The National Era from Washington, District of Columbia on September 13, 1855 · 4
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The National Era from Washington, District of Columbia · 4

Washington, District of Columbia
Issue Date:
Thursday, September 13, 1855
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_ 148 WASHINGTON, D. C. PETITION OF PASSMORE WILLIAMSON. The introductory ponion of the Petition of Passtnorc Williamson to the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, for the writ of habeas corpus, recites the circumstances attending the alleged alxluction of Wheeler's slaves, and proceeds in the following conclusive manner to state the grounds of the application : Notwithstanding the record is silent on the subject, your Petitioner thinks it proper to state that, on the return of the writ of naljeas corpus, the Judge allowed the relator to traverse the said return by parol, under which permission the relator gave his own testimony, iu which he stated that he held the said Jane, Daniel, and Isaiah, as slaves, under the law of Virginia, and had voluntarily brought them with him, by railroad, from the city of Baltimore to the city of Philadelphia, where he had been accidentally detained at Bloodsrood's Hotel ahont iKrw hours; and certain other witnesses were examined. From the testimony thus {riven, though not at all warranted by it or by the lads, the said Judge decided that your Petitioner had been concerned in a forcible abduction of the aaid Jane, Daniel, and Isaiah, against their will and consent, upon the deek of the said steamboat, but admitting that your Petitioner took no personally active part in such supposed abduction allcr he had left the deck. The hearing t<?ok place on the morning of Friday, the 20th of July, at 10 o'clock, your Petitioner having had the first knowledge of the existence of any writ of habeas corpus between I and 2 o'clock on the same morning. I'nder these circumstances, before the said testimony was gone into, and afterwards, the counsel of your Petitioner asked for time, until the next morning, for consultation and preparation for the argument of the questions which might arise in the case, which applications were refused by the Court, and the hearing went on, and closed on the same morning between 12 and 1 o'clock. i On Tuesday, the 21st July, I8.?o, your Petitioner presented to the Hon. Chief Justice of this court a petition Ibr a hat-ax corpus, which , was refused. Inasmuch as your Petitioner is thus deprived of his liberty for an indefinite time, and possibly for his lite, as he believes illegally; inasmuch as he is a native citizen of Pennsylvania, and i claims that In* has a right to the protection of ] the Commonwealth, and to have recourse to her , courts for enlargement and redress, he begs leave respectfully to state soiuc of the grounds , on which lie conceives that lie i> entitled to the renel which he now prays. I Whatever may lie the view of the Court as 1 to the probability of his discharge on a hearing, i your Petitioner resjiectfully represents that L>' | is clearly entitled to have a writ of habeas cor j jhix grauted, and to lie thereupon brought be- < fore the Court. Upon this subject, the Pennsylvania kaJteas ctojni. act is imperative. Indeed, i as the question of the sullicienf-y of the cause 1 of his detention directly concerns his personal > liberty, any law which should fail to secure to f< him the right of Ia-ing personally present at its ? argument and decision would be frightfully in- o consistent with the principles of the Common n Law, the provisions of our J till of Rights, and the very basis of our <Jov? rnnient. Jt is believed that no case, prior to that of f your Petitioner, is repo' ted in Pennsylvania, of r a refusal of this writ tr, a party restrained of his ji liberty, except the c# se of cs parte l.atcre/ue, h 5 liiuu., JU4, in which it was decided that it was * not obligatory on the Court to issue a xerontl n writ of tuibeiis corpus, where the ease had been q already heard on the same evidence uiioii a > first writ of lajiteas corput, granted by another i< Court of the Petitioner's own selection; in other words, that the statutory right to the writ t] was cxhttitpu*d by the impetration and hearing s of the first writ, and that the granting of a ? second writ was at the discretion of the Court. c This ease, therefore, appears ti> confirm strongly 11 the position of your Petitioner, that he is ab- | solulcly entitled at law to the writ for which he f now prays. v On the hearing, there will he endeavore<l to [ lie established, on behalf of your Petitioner, on ? abundant grounds of reason and authority, the t| following propositions, viz: q 1. That it is the right and duty of the Courts. | and especially of tin Supreme Court, of this Commonwealth, to relieve any citizen of the t. same from illegal imprisonment. o 2. That imprisonment uutnS* an order of a < Csjurt or Judge not having jurisdiction over f subject matter, and whose order is therefore j void, is an illegal imprisonment. :1 That the party subjected to such imprisonnient has a right to be relieved from it on v habeas corpus, whether h<- did or did not make / the objection of t'ae want of jurisdiction before | the Court or Judge inflicting such imprisonment; ami that, \f he did not make such ohjec- c tion, it is immaterial whether he were prevented ? from making it h\- ignorance of* the law. or hv ?- - \ -- ?J h the want ol extraordinary presence ot' mind, or |; by whatever other eauae. ,, I. That the Courts and Judges of theT'nitod States are Courts mjid Judges of limited juris- ti diction, created hy a (joverninciit of eriutne- t rated powers; ami, i? proceedings lie fore them, the record mast show the ease to l?e within j their jurisdiction; otherwise, they can have , none. f?. That if the record of any proceeding l>e- . fore thein show affirmatively that the case was v clearly without their jurisdiction, there can no f presumption ol fact he raised against such , record, for the purpose of validating their juris- # diction. f.. That no writ of /mlieas rorjttis can he is I > sued, to produce the hodv of a person not in ? custody under legal process, unless it lie issued in hohalf, and with the consent, of said person. , 7. That, at common law, the return to a writ ^ of habeas corpus, if it he unevasive, full, and ( complete, is conclusive, and c&unot he tra- . versed. , H. That a person held as a slave under the ^ law* of one State, and voluntarily carried by j his owner for any purpose into another State, is not a fugitive from labor or service within the true intent and meaning of the Constitution ( of the I uited States, but is subject, to the laws of the State into which he has been thus car- ( ried : and that, by the law of Pennsylvania, a ^ slave so brought into this State, whether for the purpose of passing through the same or otherwise, is free. it. That the District Court of the United ' States has no jurisdiction whatever over the question of the freedom or slavery of such person, or of an alleged abduction of him, nor any jurisdiction to award a writ of habctis corpus, commanding an alleged abductor, or any citizen by whom he may lie assumed to be detained, to produce him. 10. That in case of a fugitive from service or labor from another State, the District Court of the United States has jurisdiction to issue a warrant for the apprehension of such fugitive, and, in case he l?e rescued and abducted from his claimant, to proceed hv indictment and trial l)^ jury against such al>ductor, and on conviction to punish him by limited fine and imprisonment; but even in the case of a fugitive lave, said Court, nor the Judge thereof, lias no jurisdiction to issue a writ of Aa!*e*s corpus, commanding the alleged abductor to produce auch fugitive; or to enforce a return of such writ, or allow a traverse of the return thereof if made, or upon such traverse in effect convict the respondent, without indictment or trial by jury, of such abduction, and thereupon punish him therefor by unlimited imprisonment, in the name of a commitment as for a contempt in refusing to return such writ of habeas corpus. 11. That generally it is true that one Court will not go behind a commitment by another Court for contempt; but that is only where the committing Court has jurisdiction of the subject matter; and your Petitioner submits, that where the circumstances of the supposed contempt are set forth upon the record of commitment, and it further appears thereupon that the whole proceedings were coram mm judicc, and that for that and other reasons the commitment was arbitrary, illegal, and void, it is the right and duty of a Court of competent jurisdiction, by writ of habeas corpus, to relieve a citizen from imprisonment under such void commitment. 12. That neither the District Conrt of the United Stales, nor the Judge thereof, had any shadow or color of jurisdiction to award the writ of habeas corpus directed to your Petitioner, commanding him to produce the bodies of said Jane, Daniel, and Isaiah, and that such writ was void; that your Petitioner was in no wise bouud to make return thereto; that the return which he did make thereto was unevasive, full, and complete, and was conclusive, and not traversable; that the commitment of your Pe titioner, as for contempt in refusing to return said writ, was arbitrary, illegal, and utterly null and void ; that the whole proceedings, including the commitment for contempt, were absolutely coram non judicc. 