The Tampa Tribune from Tampa, Florida on September 20, 1939 · 4
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The Tampa Tribune from Tampa, Florida · 4

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Wednesday, September 20, 1939
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PAGE FOUR TAMPA MORNING TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 20, 1939 Polish Refugees Bitter Against Leaders Allies- DECEIVED BY GOVERNMENT, THEY DECLARE Say Britain, France Let Poland Down By EDWARD V. BEATTIE, JR. i United Press Staff Correspondent BUCHAREST. Sept. 19. (United Press.) Poland's army of , refugees, soldiers and civilians, trudged wear! ly into exile today along 200 miles of dusty road, many of them saying that Great Britain and France and their own government had deceived them. They knew little and seemed to care little what had happened to their war-torn homeland, whether Warsaw had fallen or whether Polard would become a Nazi-Soviet puppet state. But they were resently of the swift rout of the Polish army. . Many of them told me that Po land's army was capable of a lor.g fight against German tanks, guns and planes. They accused the Polish govern ment, now on Rumanian soil, of de ceiving the people. "Let Poland Down Most of them add that Britain and Prance "let Poland down" by not hurling their strength against Ger many on the western front to relieve the Nazi blows against Poland. Some of them are saying that Brit lsh and French planes should have bombed Germany in reprisal for the work of German planes which devas tated town after town in Poland and sometimes swept down and machine gunned people in the streets; But thousands of the refugees are too weary and dejected to talk about Poland's defeat. They are wondering how they will pick up their lives again. Most of them shrug their shoulders and say tomorrow is another day. This army of refugees is the rem-' nants of what a few days ago was a finely equipped army,, apprehensive but confident families and a government functioning in Warsaw. . Today I found it scattered along the 200-mile front, on its way to internment in concentration centers or to cities of -refuge somewhere ahead. Constant Stream From Cernauti southward the stream of refugees is constant, but toward the Rumanian capital it trickles off to a few officials and other favored persons permitted to proceed as far as Bucharest. Some of the Polish refugees, like the several thousand members of the Polish air force how on Rumanian soil, would like to go to France. While the refugees flow southward Rumanian troops are moving northward in trains or along the roads to bolster the defense of the northern - frontier. Some of the Rumanian soldiers ride farm horses, commandeered from the countryside. They cheer the Polish soldiers as they pass. From Cernatul, I followed the refugee road through Siretsuehawa, Fal-ticenl, Bacau, Maresest and B u z a u over a dusty and bumpy road that would put the logging trails of the American north woods to shame in some sections. Most of these thousands of refugees have not seen a bed in 10 days and have slept, when they are able, among their bundles in the fields. -Last night I saw whole families huddled together under trees and haystacks, so exhausted that they seemed not to notice that it was raining in torrents. Neutral Nations Maintain Control Of Arms Shipments WASHINGTON, Sept. 19. (A.P.) An unofficial survey disclosed today that neutral European nations are maintaining a control over the shipment of arms to belligerents. Until their position is further clarified, however, officials here believe it is Impossible to predict whether Germany, Britain or France can count ' upon them for war materials. Sweden has several highly efficient arms factories, but whether she will sen arms to Germany or the western allies has not been made clear. . '.. Norway has no specific legislation covering arms exports but has legislation requiring governmental licenses for all exports, which would of course Include arms. In Denmark, before an arms shipment can be made, a license must be obtained. Finland has put restrictions on the sale of munitions and requires licenses. The Netherlands recently prohibited the export of arms without first obtaining licenses. ., Switzerland maintains a control over arms shipments. Italy puts all exports under government control. - t 1 SB IK) ' Associated Press Wirephoto AT THE END OF THE LINE Wrecked locomotive and railroad bridge, struck by bombs, lie in the wake of the war, somewher e in Poland. FRENCH REPORT THEY TURN BACK NAZI OFFENSIVE Germans Launch Drive on Western Front (Continued from Page 1) broken just before dawn today by the German assault. Charge "No Man's Land" French advices said the field gray clad German infantry charged in the no-man's-land between German's Sieg fried line and the Maginot line at a poirt just within German territory. The action was at a point where the French have been filtering