, is estimated at 20,000.
It is eligibly located on the east bank of Trinity river, which is spanned by a substantial bridge belonging fn tbo ifv Sc oil LV WU111J VI JIO UOVi 10 ILVVi IV (111 ers and goers. The city has quite a number of large and imposing structures, embracing churches, public buildings, substantially built business houses and handsome'private residences. The immense wholesale and retail dry goods house of Sanger Brothers, with its army of salesmen, clerks and attaches, would attract attention in any of the larger cities 'of the United States. In the way of manufactories, there is one of the largest cotton seed oil mills in the State, the capacity which is .3,000 gallons of oil per day the Dallas C'ar Works, for the manufacture of railway cars, wagons, carriages, and furniture, with a capital of $150,000, and employing 75 men an iron and brass foundry, doing a business of per annum two soap factories an ice manufactory with a capacity of pounds per day besides many other manufactories of less note. Water works, owned by the city, is in successful operation.
There are Ave banks in the city with an aggregate capital of nearly The estimated wholesale and retail trade in general merchandise, is estimated at The Houston and Texas Central; the Texas and Pacific the Dallas and Witchita the Texas Trunk Line; and the Chicago, Texas and Mexican Central Railways, all centre at Dallas. Collin is the next county on our route. The Houston and Texas Central Railroad passes nearly centrally through the county from south to north. The area of the county is 884 square miles. The population in 1880 was percent, colored.
This county, excepting those in which are located large cities or towns, is probably more densely settled than any county in the State; at least, the rural settlements are thicker than any county through which we passed. It is estimated that three-fourths of the area of the county is rolling prairie, in some places rising into hills of considerable elevation, in others gently sloping down into wide valleys. The east fork of Trinity river in this county and its tributaries, are fringed with belts of timbermore or less wide, me leading varieties of timber are the several species of oak common to this section of country, including ash, elm, pecan, hackberry, Osage orange, etc. There is but little timber in the county suitable for building purposes. In many places along the line of the railroad, there is a succession of pastures and well-tilled farms, both enclosed with wire fences.
Much of the area presents a continuous surface of black waxy, tenacious soil, without any admixture of sand, and is quite productive. The crops of corn and cotton in this and Dallas counties, presented a better and more uniformlv flourishing condition than any counties through which we passed 011 our entire route. We were informed that the usual yields per acre, of the principal crops, under favorable conditions, is, of cotton three-fourths of a bale; corn, bushels; wheat 15 bushels; oats, 40 bushels. Unimproved land is quoted at from $3 to $15 per acre, the highest priced being for prairie, for the reason that when it in fenced, it is ready for cultivation. Farms are generally fenced with posts and rails, or and planks, the cost being from $150 to $250 per mile.
Pine lumber is worth from "20 to $25 per 1,000 feet. Improved farms, with necessary buildings, range from $10 to $30 per acre, according to location and ti value of the improvements. Improved land is rented at from $3 to $4.50 per acre. In dry 4-Kr. nmmo tn run hill tiiu otiuanjo tv iun wuv is generally left in the depressions in the beds of the streams.
Water for domestic purposes can be obtained from springs in some sections of the county, and from wells at a reasonable depth; but cisterns are preferred and are in general use. McKinney is the county seat of Collin county, and has a population of about 2,000. In it are a number of substantial and handsome buildings, notably the court-house and the "Foot House," the principal hotel. We were informed while there, that the court house cost the county about $50,000. The town is growing rapidly, and is the market for a considerable section of country.
The East Line and Red River Railway (narrowgauge) forms a junction with the Houston and Texas Central Railroad at this place. Grayson county adjoins Collin, and is the next 011 our route. It lies on Red river, which separates it from the Indian Territory. It has an area of square miles, and in 1880 had a population of 38,108. Grayson is the most nonulous county in the State, which may be accounted for in part, by the fact that in it are two good-sized cities, only 13 miles and Dennison.
The general characteristics of the county are much the same as those of Collin county, with the exception that in the latter county there is probably a larger area of blackwaxy land, which is esteemed so highly. As in Collin county, many of the streams cease to run during a portion of the year but nearly all retain water in pools in their beds. Water can be obtained from springs in some localities, and from wells at a moderate depth, the water in the timbered uplands being freestone, and that in the black prairie lands more or less impregnated with lime. For a supply of drinking water, cisterns are in general use. On the best lauds, with the same conditions, the yield of cotton, corn and wheat, is about the same as in Collin county.
Unimproved land is quoted at from $3 to $10 per acre improved farms from $10 to $25, according to location, the proportion of cultivated land and the character of the improvements. Pine lumber is worth from $18 to $20 per 1,000 feet, and ON FOURTH.
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