13. That, in such oppression of one of her citizens, a subordinate Judge of the United States has usurped upon the authority, violated the peace, and derogated from the sovereign diguity of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania; that all are hurt in the person of your Petitioner; aud that he is justified in looking with confidence to the authorities of his native State, to vindicate her rights by restoring his liberty. To be relieved, therefore, from the imprisonment aforesaid, your Petitioner now applies, praying that a writ of habeas corpus may be issued, according to the act of Assembly in such case made and provided, directed to Charles Hortz, the said keeper of the said prison, commanding him to bring before your Honorable Court the body of your Petitioner, to do aud abide such order as your Honorable Court may direct. And your Petitioner will ever pray, Ac. Passmork Williamsox. Moyamaisiwj Prison, Any list i>, lbo"?. [COPYRIGHT SECURED BY THE AUTHOR.] For thr National Kra. THE LEGAL TENURE 0? 8LAYERT. LETTEB XXXVI. i nfoi ndf.d assiwiptioxs. and historical RKFL'TATIO.NS OF TlllvM?Conclutled. To the Friend* of A merican Liberty: Such arc the supposed historical facta on account of which all the well-known and established rules of legal interpretation are systematically set aside, in favor of the Pro-Slavery construction of the Constitution against which i am contending. Now, I am prepared to prove by indisputable and documentary evidence that not one of these seven assumed historical facts is deserving of the least credit. Nay, more: Their absolute lalsity is as demonstrable as any other conceivable falsifications of history could possibly be. Not only was there no legalized Slavery in the country at the time the Constitution was drafted and adopted, but the Convention that drafted it was perfectly aware of that fact, and took care to shape the document in accordance with it. Not only was there no compromise made on the slave <|uestion?there was no disputed point liefore the < 'onvention, concerning Slavery, to be compromised; and there were no two distinct parties in that Convention, by whom such a compromise mnld hare been mude. Not only was there no "understanding " that I he Constitution favored Slavery?or that the federal (iovernmcut was never to intermeddle kvith the existence of Slavery in the States, and sons should honor and imitate, though avoiding their errors. In my next I hope to exhibit something of their character and "intentions." William Goodell. RUSSIAN INTOLERANCE. The triumph of Russia is the triumph of religious intolerance?the triumph of an ignorant, corrupt, persecuting, hierarchy, hostile to knowledge, freedom, and progress?in one word, the triumph of the Greek Church. What that would be, no one who has read the journals of Dr. King, at Athens, needs to l>e informed. A few days since, we inquired of the son of an American missionary, just arrived from Constantinople, " If Russia should take Constantinople, how long could your father remain there at his work?" " Not a day," was the instant reply. That answer is a true exponent of the respective attitudes of Russia and Turkey towards the missionary work. The father of this young gentleman once knew something of Austrian persecution toward the Christian missionary ; but in Turkey he has labored lor years, not only without molestation, but with positive encouragement. Since the opening of the war, the Turkish mind has been wonderfully liberalized by free intercourse with the English aud French. Prejudice, once thought inveterate, has given way to sympathy. The impassible nature of the Turk is roused with the spirit of inquiry. He buys and reads the Bible ; he attends the public religious services of the missionaries. A few years will witness a great moral renovation among the Turks, if the work of missions is not hindered by violence from without. Of all classes in Turkey, the Greeks are the most corrupt and the most hopeless. These are the greatest obstacle to the progress of evangelical religion. But the Turks are already learning to discriminate between the false and the true; and if Russia shall be kept out of Constantinople lor thirty years, a generation of true " believers " will people that centre of the old Christian world. Let, then, all Christian hearts unite to pray * jut an cud to it?but there was h very distinct tnil publicly expressed "understanding'' to the :ontrary. Not ouly was there no need of a " compronise"on the part of the North, in order to ring the South into " the I'nion," but the >outh and the North were both in the Union jng before the present Constitution was form<1 ; and the question whether or no any portion f the States were to remain in the Union, was ever before the Convention or the country, at II. Not only is it untrue, that when the Cnion was ormetl, it was formed on the basis of concesions and compromises in J'acor of Slavery, but L is historically certain that tlie Union (which as never since been abolished or suspended) ras distinctly formed on the basis of uncompromising opposition to Slavery ? an opposition uite as deeply seated at the South as at the lorth, and quite as earnestly expressed by lading Southern minds as by Northern ones. 1 ani aware that these statements may starle some persons, but I am prepared fully to ubstautiate them. I am aware, too, that the lain conclusions reached in my previous letters an be substantially maintained, without taking he positions of this letter. Among my readers, know there are some who have perceived this, hough they had beeu more or less embarrassd by the impressions and assumptions of which have beeu speaking. A letter is now before ie, from one of the best-disciplined minds in lie country, a gentleman of high literary acuireinents, from which, without naming him, inay take the liberty to extract the following: " 1 have carefully read your writings, and am onfident that all the friends of Freedom must ome, substantially, to your grounds. I say nbstanlialty?because, while 1 agree with you hai the Constitution, as a whole, honestly inter reted, is sullicient to bring Slavery to an end, ,ud will do so when administered by brave and ood men, yet I am not convinced that those rho made it did not have in view something of he nature of a compromise. Still, as we are uiuiid to interpret a law by its general spirit nd the fair import of its language, in all its onnections, and not he turned aside from the neaning by what we may suppose to have been he thoughts and motives of the Cramers, so I eliuvc our Federal Constitution, thus expound<1 and administered, will take oil' every yoke." While I hold, with my friend, that the ground ie takes is a perfectly tenable one, and that culivated minds will readily see it to be so, I am, x the same time, persuaded that t ruth ami good uilicy demand that we should take the still nore just and complete ground of vindicating the nemory of our fathers from the unworthy asicrsious that have been cast upon them, aud which even the mnut <rn?rded concessions are ulculated to encourage. I believe, too, that the rlmlt- truth on this particular point, more than ilinost anything else, is needed, to awaken in he mass of the people the same patriotic zeal or Liberty, and corresponding hatred to Slavery, hat their illustrious sires cherished. While, therefore, 1 contend (as do Spooner ind others) that we need not go outside of the Constitution to find its true meaning, and that he received rules of legal interpretation tin not \trmiit us to do so, for any purpose at variance with natural rights, I would not (as some seem to do) discard or discourage historical inquiry in respect to the intentions of our fathers. Wherever those intentions are proj>erly understood, the meaning' of the words they used and the spirit ol the instrument will he found to be iti harmony with those intentions, and the filial duty of doing all in our power to carry out and to render effective their virtuous intentions ber-onies a most powerful incentive to right action. If the people of this country are ever to be roused to assert the claims of human nature, it will be done?n<>t by vilifying their revolutionary fathers as base hypocrites, with professions of Liberty on their lips, while they riveted the fetters of Slavery?but rather by vindicating their just fame, and holding up the light of their exM in Ttlu o a iru a 1 < \uoru r\f I eo o/lnni urlinm fkoir THE NATIONS for the defeat of Russian arms. Let not our prayers evaporate in vague generalities, such as the termination of war. We should pray that the gigantic despotism which threatens the infant cause of missions in the East may be restrained. We should desire, not peace alone, but peace in righteousness; and this can be gained only by humbling effectually the power of Russia to curse and to destroy. It is far more important that Christians should pray for the defeat of Russia than for the overthrow of the Papacy, which is already impotent, decrepid, and fast crumbling away. THE TRIUMPH OF AMERICAN INGENUITY AT PARIS. The New York Tribune justly remarks, in reierence to the splendid triumph ot American inveutive genius at the Paris Exhibition, (a full account of which we copy from the correspondence of that paper,) as follows: "We published on Saturday a graphic account, from our special correspondent in Paris, of the recent triumph of American genius at the official trial, at La Trappes, of agricultural machines, in presence of Prince Jerome Napoleon, President, and the Commissioners and Jurors of the Universal Exposition. Had this been the bulletin of a murderous battle, no matter on what pretext of quarrel, whereiu lifty thousand Americans had routed twice their number of the choicest troops selected from all the armies of Europe, we should have been required to issue one edition after another till midnight, and then close our office with the demand for extra copies of the electrifying narration still unsatiated. The victory actually achieved by our countrymen was far more signal, more