through the Nazi trench and pill-box system of fortifications toward the important industrial town of Saarbruecken. The attack was said to have been executed under cover of a heavy artillery barrage by several German companies numbering about 140 men each. French troops, who have' been dig ging in as fast as they gained ground during, the first two weeks of the war, were reported to have repulsed the attack with machine-gun fire from newly-prepared positions. Military observers said the real sig nificance of the attack lay in the indication that the Germans now were attempting to raid the French lines and take prisoners, apparently in preparation for a large-scale offen sive. ... Heavy German reinforcements of infantry, artillery and aviation were reported streaming west now that the Polish lines have been slashed to ieces with only a few knots of re sistance remaining to be reduced in the east. On the naval front, where France Behind World Headlines (Continued from Page 1) destruction and conquest "must follow." Plans to compromise, Hitler called "utterly intolerable" (to the superior Teutons) and then he uttered one of those plaintive reminders of how peaceful he wanted to be which the Germans really believe and think quite sensible. "My sincere endeavors to save Germany and also Poland from the horrors of war" were rejected in toto, he exclaimed. Typically German was his conclusion: "I wonder what the state of mind of the leaders (Polish) has been since they thus rejected my proposals." This was not the only gloating the proud Fuehrer included in his speech. It was not the only time he showed all too clearly what Germany means by avoiding "the horrors of war." The speech made that point clear Adolf Hitler offered the world the same alternative he gave to Poland surrender without a fight or "the horrors of war." How much of this do the Germans believe? Do they "honestly accept Hitler's explanation of war guilt? After what the democracies handed Germany at Munich last year, it is difficult to believe' anyone could accept such statements as this: "In the totalitarian states, it-is supposed to be a crime to take merely protective meas ures." Such as what? The seizure of Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia? The invasion of Poland? Or do people accept this: "With unbelievable patience I have tried to solve our difficulties by peaceful means." Who Is Patient Patience? The 24-hour ultimatum to Prague, the seizure of Memel, the hair-trigger events in Poland! Patience, did he say? And the bloody celebration over prostrate Poland! Rows of prisoners, gory details . . . and threats of worse atrocities to come. "I gave orders to conduct a humane warfare. Still the western statesmen must not think this condition can go on forever." What condition? Humane warfare? "If they want things differently they can have what they ask for," i.e. surrender or have your babies bombed! Then came more threats-1 threats of a man with a bslly full of power, "we may some day surprise them by employing weapons which might not be available to them." For example a new poisonous gas microbes or some other nice Teuton "superior" invention for the foolish inferior states which do not accept Adolf's peaceful overtures? A Czech scholar characterized the speech tersely. "It was a perfect war talk," he said, "for the middle ages." Hew -do you like the dark age, mister? and Britain have been waging a severe campaign against Germany, French dispatches claimed several successes. In addition to a German submarine reported sunk last night in the Atlantic, a semi-official statement said "four or five" similar craft had gone to the bottom under attack of French warships. Northern Ireland's marriage and death rates are decreasing, but births are gaining. CAPTAIN LAST TO GO LONDON, Sept. 19. (A.P.) Survivors of the torpedoed aircraft carrier Courageous related tonight that Capt. W. T. Makeig-Jones, after ordering his signalers to abandon ship with the rest of the crew, was seen standing at salute on the bridge before the ship went down. He had called to his men "take your time boys, there's no hurry." Some survivors said they later saw the captain swimming strongly. SOVIET ARMY REPORTS WILNO IS CAPTURED Troops May March Into Estonia Red Cross To Help Americans To Reach Relatives in Europe WASHINGTON, Sept. 19. (A.P.) The Red Cross is setting up a system to help Americans communicate with relatives in European war zones." Inquiries may be made to local Red Cross chapters throughout the country which will forward them here. Where inquiries are made by American citizens the state department will attempt to carry out the requests through consular offices. Appeals from American residents who are not citizens will be handled through the international Red Cross at Geneva. The Red Cross will handle inquiries as to the safety of persons in the war zones or dispatch of money for t.h1r iinnnrt or rpnAtrlfltlrm but will not handle shipments