beneficent, more creditable, than that would have been; yet, we presume, less than a hundred persons, who do not usually read the Tribune, saw fit to buy a copy on this occasion, and that very few habitual readers wore impelled to dispatch copies to their distant friends, as, in the alternative case contemplated, many would have done. In this middle of the nineteenth century, we are still essentially barbarians?that is, we judge by brutal standards, and deck with our laurels the brow of overmastering Force, rather than that of creative Genius. Let us hope that this will not always be; and, to the end that it may not, let us consider some of the antecedents and incidents of the recent American triumph." AMERICAN TRIUMPHS AT THE FRENCH EXHIBITION. Currmpomli'iU'e of llif NVw York Tribune. Paris, August 1G, 18;>5. As the jurors of tho Exhibition approach the ! end of their labors, the triumphs of American ! geniuA become apparent. The great trial of agricultural implements at La Trappes, day before yesterday, was sufficiently glorious in its results to establish of itself a high rank for American genius at the Great Exhibition. No i event connected with the Plxhibition has oc- ' vuikv.u^ OiUVC HID CUlUIUCllUCIIieill) WUiL'U I1US attracted anything like the attention that this did ; it wn9 in fact the great event of the Exhibition, and no better evidence of this is wanted, than the fact that the official journal, the Monifeur, of this morning, devotes two columns to a description of the day's proceedings and their results. The trial took place at La Trappes, on the farm of M. Dailly, Postmaster General of i France, thirty miles from Paris, on the line of I the railroad, which extends beyond Versailles and St. Cyr. M. Dailly is a member of the .lury on Agriculture, and placed his farm, much j to his own inconvenience, at the disposal of the Commission, for these experiments. The farm is a very extensive and very beautiful one, is almost perfectly level over an open space of two miles square, and offered superior advantages for the trial, before a large concourse, of the various agricultural machines. Several trials Kofi ulroQiltr fuL*on t*1 ono )?? A J ~"V" "WUISVUBUgHVUHUIBI Jury, and a concourse composed of agricultural schools and the neighboring farmers, in which the American machines, few as they were in number, had carried oil' all the honors, and had thus created for themselves a reputation which brought spectators to the last trial from a distance of two to three hundred miles; but the Prince Napoleon, the President of the Imperial Commission and President of the International luries, who is now devoting two hours daily to a personal inspection, in company with the jurymen of each class, of the various classes of products in the Exhibition, had not yet seen the agricultural implements of the Exhibition in operation, and he therefore ordered the final trial which has just taken place, and invited to it all the jurymen, commissioners, and other officers of the Exhibition, and a large number of public dignitaries. The news soon gained great publicity, and when the day of trial arrived, the railroad company had not made preparations for the transportation of more than one half the number of persons who presented themselves. The list of names of distinguished men who were present occupies half a column of the Moniteur; among them are the following: The Minister of Agriculture, Commerce, and Publie Works; M. Drouyn de l'Huys, late Minister of Foreign Affairs; (leueral Morin; M. Emile de Cirardin; M. liixio, and others. Nine Arab chiefs of distinction, all tall, fine-looking men, were present, and took much interest in the experiments. Among the Americans, who were present in considerable numbers, were Mr. Fillmore, late President of the United States; Mr. Corcoran, the banker, who accompanies Mr. Fillmore in his travels; Mr. Toombs, Senator of (leorgia; Mr. Harrington, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury under Mr. Corwin ; several members of Congress, and the following jurymen and commissioners from the United States: Mr. Fleischmann, juryman on the 7th class. New York: Colonel Coxe, juryman of the 2d class, Alabama; Mr. Valentine, commissioner from Massachusetts ; Mr. Oilman, Connecticut; Mr. Ee Vert, Alabama; Hon. Mr. Elliott, South Carolina; Dr. lohusou, Ohio. The train which conveyed the Prince Napoleon and suite arrived on the ground at half past ten, and the experiments commenced at once. A whole regiment of soldiers was required, to maintain the lines around the fields where the experiments were made, and no one was permitted to enter the field to follow closely the experiments but the Prince Napoleon and the .lurymen and Commissioners. The programme embraced what is in France the entire series of agricultural operations. Drainage, tillage, diverse preparations of ground, thrashing, sowing, weeding, reaping, mowing, and hay-scattering and gathering. A large number of implements were on the ground for the minor operations, and in these the English carried off at least two-thirds of the honors, against all the rest on the gronnd. But the great interest of the occasion attached to the reapers, mowers, and threshers, and in these contests the American machines were so far superior to all others, that the struggle was confined to themselves. There were in fact but four machines of any kind on the ground, manufactured in the United States, and these were the reapers and mowers of McCormick, Manney, and Wright, and the thrashing machine of Pitts, of Buffalo. The thrashers were tried before the mowers and reapers. Six men were set to thrashing with flails, at the same moment that the different machines commenced operations, and the following were the results of half an hour's work: Six thrashers with flails, f?0 litres of wheat. Pitta's American thrasher, 740 litres of wheat. Clayton's English thrasher, 410 litres of wheat. It 1_ i ""ai*. * ' >uuinr s r rencn mrasner, <3V litres 01 wneat. Pinet's Belgian thrasher, 150 litres of wheat. In regard to Pitts's machine, the Monileur says: " Pitts's machine has therefore gained the honors of the day. This machine literally devours the sheaves of wheat; the eye cannot follow the work which is effected between the entrance of the sheaves and the end of the operation. It is one of the greatest results which it is possible to obtain. The impression which this spectacle produced npon the Arab chiefs was profound." The Moniteur might have added, that the effect was no less wonderful to the Prince Napoleon, who returned twice to the machine, and declared that it was " frightful to look at! " as it must have been to all those who never before saw a genuine, fast American thrasher. The machine of Dunoir is used almost exclusively in France; but already the demand for the Buffalo machine is so great, that without doubt is will supersede all others. After partaking of a bountiful breakfast, which was offered to the Prince and the Jurymen by the Prefect of the Department and M. Dailly, the owner of the farm, all parties repaired to the field of wheat, where the reapers were already in place, awaiting the company lL ERA: WASHINGT and the roll of the drum to start off. The reap' ing was the great feature of the day, and so I great were the crowd and the excitement that . the soldiers found themselves unable to rnainI tain perfectly the lines which were formed ; around the field. There were seven reapers on J | the ground?three American, two English, and two French?but all more or less modifications of McCormick's original invention; aud the field had been divided into seven equal portions, each portion containing, as well as my uupracticed eye could estimate, slightly more than an acre of wheat. The wheat stooa heavy on the ground, and was at least one fourth fallen. At the taD of the drum, the maehines all ! started off together, McCormick's rapidly ta{ king the lead, a position which it maintained to ' the end, performing its task in ten minutes and j a third. Manney came out in sixteen minutes, i and Wright (the Hussev machine) in eighteen ! minutes. The others varied in their time from half an hour to an hour and a half?but I beI lieve an English machine, which did not work well from the start, left the field without accomplishing its task. After the three American machiues, the first one out was Cournier's (French) machine, which was drawn by one horse, and which was much admired for the beauty and regularity of its movements. The excitement during the contest could only be compared to an animated horse race. The Americans wore collected principally in the neighborhood of the McCormick machine, and at each turn cheered on McKenzie, the able ! agent who conducted it. In this group, the tine j form of Mr. Fillmore, who had climbed on to a | shock of fallen wheat, was conspicuous, and he was as excited for the success of American genius as any man on the ground. The machine I of McCormick had never, within the knowledge j of McKenzie, cut so fast as on that occasion. ! The machine was drawn by two large horses, that accomplished the whole distance at a pace, half walk, half trot, which would have doue four miles and a half to the hour. McKenzie was nearly exhausted when the task was finished, , and declared he could not have gone another i half round. To see his- long, brawny arms j swinging in unison with the blades of the ina' chine, as he raked to one side the great masses j of falling grain, was an exciting spectacle to j all who saw it, and one not soon to be forgot| ten. At the end of the performance, he was loudly cheered, and the crowd, following Prince | Napoleon, the Arabs, and the Jurymen, and regardless of the soldiers who threatened to use their bayonets, but did not, rushed to the middle of the field to examine the conquering machine. The Prince, the Arabs, the Jurymen, and the Americans, crowded around the modest McKenzie, and complimented him warmly for the great feat which he had just performed; and the conductor placing French and American tlags on the machine, it was escorted from the field in the midst of a dense crowd of admiring people. These seven reaping machines were then adjusted for grass, and put into a lield of luzerne? a kind of grass which resembles clover in appearance, and is very valuable for feeding purposes. Here again the three American machines came out first, McKenzie in the lead. The performance in grass, however, was not so perfect as could have been desired, from the fact that the machines for scattering and gathering were allowed to start in immediately after the mowers, and thus created confusion and imperfection of work, by throwing the cut ou to the uncut grass. The mowers were thus choked, and made to skip. In the gatherers and scatterers, the English machines held the superiority. Thus terminated a day which has added great lustre to American iuventive genius, and it is gratifying to know that the championship on the occasion was frankly and cordially acknowledged. There were other inventions for reaping at the Exhibition, and great boasting had been made about the vast superiority over all others of a recent French invention ; but after the" American machines were first seen in motion, only four inventors of all those represented at the Exhibition were found bold enough to enter into competition, and these are now so completely vanquished that their patents will possess no value. A decision which has just been made in favor of one of the two American pianos in the Exhibition will no doubt astonish the French people more than the performances of the machines of which we have just been speaking. The French people, with their limited knowledge of the half-civilized people of America, pretend to comprehend Jiow it is possible for them to excel in the invention of such laborsaving machines as a sparse population and a scarcity of hands compel them to invent; but that America should s< nd over here a piano which could take a premium over the three hundred fine French pianos in the Exhibition, is a problem which th :y cannot understand. They imagined that, tin < furnished the United States with nearly all tl^j pianos they required, and that in consequence it was an industry not yet developed there, anrl that the people were not capable of excellen -e in that branch. No award of the juries, thQ,afore, will be received with more surprise than this. 1 take this occa siou to repeat what I ha^'e stated on a former occasion, that at the end, when the juries coine to make their awards, the United States will, as at London, come off with honors of which they may well be proud. Fai.l Elections.?Elections have yet to he held this year, we believe, in twelve States. In most all of them, Legislatures and State officers are to be chosen, and in four of them Representatives to Congress. Of the latter class are Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia, and Maryland, which are entitled in the aggregate to twentythree members. The elections will take place as follows: California - - Tuesday, September 4. Vermont - - Tuesday, September 4. Maine - - Monday, September 10. Georgia - - Monday, October 1. Pennsylvania - Tuesday, October 9. Indiana - - Tuesday, October 9. Ohio - - Tuesday, October 9. Louisiana - - Monday, November 5. Mississippi - - Monday, November 5. New York - - Tuesday, November fi. Wisconsin - - Tuesday, November (?. Maryland - - Wednesday,November 7. Massachusetts - Monday, November 12. CITY vs. COUNTRY. The recent census of New York indicates that the relative proportion of the population in the cities and villages of the State, compared with the rural districts, is on the increase. We think it likely that the same fact exists in the case of most of the Atlantic States. The rapid growth of our manufacturing, mechanical, and commercial interests, has naturally tended to augment the population of the cities and villages near the seaboard. At the same time, the opening of the great West has drawn off a large number of agriculturists, to settle new farms. Our internal improvements, reaching from one section of the country to the other, have contributed to the same result. The farmers of the Northwest are practically as near to the Atlantic cities as the farmers of central New York or Virginia were a few years since, and the cost of transportation is little more in the former instance than it used to be in the latter. The equalizing power of railroads has compensated distance by facilities. There is not much danger that the balance between city and country will be disturbed. The uneasiness that some writers and political philosophers show on this subject is quite unnecessary. Where industry is left free to direct its own energy; where all kinds of labor, skill, and enterprise, are remunerated 5 where trade and commerce demand breadstuff) as well as manufactured articles?the laws of necessity will regulate the proportion of inhabitants in the different districts. It is only when legislation or other artificial means are adopted to turn activity and capital out of their natural channels, that any il is to be apprehended. That day in this country has gone by forever. Muscle will follow its own will, and money will be invested where it will be productive. Hence, there is no possibility that the agricultural interest will ever be diminished below its just and equable proportion. The political anfi social connections of this subject are both important and interesting. Cities are the mi^jjty stimulants of intellect. They are the awafcencrs of thought, whether that thought has reference to the great questions of Statesmanship or Economic Life. Without them, the minfi of the world would become dormant. Nothing has contributed so much to the rapid progress of modern civilization, crowning its conq0ests with the treasures of all lands, and opening a career of magnificent advancement for th? future, as the impulse supplied by cities. JJut, in a Government like * n>' ON, D. C., SEP1EMB 1 ours, the balance wheel of rural lif - is abso- ! | lutely essential. It is the couutry that fur- , uiahes the conservative intluences which we so ! much need, restraining the excesses of ambi- j tion, and interposing its strong safeguards between demagoguism and the mass of the peo- j pie.?Southern (Ala.) Time TWT? ?T AVTTRV nnTSTrnw rr TrrVfccrr The following article, from a Tennessee Presbyterian paper, indicates the growth of liberal opinions in the South, in almost remarkable degree. We think that tie writer | exaggerates the amount of Anti-Slavf y feeling among his Southern brethren ; but th# fact that be can publish such an article in Tel bessee is a gratifying and most hopeful sign of trogresB. From the Knoxville (TVnn.) Prenhyteriau i'ltiie*!". Another error into which our corr< ipondent has fallen, and it is a too common or)?i, is, that the public position of the Christian r/id moral people of Tennessee is that of "del -nders of Slavery,"' who do not merely toleraH it as a great political and social evil, to be gradually removed, but who aim to " propagafeo it as a good." Is there a Christian in the wf*ole State of Tennessee who occupies this position ? Is there one, except from political considerations, in all the South, who would not rejoice in the triumph of freedom in Kansas, and in the discovery of some feasible and just methbd of getting rid of Slavery altogether? 1)3 not the Christians of Tennessee stand upon the Slavery action of the General Assembly of 1818, and is not this our public position ? Ufi it ever been publicly abandoned by us ? Ha^ we not said over and over again, and " audi 'ly," too, a thousand times, that we regarded SI/ 'ery as a moral, social, and political evil? 11a e we not said it in our papers, in our public d< "iuments, in Presbytery, and Synod, and Convei ion, and through our delegates on the floor of the General Assembly; and if we have, ar' not our traducers and calumniators guilty of g >ss falsehood and slander, if they make an opposite charge against us ? Have we not " done" . something that might have been viable even as far as the Northern lakes, hv all ?ves His- l posed to do us justice, to prove that * e do not look upon Slavery as an unmixed g#od, to be fostered and propagated as such by ti e General Government ? What was the mean ig of the Manumission Societies of TennessC ?, which aimed to prepare slaves for freedom, a%id to colonize them in Africa? It has been as ed, have not the Christians of Tennessee im de more sacrifices to this end than all the Ab' litionists and fanatical disturbers of the Nort t ? The I last President of the Manumission ? )ciety of Jefferson county, himself a slaveholder (though he is preparing his slaves for a hom 1 in their own land,) said to us, a few day sinc<, he was willing to challenge a comparison on this score. He was prepared to show, and to show triumphantly, that more had been done by the Christians of the South to emancipate slaves, than by all the North. Did not llev. F. A. Ross, D. P., now of Huntsville, Ala., state at Buffalo, in the ' General Assembly, in that celebrated speech which was reported for the Journal of Commerce, and copied with approbation by almost every paper in the South, that the religious body he represented did not occupy the public position our correspondent assigns us ? Did h6 not say that we did not and would not stand upon the ground that Slavery was to be perpetual, and to be propagated as good, but that we believed that it was an inferior condition of society, which was to be eventually lost in a better and