of food or clothing on account of uncertain conditions abroad. ;g1PRUSSl r WHITE yX fyS RUSSIA "YS? yf H N AR yA R U M A N I -A. Associated Press Wirephoto MAPS FROM GERMANY SHOW PROPOSED PARTITION OF POLAND This picture of a new partition oi Poland was drawn in map's ot German origin distributed yesterday at Cernauti, Rumania, raps are not regarded as official but are said to have some significance. As outlined Russia would acquire a "new Ukraine." Germany also would get a large part oi the old Poland and a buffer stat e would be created for the Poles, bounded by new Russian territory on the east, by East Prussia . on the north, by a new German boundary on the west and by Slovakia on the south with no access to the sea and without Poland's former major industrial areas. By WITT HANCOCK Associated Press Correspondent MOSCOW, Sept. 20. (Wednesday.: (Associated Press.) The Red army general staff early today announced the capture of the northeastern Po lish city of Wilno, ancient capital of the Lithuanians, after two hours' fighting. The Russians announced the cap ture also of Volynski (Wlodzimierz) 140 miles from the Russian border, town which the German army an nounced Saturday had been reached by Nazi motorized units. Wilno, about 85 miles from the Rus sian frontier, is the most important city yet taken by the west-bound Red army. It has a normal population of about 207,000. Press Into Lwow In the south, in the Ukraine, the Soviet troops pressed into the out skirts of Lwow, Poland's third larg est city, from the northeast and from the South. German troops already had virtually encircled the city. The general staff announced cap ture altogether of 12 more cities and towns. ' Besides Volynski, Pruzhany (Pruzana) and Kobrin (Kobryn), also 140 miles into Poland, were reported taken. Most of the places reported cap tured roughly were on a line running north and south through Wilno and Lwow. It had been understood the Russian invasion would be halted somewhere along this line, so there was the possibility the drive might be about ended. The Soviet troops either have met or have stopped a stone's throw from the German forces at several points along the 500-mile long line of. march, May Enter Estonia As the Germaoi-Russian campaign of mopping up in Poland seemed to be nearing an end, the possibility that Soviet troops might march into little Estonia was discussed in Moscow's diplomatic circles. News that the Soviet Baltic fleet was sent into action to "take meas ures" following the escape of a Polish submarine interned at the Estonian port of Tallinn, was regarded here as. significant. Soviet Russia's present sea base bn the west is Leningrad on the Gulf of Finland and Russia is known to want a Baltic base. Diplomats said that should Russia decide to occupy part of Estonia this might give her complete control of the Gulf of Finland. Estonia now has a number of fortified islands in the gulf as well as shore batteries controlling certain large sectors. Estonian circles in Moscow insisted, however, there was not a single conflict in the relations of their govern ment with the Soviet Union. They emphasized that their guards had tried to prevent the escape of the submarine and denied there was any connivance. See Peace Mover Sources close to the German em bassy predicted that the reich, with the Polisn campaign nearly over, might make a fresh approach to France and Britain for peace. (Adolf Hitler in a Danzig speech said he had "no war aims" against the two west ern powers.) These quarters said Germany now was transferring numerous airplanes and troops from the Polish to the western front. Rumors that the British and French governments had presented a protest against Russian occupation of Polish territory could not be' immediately confirmed. A communique from the Soviet general staff reported that Russian forces continued to "eject troops of the Polish army" as they advanced westward. A dispatch to the army newspaper, Red Star, disclosed that the process of liquidating huge estates in the Ukraine and White Russia already was under way. Give Land to Peasants Army commanders were reported to be Instructing peasants to "take the land for the people," and to "turn your cattle into the landlords' pastures." Tass, official news agency, said that the advance of the Russian armies was received by joyous crowds which lined the roads and that girls decked the tanks and horses with flowers. It was reported in diplomatic circles that the Lithuanian minister to Moscow had opened negotiations in an effort to have the Russians and Ger mans return Wilno to Lithuania. (The city was occupied by the Poles after the World war. Lithuania considers the city her ancient capital.) The Polish ambassador, Dr. Waclaw Grzybowski, who hopes to leave Thursday by way of Rumania, called on United States Ambassador Laurence A. Steinhardt today. The nature of their long conversation was not disclosed. Baltic States Face Soviet Domination