a higher ? And do we not co-operate with the American Board and tHe Home Mis- j sionary Society?and has this, we would ask, no ! bearing with candid men, whether we are l'roSlavery men committed to a defence and propagation of the system, with all its admitted evils ? Do we not, then, as Christians of Tennessee, i occupy essentially the same ground in the South that our correspondent wishes us to understand that he and his co-laborers occupy in the North ? He says that the ultra views of abolitionists and fanatical men have been dissented from by conservative and national men there, and these conservative and national men profess that they would be satisfied if we would dissent from the extreme " JMaveocraey, in tneir attempt to make Slavery national, and to spread it through Kansas to the Pacific. That dissent has been uttered?uttered a thousand times?We utter it once more?we put it in the columns of our paper, and send it through the Union, and wait to see if this will satisfy them. If Southern politicians have allowed " no compacts to stand in their way," and if they have sanctioned "violence that thay deemed necessary to their ends," the church is not responsible and cannot be held accountable for their conduct. We are not the law-making power. Wd are not represented in the Legislature or in Congress, and this disregard of compacts and deeds of violence do not lie at our door. We are in no sense their accomplices. Another mistake our contrilmtor makes is contained in the expressed belief that " the South as a unit (church and 411) is moving steadily and unscrupulously forward to the enthronement of Slavery here perpetually." We are not ignorant of the fact th|it some of our demagogues and politicians hav# been and still are aiming to secure this result. And the tone of the partisan press has sometime# been insolent and dictatorial towards all classes who might not go to their extreme length *o compel uniformity of sentiment and concert 'if action. But the Church has not yielded her honest convictions. Of the sundering of the Bfptist and Methodist Churches, North and South, on the Slavery question, political leaders haVe known how to take advautage, and, as a aonsequence, there has been many a retiuent wave; but many believe the tide will soon rise again to its flood, and that, too, without disaster. Let our political leaders and our partisan journals array them selves against the pulpit as sonre of* them have, and proscribe it unless it throw its influence on the side of the unlimited extension of Slavery, and then the issue will be complete. The ministers of Christ, and Christians of every name, in the South, while they repel the ultraism of the Abolitionists on the one hand, will throw all their influence against the ultraism of Slavery propagandists on the other. They do not say amen to all the evils of the peculiar institution, as is sometimes charged upon them. They are not silent as the grave, but often, by protest and remonstrance and memorial, they speak forth their moral convictions and true feeling. They have hitherto been protected in their liberty to worship God According to the dictates of their own consciences; hut let the propagandists of Slavery become pfoscriptive and persecuting in their extension policy, and the day of protest and remonstrance and memorial will be more fully inaugurated. Then, but not, we think, till then, need our Northern brethren expect us to take the lead in the AntiSlavery movement. Our correspondent inquire!, in conclusion, " Why cannot the Christians of Tennessee say what they think??that Slavery is an evil?that it can and ought to be mitigated now?that they believe it need not, will not, that it shall not, be perpetual?and that they will prayerfully inquire for ways and means to promote and hasten its disappearance. You think this," he adds. u Say it, and the country will thank you." Yes, we think it; and, at the suggestion of our contributor, we say it. We have said it before, but we say it again. We say it publicly, say it in print, and hope that we will be accused no more of basely and ignominiously and wickedly truckling to Slavery propacrandism. HON. WILLIAM H. SEWARD. We have rarely read a more graphic pen-andink portrait of any American statesman than the New Orleans Delta gives of this gentleman, who is destined to exercise so potent an inliuence upon the politics of our country: " In the first rank, stands William H. Seward, of New York. We dare say the time has gone by when his talents and perseverance can be denied, either in the North or in the South. He is the most skillful and unrelenting enemy of the slave interest, and, whether sincere or insincere, must he regarded as a formidable antagonist. For ourselves, we regard hiA as a fanatic, whose sincerity is as deep as the roots of his life, and who believes that, in advancing his Colitical ambition, he is asserting the cause of umanity also. He is a man of fine and extensive attainments, a graceful and captivating writer, a subtile and Machiavellian Organizer, and an orator whose full Ciceronian and somewhat florid style must always attract popular attention in a nation which loves eloquence as dearly as the United States. To those qualifications, he adds a deep political prescience which nothing can disturb, and an adaptability which, in these times of change and imconuist LAND WARRANTS OBTAINED. rpIIOMAS C. CONNOLLY (who ha* permission lo re1 fer lo the editor of ihe National Kr?| prepare* paper* and prosecutes claims for Bounty Laiul Warrants. Washington, D. C. 429 DANIEL R. GOODLOE, Washington, D. C. ATTORNEY AT LAW , will prosecute Bounty Land and other claims on lite Federal Government. Published Saturday, Sept. 1. It cannot fail to lie read with avidity, u* one of the most striking illustrations of American Slaver} which either fact or fiction has presented to the public.?iV. V. Tribune. A Work of Intrinsic Merit. It is a work of intrinsic merit, and speaks volumes in praise of the man, his intellect and culture. The incidents of his life, woven up in the well of narrative by his polished and classical inind at:d graceful pen, are lull of interest.?Buffalo Express. A Master Author and Orator. Frederick Douglass is a remarkable man. As a writer and speaker, he ranks with the most effective and natural? after our master authors uud orators?Vlira Herald. True, and of Absorbing Interest. The story of Frederick Douglas's life, as detailed in this volume, possesses an interest which is really absorbing. The truthfulness of the narrative which he gives of his bondage will be generally conceded, and certainly realizes the truth of the old adage, ''truth is strange, stranger than fiction.''?Boston Journal. Exposes the Bane of the Republic. It reveals the miseries of servile life with an intense vividness and impressiveness. that can hut fusten its facts and arguments upon the reader's mind as with a pen of iron and with the point of a diumond.? Vt. Journal. No Romance more Exciting. No romance can be more exciting to the reader than this truthful narrative. The work is having a wide circulation.? Yates County Whig. It Stirs the Feelings. We have not read a work which has stirred our feelings to a greater'extent for some years, and we are glad that Mr. Slosson intends to keep a good stock on hand. We think he will need it. The book is a powerful, vivid picture of a slave's life, and effectually removes the gloss which pro-slavery men attempt to throw over the beatitudes of this aid to the ''highest stnte of human existence ! "?Owego Times. A Self-made Man. This volume, besides its many moving and thrilling details, affords evidence of a inost remarkable man. Mr. Dougluss has cinphaticnlly made himself. As u writer and speaker, he lias but few equals in the country. I lis book is readable and interesting.?Christian Advocate. An Interesting and Remarkable Work. The book is one of the inost interesting and remarkable ever published?a well-written work on Slavery, by one wb? was born and bred a slave.? Vt. Watchman. Nervous, Clear, and Telling. It present# a clear and graphic picture of his slave-life, from his earliest recollections ; his escape hiu! his life since, including his experience#-in this country and Kurope. No one will deny Mr. Douglass the possession of genius and character of a high order. He writes in a nervous, clear, and most telling manner, clothing his narrative with intense interest, and conveying In? moral impressions with a vividness that leuves the reader scarcely any escape. The subject is deeply tragic, und, in his masterly handling, possesses an engrossing interest.?jV. Y. Evangelist. Worth a Hundred Volumes of Romance. We recommend the book as worth a hundred volumes of the trashy literature of the day.?Pittsburgh Herald. How it Differs from other Works. We have before listened to the homely talc of the liberated slave, hut it did not impress us as does this narrative of Douglass, for the reason that we were left to supply the commentary which is here pressed upon us by one who has both seen and felt what he relates. The story hears ' throughout the impress of truth, and the manner in which ' it is told stamps the writer as a man of genius, and a high ' order of talent.?Ohio Stale Journal. For sale by all booksellers and News Agents. |f/-"Single copies sent by mail, post paid, oil receipt of price. MILLEB, OBTON, * MULLIGAN, Publisher!, 25 1'ark Row, New York, and , 45-3 107 Genesee street. Auburn. , lmipli t a iion rsAnna I IVIjIj liAUUlV uuuwo. 1M1E undersigned has greatly improved his facilities for the supply of STAl'l.K DRY GOODS OF FR BELABOR MATERIA!* hy the addition of u Mill, stocked with new and superior inaebinery, which turns out n variety of well-made fabrics, all cotton, and a mixture of cotton and wool. These good* are offered to dealers at market rates. Likewise, an assortment ot (Groceries. GEORGE W. TAYLOR. 451 Corner of Fifth and Cherry sts., Philadelphia. HENRY H. BOODY, BANKER AND GENERAL AGENT, Hudson, St. Croix Co., Wisconsin, WILL buy antl sell Land Warrants, enter Lands at the Lund Othee. locale Laud Warrants, pay Taxes on Lauds, and transact all the business of a General Agency. Kr/'rmres.?Hon. Edward Kent, Bangor; Hon.William Willis. Portland; P. W. Chandler, Esq., Boston; David Pingra, Esq.. Sn cm; Ivison A Phiuney, !?-< Fulton street, New York ; William H. Allen. Esq . Pres. (.irard College, Philadelphia; Alison Owen, Esq., Cincinnati; Hon. S. P. Benson, Washington. D. C. Hudson, Wis.. May til, 1855. 451 POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE OF THE STATE OF FENNSTLVANIA, West Penn Square, Philadelphia. ORGANIZED on the plan of the Industrial Colleges of Continental Europe, and the only College in the Union in which gentlemen graduate in the industrial professions. Third yeur, commencing MONDAY, Sept. 17, 1355. FACULTY. Mathematics and Engineering. Prof. S. H. PEABODY. Geuerul ami Applied Chemistry, " A. L. KENNEDY. ' Mechanics and .Machinery " H. H. BOUCHER. ' Geology. Mineralogy, and Mining." W. S. ROWSON. 1 Architeei'I andTopog'l Drawing, ' J. KERN. 1 Modern languages, ? V. DE AMARELLI ' ror catalogues ana luriner iniormation. apply to A L KENNEDY, M D, ' 451 Pre si tie nt of Faculty. , tremount seminary, ! "1^"EAR Norristown, Ph.. sixteen miles from Philadcl- ' XI phia. on the Schuylkill river, one hundred and fifty leet above it. is open for the education of male youth over I fourteen years old. from September 16lh to June 16th. The i course comprises most collegiate studies, and many others, t There is a school room over fifty feet square, a lecture r room thirty-five feet square,six reciting rooms, over thirty i private study rooms, fifty bed rooms, nnd other accoinino- t dafions. The situation is healthy, and very beautiful, the terms reasonable. The Principal has taught several thousand youth. Scholars lust year, 434. 44s SAMUEL AARON, Principal. cincinnati retreat for the insane. IN charge of EDWARD MEAD, M. D., Editor of the American Psychological Journal, Lecturer on Insanity * and Forensic Medicine, late Professor of Obstetrics, and formerly of Materia Medica, Ac. This institution is open for the reception of patients. Jt is a select establishment, presenting superior edvanlages. , None but quiet patients are admitted. The lone expert- j ence of the Superintendent as a praclttiouer ana teacher , affords a guaranty or kindly care and the most successful x treatment. I Terms made known on application to Dr. MEAD, Cincinnati. Ohio. 4"J0 cholera. j A Certain Cure for this Disease may be found J in the use of Perry Davis's Vegetable PAIN KILLER. " IMibutfiit. Iowa. May 5,1^53. gkvtlkmkn : I feel under obligations to you for the benefit I have received from your invaluable Pain Killer. r We have had soine cholera here on the Mississippi thus p early in the season. A few days since, I assisted m lay- < ing out and burying one of our citizens, who was supposed t to have died with the cl[seuse. The next morning, | was g taken with severe vomiting, accompanied with coldness of the extremiues. Wurm covering and hot applications I failed to restore warmth. My wife's family, who had used the Pain Killer with supcess duptng the cholera season in Buffalo, in 1?49, advised me to lake it. I took two doses, . at intervals of fifteen minutes; a fine perspiration ensued, and the next day, barring a little wealriess, I was well, ; and have been sinoe. It may have been an attack of J ague ; but whether ague or cholera, it answered iny pur- 5 pose. ' Since my recovery. 1 find that several of our citizens . have used the Pain Killer as a remedy for cholera, and (| pronounced it good. I therefore take pleasure hi recom- , mending it to a still more extensive notice. e Yours, truly, W. M. CROZIKR, . Attorney ai Law. ? P-vry Davit 4- Sim, Providence, R. I. 440?eo t D-/~ The Pain Killer is sold by John T. Mortimer and ti Gray A Ballantyne, Washington, D. C.; Pureell, I.add, A Co., Richmond, Va.; and by all the principal Druggists. ER 13, 1855. ency, is the most valuable gift of the thorough j politician. 'The rise and progress' of Sew- , ard, from his first beginning as an obscure lawyer, to his present remarkable exaltation, is one of the most curious phenomena of modern political history. It does not require much insight to perceive that he is no casual waif, borne to an elevated place by the tide of party, but the artificer of his own fortune, in the construction of which he has displayed the most pliant subtilty, the most reckless daring, an amount of genuine ability which cannot be mistaken for a moment. \Ve are not writing a puff of Mr. Seward, but simply describing the foremost enemy of the South as he really is, and not the vulgar agitator which too many mistake him for. Is this man to be despised or disregarded? Is it wise to lie abed, and dream of utter security, whilst such an engineer is mining under our outposts, with the full determination of springing the mine at his convenience ? " OOn CAN 1JK MADK by purchasing C. B. gjl 1.1 MA/ HUTCHISON'S ULTIMATUM of invention* for MANUFACTURING BARREL STAVES AND HEADS. For rights for Virginia ami the Western Stale* and Territories, apply to B. MILBUKN. proprietor, Washington City, who has the machines in operation. Travelling: ugcnts wanted, to show and work machines in the foregoing States and Territories. Just Published! THE GLORIA IN EXCELSIS. A COLLECTION OF CHTJBCH MUSIC. BY W. WILLIAMS, Organist at Bowdoin Sqtiare Church, Boston. Jtegf An Entirely New Work, Nothing ill it having ever appeared in any previous collection. Copies sent free, tor examination, on the receipt of 45 cents, in postage stamps. PHILLIPS, SAMPSON, A CO., PUBLISHERS, 453 13 WINTER STRUCT. BOSTON. THE GREAT PLEA FOR FREEDOM! Read it, and you cannot resist it. MY BONDAGE AND MY FREEDOM. BY FREDERICK DOUGLASS. One volume l!2mo. 464 pages. Illustrated. Price 91.25. It will be Read with Avidity. JAPAN, AS IT WAS AND IS. BY RICHARD HILDRETH, Author of1. History of the United States," doc. In this work, the fruit of great labor and research. Mr. Hildrelh has einoodied all the information concerning the history and present state of these remote islands, which has come to the knowledge of the Western World. Much of the information contained ill the \olume appears now for the first time 111 English. The style of the book is very attractive, and the descriptions of scenery, manners, and customs, will render it entertaining to the general reader as well as to the scholar. The student will he glad to see that an aceurnte and reliable Map, full of Indexes, Notes, and a Glossary, are added. In one large 12mo volume. 576 pages. With a characteristic titlepage. Price 91.85. PHILLIPS, SAMPSON, A CO., PUBLISHERS, 453 13 WINTER SfTREET, BOSTON. LAND WARRANTS WANTED. J. T. NEELY, Attorney and General Agent for Claimants, Washington City, D. C., WILL ALWAYS PAY THE HIGHEST MARKET prices for Land Warrants properly assigned and forwarded to him through the Mail; remittances promptly made, by return Mail, in drafts on any of the Northern or Southern Banks, us requested and directed by thy Parties forwarding the same. lie will give prompt attention to the Examination and rrosecuuon oi any class 01 uuum* against the Government upon reasonable terms. ifsnccessful?if 1101,110charge will lie made. I.aud Warrant* selling at ?1.11 per acre. He refer* to Senator* and Representative* in Coheres*, and to the Head* of the various Depurlmenl* of the General Government. 444 IOWA LANDS. C1APITALISTS and other*, wishing to make investor ments in IOWA LANDS. t ail do so through the undersigned. Holders of Land Warrants can have them loaned to uelunl settler*, on one and two years time, ul FORTY PER OENT. INTEREST; and a* the title i* in the person furnishing the Warrants, the investment is perfectly safe. Lands selrclod. and all business pertaining to Land Agency proinpllv attended to. ANDREW J. STEVENS ?V CO. Hankers. Fort De* Moines, Iowa. Refer to? K. W. Clark. Dodge, A Co . New York. Hank of Albany. Albany. New York. J. M. Clurke A Co.. Washington, I). C. Cook A Sargent. Duvenport. Iowa. Green. Tlmiini*. A Co.. Hurlingtoit, Iowa. City Hank ot Racine, Wisconsin. 41? COUBT OF CLAIMS ALA INST THE UNITED STATES, Washington City, D. C. HE undersigned will devote Inmself assiduously to the prosueutiou of claims again*l the Government of the United Stales in the above Court, (established by ai l of Congress, approved March, 1S55.) winch has cognizance of all claims arising under the Constitution, or founded upon any law of Congress or upon any regulation of an Executive Department, or upon any contract, expressed or implied, with the Government of the United State*, or any of it* officers or agents. All claims against the Government muM henceforth he prosecuted in this Court, and not before Congress, as heretofore. When the claim is established in said Court, and ait appropriation made by Congress for tla- purpose, the claimant will he paid at Hit Treasury of the United States. The undersigned will also continue, a* heretofore, the practice of law in the Supreme Court of the United Stales and the oilier courts of the District. M.THOMPSON, Attorney at Law, 41 street, Washington city, D. C. P. S. Reference may he had (if necessary) to heads of Department* and Hureaus, citizens of Washington, and members of Congress. 