COPENHAGEN, Sept. 19. (A.P.) With Estonia's coast reported blockaded by Russia's navy, three tiny states lying along the Baltic sea formed a question mark tonight in the revamping of eastern Europe's map by the German and Russian military machines. Dependent for their existence on the mutual interest of Germany and Russia in their independence, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania bobbed heip-lessfy, like corks on turbulent waters, in the surge of events which struck Poland and which may at any time be directed against them. Despite Russia's assurance of neutrality, there loomed indications that she intended to dominate the north Baltic area where she was said to want an ice free port. In Copenhagen, the Berlinske Ti- v; j ' x POLISH BUFFER STATE AIM OF ITS CONQUERORS Associated Press Cablephoto SAVED FROM COURAGEOUS London, Sept. 19 A chief petty officer, rescued from the sunken British aircraft carrier Courageous, is greeting his wife after being brought ashore. She is holding a life saving jacket. Only Handful Of 600 Czech Refugees Escape To Hungary CERNAUTI, Rumania, Sept. 19. (Associated Press.) A gruelling, zig zag trek across Poland by 600 Czecho slovak refugees who sought safety from the German army an aim which only a handful achieved was described tonight by Hermann Jield, of Cambridge, Mass. Field represented the British com mittee for refugees from Czechoslovakia in Krakow, Poland. He was one of the last foreigners to cross the Ru manian frontier in advance of Soviet Russia's tanks. "We walked day and night for 12 days until we were exhausted," Field said. "We begged food in villages and farms. We slept in barn, open fields, woods and along dusty roads. , "A half-dozen times we were in villages and towns when they were frightfully bombed by German planes. "And after experiencing all of that only a few of the poor devils ever escaped." Feared Capture The Czechs, all refugees from Ger man-occupied Czechoslovakia, were fearful capture by the Germans would mean immediate death before a firing squad. Field said the small group escaped Poland at Zaleszczyki but most of the 600 still were wandering around in Poland. "Many were killed and we. saw sev eral hundred wounded," Field said. When German planes bombed Kra kow for three days at the start of the German-Polish war. Field de died to clear the Czech encampment. The British committee previously had sent 1600 Czechs to England but 3000 remained in Krakow. Field started the long and dangerous march across Poland with the 600, including old men, women and children, on Sept. 4. Only a few crossed the border to safety In Ru mania, on Sejjt. 16. Another group of several hundred Czechs also left Katowice afoot but Field said he had no information on their fate. Shortly after leaving Krakow, th wanderers were caught in an air raid at Sandormorz. While they were at Krasnik, he said, German planes bombed the Jewish quarter, killing 70 persons. - Many refugees were caught when the Germans suddenly cut across a road in a wedge which had been driv en into the Polish lines. "Bombing scattered the dwindling Czech column," Field said. "Many old men, women and children dropped ex hausted by the roadside, unable to struggle on. "Same were . caught by the swift Russian occupation of Southeastern Poland. "A few of us got out of Tarnopol just before the Russian tanks rolled in and you almost can count on your fingers the weary but valiant few who finally crossed the border to a Rumanian haven." dende carried a report saying English sources believed it was only a question of time before Estonia and Latvia would be incorporated into Russia, advancing as the reason a reported German promise to give Russia a Eal-tic, harbor. A joint declaration of determination to remain neutral and to uphold their right to trade with all countries, in cluding the belligerents, ended a two- day neutrality conference of five northern countries. Nazis Report West Poland Army Crushed (Continued from Page 1) along the Bzura north of Lodz, a tex tile manufacturing center and the second city in size in Poland. Lodz Is about 75 mile3 southwest of Warsaw -and the German triumph in the Lodz area apparently relieved thousands of Nazi troops for the at tack on the Polish capital, from which the government of President Ignace Moscicki fled several days ago. The German high command de clared fighting was resumed at Warsaw when an emissary failed to appear to negotiate on the surrender of the city, which was demanded by the Germans last Sunday. The city is being defended by the Poles without regard for the population, which is over a million strong," asserted the German communique. Warsaw Silent From Warsaw came no word. There was no indication of what form the military activity was taking. The defenders at th tip of what was the Polish corridor were entrenched in positions on heights west of Gydnia known as Oblosz and in the village of Ochshoeft. Correspondents who had gone to