4!fs?I am FAMILY AND DAY SCHOOL FOB YOUNG LADIES. At Norwich, Conn. C. B. WKBSTKR. A. M ., M. D., PRINCIPAL. IOCATION".?Norwich is known 10 lie one of the most J beautiful and healthy towns in New P.iigland, combining to an unusual degree the advantages ot' iioth city and country. Day School.?The Day School, tinder the present Principal, has been ill operulinu during the Inst nine years. For the past three years. Boarding lias been connected with it. Family Department.?Mrs. Webster, who has hud long experience in teaching and in the training of young ladies, will give her undivided care to the interests of the Institution. A large and commodious house, pleasantly situated, will be open on tin- first of April n?xt. where the school will be continued, with increased facilities for the comfort and improvement of the pupils. Kvery effort will be made to enforce habits of order and punctuality, to inculcate a truly lady-like de|iortmcnt in every particular, and to throw around the members of the family the influences of a wellorlit red Christian home. Juvenile Dejiartment.? For the very young. icho may have been deprived of parental rare, our endeavor will be to provide a home w hicli shall, as far as possible,supply llie lo-s they have sustained. The number w ill never be so large that each individual may not receive the particular supervision of the head.- of the family. Physical Training.?A watchful care will be exercised over die physical as well as menial culture of the pupils? constant reference being bad to peculiarities of temperament and constitution. Whatever the intellectual annulments, but little can be enjoyed or accomplished 111 life without a sound physical system. Abundant oimortumtv will be afforded tor retired exercise in On ojicn air , there will also lie given lesson* and practice in eulisthenic ejtercise, so admirably adapted to promote grace oi motion and development of form. Stations and Vacations.?There will he a vacation of six weeks from the last Wednesday ol July. The remainder of the year will t?e divided into sessions of eleven weeks each, separated by short vacations. Hoarding scholars can remain during the short vacations, if they wish, without extra charge. Pupils will he received ul any tune, hut for no shorter period than one-half the academic year Notice of removal will he expected at least one month hefore the ume ot leaving. TERMS. For Board, including fuel, lights, washing. Ac., and for Tuition in all the brunches of u thorough Kuglish Kducalion. with the Ancient Language*. If-JiHi per aim , in quarterly payments. Extras?the Modern Language*. Music, Drawing, and Oil Punning, at the charge ol liieir teacher*. Use of Piano per quarter. $ '!. It may he stated, for the information of ihose parent* who wi*h la place their sons and daughters near each other, that there is also in Norwich a Family School lor Boys, ol the highest order, under the charge of the Kev. Charles E. Abbott. REFERENCES. Rev. Alvan Bond, D. 1> Norwich. Rev. (i. B. Cheevcr, I) I)., New York. Rev. II. P. Arm*. Norwich. Kev. A C. t\ ashhurn, Agent American lnble Society. Rev. John P. Oulliver. Norwich. Rev. \V. F Morgan, Rector Christ Church. Norwich. Kev. Nathaniel Itoutou. 1). D . Concord. N II Rev. C. P. Bush. Norwich. Rev. Chs. E. Abbott, Prin Boy's Family School, Norwich. Rev. Ilenry T. Cheever, fireenport, I. I Prof. John D. Plulbrick. State Supt. Coin. School*. Hon. L. F. S. Foster. U. S. Senutor, Norwich. Hon. John A Rockwell, Norwich. 3ol A. S. Williams, Detroit, Charles Johnson, Esq . Norwich. William Burnet. Esq.. Cincinnati, Ohio. Ralph Karnsworth. M. D., Norwich. Lien. William Williams, Norwich. Norwich Conn., January 1, 1-33. 4IB BRITISH PERIODICALS. Early Copies Secured. t viim mn ornrrr jl rn m...? -? : ?'? '' ] 1,c i u??, cumiiiuo iv rr1 j publish the following British periodical*, viz: 1. The London Quarterly, (Conservative.) 2. The F/dinburgh Review, (Whig.) 3. The North British Review, (Free Church.) 4. The Westminster Review, (Liberal.) 5. Blackwood's Fdiuburgh Magazine, (Tory.) The present critical state of Ku rope an affairs will rcnier these publications unusually interesting during the brthooming year. They will occupy a middle ground heween the hastily-written new* items, crude speculations, Mid flying rumors, of the daily journal, and the ponderous Tome of the future historian, written ufter the living interest and excitement of the great political events of the time ihall have passe.d away. It is to tlwse Periodicals that eaders must look, for the only really intelligible and reliibte history of current events: and, as such, in addition o their well-established literary, scientific, and theologi al character, we urge them upon the consideration of the eading public. J?jT Arrangements are now permanently made for the eceint of early sheets from the British Publi-hers, by vhicn we are enabled to place all our Reprints in the lands of subscribers about as soon as they can be furlished with the foreign copies. Although this involves a rery large outlay on our part, wc shall continue to furnish he Periodicals at the same low rates as heretofore, viz: For any one of the four Reviews, per annum - - S3 For any two of the four Reviews .... 5 For any three of the four Reviews .... 7 For all four of the Reviews g For Blackwood's Magazine ..... 3 For Blackwood and three Reviews . y For Blackwood and the four Reviews .10 [0- Payments to be made in all cases tn advance, doney current in the State where issued will be received it par. CLUBBING. A discount of twenty-five per cent, from the above priles will he allowed to clubs ordering, direct from L. Scott t Co., four or more copies of any one or more of the above rnrks. Thus: four copies of Blackwood, or of one Renew, will be sent to one address for #9; four copies of he four Reviews and Blackwood for S30; and so on. POSTAGB. In all the principal cities and town*, these works will ie delivered, through agents, frte of poftagr When sent iy mail, the postage to any part of the United Slates will ie but twenty-four cents a year for " Blackwood," and but ourleen cents a year for each of the Reviews. Remittances and communications should always he adresscd, post paid, to the publishers, LKONARD SCOTT A CO., No. 54 (iold street. New York. N. B. L. S. k Co. have recently published. aud have low for sale, the " FARMER S GUIDE, by Henry Steihens, of Edinburgh, a'1*' the 'H'e Prof. Norton, ol \ ale /Qllege. New Haven, complete in two volumes, royal ocavo, containing 1,600 pages. 14 steel and 600 wood engravings. Price, to muslin binding, 99. 017" This work is not the old " Book of the Farm," latev atmraTTTSTan and thrown upon the market iHl ~~~ PREMIUM CHOCOLATE. Established ini7*>?w. baker a co>s American, French, Homeopathic, aud Vanilla Priimum Chocolate. Prepared Cocoa, Hroma, Cocoa Paste, Cocoa (ticks, Soluble aud Homeopathic Cocoa, Cocoa Shells, bracked Cocoa. Ac., are an excellent diet for children, in'alids. and persons in health. They allay rather than'inluce the nervous excitement attendant upon the use ol ea or coffee, and are recommended by Doctors Warren ackson, Hay ward, Ware, and Adams, of Boston, and by minent physicians elsewhere. For sate by all the principal Grocers in the United Itatus, and by their Agei.ts?D. C. Murray. New Vork , rant k rwells, Philadelphia j Thoinab V. Hruiidige, lialimorci Keuneu k Dudley, Cincinnati WALTER BAKER k CO., ? Dorchester, Mass. VOL. IX. PB08PECTUS OF THE THIRD VOLUME 0? THE OHIO COLUMBIAN, I A PAPER FORTHE PEOPLE. E. 8. HAMLIN and A. M. GANGEWER, Editori h The Columbian is a weekly newspaper, published rvs-, 1 Wednesday, on a handsome sheet, ai the city of C<, u? j bus. Ohio, the Capital of the Suite. In Polities, it will advocate tile cause and support . I policy of the Independent Democracy; it will lulair to . cure the Rights of .Man. and will oppose whatever \n, or tends to violate the Ktjualily oi Rights. It \?:h . Class Legislation. Involuntary Personal Servitude j j the various device* by which the few seek to suhjagu . H many to their rule. It it will aim to spread a-ios : II blessings attendant upon Free Labor and Free lusin H Recognising the law of Progress, n will lend n? H support to every practicable nl j(M MIMK Am tin I motion of Industrial Prosperity. Peace. Liberty. Kdu Temperance, and tiie welfare oftlie Agriculture and ?,.. I 1 ing classes. It is a well-known fact, that the Slave Pow. r, t! : . I pendous .Monopoly, which crows fat on tin- .. p, ' and degradation of the enslaved race, has tor \. ir- - 11 to extend it* dominion by the increase ot Siav? | IJ this purpose it involved us in a War will, Mex,.-<. Ij auuuih-d the .Missouri Compromise, a compact n ; . II by the favor cf a generation of men; and n now tj establish itself permanently in Kansas, on <oil |?-r," free. It i* front its nature aggressive; and it t>rln? .' I the People to take measures to stay its progr.--. | power, grown haughty by success, elects oi r I'r.-, , controls our Politics, dictates our Foreign and |>, ,, ,. j Policy, moulds our Politicians, and l>end? th. ., National Parlies to achieve its purposes The -ip,, ?. , LI times indicate that new combinations are lornm- in . I ject anew the free spirit of the North to the much s.' II of this stupendous Monopoly. Tit Columbian will be an advocate of personal. >, and religious Liberty, without regard to rn< r ?.r err'.-.; ! will pive im ^jinslir.i" Is ' ' " * , r> - v M'uili-liouiull |-o l? H f biiiationstoeontroMhe ballot-box. wheiherutni.-rr,, tion of Priests or others, regarding th in as cm J:,, ,., entleiicy under a Republican form of Gover .innit t | liuiiity and Republicanism alike recognise tii- , -J Rights and Duties of every man. and we I . , v, , H rignt of private j udgment in all matters, wh. :Iiero- , ' gion or politic*. We regard Slavery, ami n?. ,..Ur I volved in it. asthe great Political i)ue.iion of the i>:,\ we trust the Peojile will beware of all eombinatin lateJ, if not designed, to call otr tiieir attention ir, 1| giant Kvtl. lest, mayhap, some of those vein, |,uto (l. fr ' \j sion be found unwittingly uidiug the Oppressor, u, .t, iltg lite principles of. qua I ami exact justice ?Inch A, | vocate to be right, and i-ueh a* God upprovewu II king Ills guidanee to advanee them, we eomiuei. lII lerprise to the favor ol all friends of Huiiimii I'rogre II Thr Columbian, wlule occupying a decided n... I Polities. will contain various iaterary. Misceilaiiei..,. H News articles of interest. It shall lie our aint to maki K a good Family IVrtMpaper, and we trust the fried- ,, ,.(H cause will endeavor to increase its circulation. { Letters eoulainiug rabacriptioi - Ac., out) bebmiti I i by ntaii at tuy risk, to be addressed to I A. M.GANGF.Wi ?, j Colutli! U-. Igiin I TFRMS OF THE COLUMBIAN. | Invariably in Ad vane*. I One copy, one year - - - - - *v 1 Three copies, one year - - - - . j I Five copies, cute year - - - - ... I Ten copies, one year - - - - . j I Voluntaiy agents are entitled to ri tain fid cent. . , < .1 sion on each yearly, anil U rents 011 each van-p > |H subscriber, tjrryt in thr rasr of Clubs. I A Club of live subsertlieis. at will entitle 11,.- p t . tnaktng it up to u copy for six months; at'.:. ,, IS. to a ropy for one year. When a club ol -cb-oi lias been forwarded, additions may be made to it > , ') saine terms. 4 ? I TO LAND SURYEYOBS AND CIVIL I ENGINEERS. I^VF.RY vnnety of lustruments used mi Sure < 1j Civil F.ngiiieering. manufactured l>\ tin- -ir . i and sold ill lower rates than b> any other hrui in t i I ion. of estublisheil repulatioii. To all contemplating the purchase of Instruini i l- ..r I " Manual," a book ol mi pages, illustrated willi a t H engravings, and eontaiiiilig lull descriptions ol live p. . iarilies, udjiistineuts, and prices ot our lusiruim i. - \i I be sent by mull, free of charge, oil application to | 4Is W. A l. K. til RI.KY, Troy. N V I PHILOSOPHICAL AND CHEMICAL I PARATUH, MANrFACTl'RF.D IJY C. II WARRING, A | I'ouglikeepsie, N. Y. Catalogues gratis. 4t | ~ |l STEAM GAUGES, OI'.NT complete to any part of the I'mted States oar- ' ceipl oi lilloeu dollars. C l?. WAIIRINi*. L t tli Pougbkeepsie. New Yofk DKSIHABI.L l'AKM Foil SALI f|*IIF. SUBSCRIBF.R oilers lor sale h very %-.m 1 tract of laud, containing about itl ai'rr? ui > n <- I quality, situated about lu mi If* north of the City m U if 1*1 iiigtnn. ant) about one mile frotu the new turnpike ma.: I Brook ville. About l.'itl uere* i* exeelleul wood la, it; it I . I a large *1 renin of water running entirely through tin - I anil upon It till eleellrnt water power, suited to nui ' manufacturing purposes. I The above luiul will be sold at i great bargain Am > I to B. A. I'KI'till. or t* I BIKIJ. A BI.A\i'll.\Rl> I Nov. IB Priitim ct it F.-? I PALMKU'S PATENT LKfJ. I TMIIS Aiiii rn an iiiveiition Hands I this country and in Hluropr. It i* worn I.; one tl I guild persons, and with most astonishing sneers* I > competition with thirty other substitute*, m tin I French. F.nglish. and (teriuan manuiaeture, it rem | the award oil the Great Modal at Ike World's I'll la in I.oudon. as the be?i nrtiGeial limb know o In this1 Im try it ha* been thirty linies exhibited, in eonipftitiou ? I all others, a; the Anuuiil Fairs in the principal ettie*. 1 has in every instance ret cived tin- award til the Ingle- i first premium. And a* a crowning honor, by the i I iiiou* approval of an international council. the "f'ir? I'leiinuiii" ? only Silver M- lal given l?>r liiul -u.-H awarded to the niveiiltir al the New N ork Crystal I' or H Pamphlets, giving full Information, sent grati* te vrrv H applicant. B. FRANK. I'AI.MIK J 4 I'd 37t> Cheanat sL, Philatleiptu* I AVER'S PILLS 11 VRF. curing the Sit k to an extent never liefore k A fl of any Mrilii inc. Invalids, reatl and judge for yourselves. Jl'I.IvS IIAI F.I*. K'I|.. the well-known pef'i t ?- K' Chestnut street. I'hllatb-lpliia. wlios. choice p: 11 are found ul almost every toilet, says: I " I mil happy to *ay nt your t':.i|.artic Fill I II found them a better family tnedieiite. lor emu n- KB than any other within my know ledge. Mnnyoi n.y irn-n I have realized marked benefits from tliein. and eon i . I with me in believing thai they posse** extruonlnuir v art- no! only effectual, liul *afc and plcit-nnl lo i Ui>< j i|ualllie* which must make IImMVIM h> dM pal ft* wlieu they arc known." J The venerable Cbanrcllor WARDI.AH' write* n MM Haltimoic. I.'ith April. I-.VI: I " Dr. J C. Atek?Sir: I have taken your I' - ? I grrat beneht, for the ll*tle**iie?*. laiicnor. lo-* 1.1 tippet I ami Inlious headache. which ha* of lab- tear* on rta? I me in the spring. A fcw Ibih| gfyow Kills ran ft! havc u-cd ycarCkiilj PmmiImn] year* hat for cough* and cold*, with unlading surer** \ mi ni"* H ncdiriur* which turf, and I lerl it a pleasure to i muiii* you for the good you have done and arc doing ' I JOHN F. BKATTY, K?|., Sec of the Prim. R.nln E Co., says: I " Pa. K. ti Ojfttr, Philarhlpliia. Ikr I ' l-.l 1 "Sir: I lake pleasure in adding my ti -limo i. t * efficacy of your medicine*, having derived vert n >r ft lienehl from the use of both your I'ecloral ami Call ? ft Pill*. I am never without them in my>. nor - I H ever consent to lie. while my mean- wdi proem c ft The widely renowned S. S. STKVKNS. .M l> nft\> ft worth, N. II.. writes: ft " Having u*ed your Cathartic Puis in uiv pro n" ' I certify, from experience, that they an anno ta ft galive. In ease* of dtilUlll it d faiM - B causing headache, indigestion, costivene.*-. nml ti " ft variety of diseases that follow, they nr. a aarei r H than any other. In all ease* where a ptirjfatn. r. H is rc>|uircd. I confidently recoimnenil these Pil.'* in public, a* superior lo any other I have ever found I I arc sure in llimr operation, and perfectly sale?ipia ; I which make thctn an invalitalilc article tnr ptil have for many years known your CA?rry Prrs.rn/ Cough medicine ill the world, and tin -. I'll!no ww inferior to that admirable prcparatie treatment ot diseases." " At Inn. M'., Aior. 44.1" ? " Dr J. C. Ayfr? D'-nr Sii . I have t.. ** from my birth with scrofula in its wnr-t form. :> ' alter twenty years' trial and an untold annum! " ' fcrinp. have licrn completely cured in a lew your Pills. Willi w hat feeling* of rejoicing I w ' only be imagined when you r<yili/r what I have -nC mild how ion;;. "Never until now have I been fr. s. from in- loath-""disease in some shape. At time* w attacked nr. and made me almost blind, besides tin tin' ,:"ru pain; at other* it settled lit the scalp ol tn> lead destroyed my hair, and ha* kept no partly > 1 :i tlays : sometimes it came out in my face, and kept >t f month* a raw- sore. "About nine week* ago I commenced taking yntirt thuclic Pills, anu now nui entirely tree from th* m.nip My eyes are well, my skin i* fair, ami my hair ha* menced a healthy growth; all ol which makes tic " ulraady a new person. " Hoping thi* *tatement may be the mean* of ronvm information that shull do good to others, I am, with " ' sentiment of gratitude, your*, Ac., MARIA RICKVK I "1 have known the above-named Maria Rirkerfrua childhood, anil her statement is strictly true ANDREW J MKSKRVR __ V Overseer of the Portsmouth Manufacturing C* C Capt. JOEL I'K \'IT, ol the ship Marion, writes I Boston, tSnli April. 1*51 : El " Your Pills have cured inc from a bilious atlui k ? arose from derangement of the Liver, which Inn1 l? B very serious. I had fulled of any relief by toy Pliys 1 | and from every remedy I could try, but a lewii* "your Pills have completely restored me to health I giveil them to my children for worms, with tie ' B effect*. They were promptly cured I recoiiintei B them to a friend tor cosUveness, which had troui tii ' K for months; he told me in a few days they had rur- .i is K Vou make the best medicine in the world, and I *w :rrC to say so.'' B Read thia, from the distinguished Solicitor of the Supr- ' B Court, whose Brilliant abilities have made In'' *' B known, not only tu this hut the neighboring Stat- > I " A'rtr OrUan*. bth April l'-^ "Sir: I have great satisfaction in assuring yiu I ^B self and family have, been very much benefited by ' I medicines. My wife was eured, two years ?nire. ' I severe sad dsjipmu csagk, by year Cherr Pre as and since then has enjoyed perfect health M; rh have several times been cured from attacks of the ' '' I eiua und Croup by it It is an invaluable rnueiiy these complaints. Your Culbartie Pills have raid I cured tne from a dyspepsia and cnsiiveiie.--. vslneli ' grown u|)On me for some years. Indeed, this cure i? n: 1 more important, from the fact that 1 had tailed to i t'' I Iroin the best Physicians which this section of the < B try affords, and from any of the numerous remedies I c? a taken. 1 " \ ou seem to us, Doctor, like a providential bless,1 - our family, and you may well suppose we are ??! K mtudlul of it. Yours, respectfully. ?.. I LKAVlTT TIIAXTf " I " SrnaU f'hambrr, Ohio, AyrW 3th, I "Dr. J. C. Aytr?Honored Sir: I kave made a''" * j ough trial of the Cathartic Pills left me by v<> "r *> " ^ Hi, and have been cured by them ol die dreadful Kiieuins"^ under which he found ine suffering. The hr-l { licved me, and a few subsequent doses have " ( M removed the disease I feel in heller health no# J B, some years before, which 1 Hltribute entirely to ti:* a" . of your Cathartic Pills. Yours, with great respect. LLCIVH B. MirrcAU } The aliove are all from persons who are publicly d"*' H where they reside, and who would not make lite-1 " : I meuts without u thorough conviction that they were am PREPARED BY J. C. AYER, I Prartieal and Analytical Chemist, Ixkwcll, Mas* I irr- Sold by /.. D. OILMAN, Washington; V. Philadelphia; BROWN k BROTHER, Bator**! V all Druggists everywhere, * I

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