Danzig for the Hitler speech were taken to the scene and watched the battle from a distance of only two miles. German land, sea and air forces were reported pounding at the Polish force. The newsmen saw three Ger man waves advance on the fortified positions during an hour's stay and each time the Nazis won some 10 yards more of hotly-contested ground The land forces were supported by scouting planes which dropped sig nals to guide the artillery. Also blast ing away at the Poles were the 28 centimeter (about 11-inch) gunc of the German cruiser Schleswig-Hol stein, anchored 10' a miles away in Danzig harbor. Poles Cut Off Apparently the Poles were cut off from the outside world. Prisoners taken by the Germans. were said to believe the British were about to come to the aid of the small garrison. The Poles also seemed to have no anti-aircraft . guns, for the scouting planes flew low and were not bothered. In southeastern Poland, the city of Lwow was called on to surrender to the Germans, the communique said. Northwest of Lwow, it was reported, some fighting units of the enemy were destroyed and about 10,000 prisoners were captured. Turning to the western front, the communique said "insignificant artillery and reconnoitering activity occurred at some points in the Saarbruecken region. It was observeo that our opponents were doing rrrnifold trench digging. Fighting actions in the air did not occur." t Warsaw Broadcasts Defiance of Germans BUDAPEST, Sept. 19. (A.P.) Warsaw's defiance of the German army's demand for surrender was broadcast again by the Polish capital's radio tonight after a day-long shelling and bombardment. The announcer in a tired voice recited in English a story of devastation resulting from the 12-day-old seige. "Warsaw presents a very pitiful sight," he said. "Buildings, monuments, museums and art galleries are in ruins. We will fight to the last drop and never surrender." The German army delivered an ultimatum to the Warsaw population, dropping leaflets from airplanes, last Saturday, ordering it to evacuate the capital under threat of bombardment. The ultimatum expired Sunday afternoon. , Polish authorities rejected the ultimatum. Frontier reports said two Polish infantry battalions crossed from Sianki and Uzok and were received with honors by Hungarian border guards. TO SEAL RADIOS -PHILADELPHIA, Sept. 19. (A.P.) Customs officials announced tonight the coast guard will seal radio rooms of vessels from belligerent nations while they are in port here beginning tomorrow. Sealing of the radio rooms would prevent one belligerent from radioing the departure of an enemy ship, Peace Expected To-Be Signed Immediately By LLOYD LEHRBAS Associated Press Staff Correspondent CERNAUTI, Rumania, Sept. 19. Establishment of a new Polish regime friendly to Germany and Soviet Russia after partition of Poland by those powers was predicted today in reports from across the Polish frontier. Maps mailed from Germany were circulated here showing such a partition which would leave only about one-third of Poland as a buffer state between powerful neighbors. Informed persons said a new government, replacing the regime of President Moscicki and foreign minister Beck, would sign an immediate peace with Germany and Russia. Significance was attached to the maps although they were not regarded as official. They envisaged Russia as getting 'all of eastern Poland from a line drawn from south of Przemysl to the East Prussian frontier northwest of Bialystok. The map-makers assumed that Germany would take the territory west of a new frontier which would start below Katowice, extend north nearly to Lodz, then loop westward near the present German frontier and finally swing northeast to Join the East Prus-' sian border. Poznan (Posen) and . Bydgoszcz (Bromberg) would be incorporated in Germany. Lwow and Wilno would become Russia's. The map indicated about one-third of Poland would remain as a buffer state without access to the sea and without its Industrial districts. Poles Welcome Russians Soviet occupation of Polish territory across the frontier from Rumania continued apparently withoat resistance. There were no reports of bloodshed. To Poles the advent of the Russians meant relief from two weeks of almost continuous bombings. Poles and Russians fraternized In the occupied regions. Rumanian and Soviet military authorities opened negotiations for reopening the frontier over which thousands of panic-stricken Poles have fled. News of the negotiations caused those stampeding farther into Rumania to falter and then stop. Some Poles appeared at the bridgehead hopeful of returning to their homes with most of their possessions carried on their backs. Many others, however, moved on into Rumania hoping to rebuild their fortunes and lives elsewhere than in conquered Poland. Picturesquely clad peasants peacefully harvested corn, pumpkins and hay in nearby fields. The frontier was almost back to normal after the wild confusion that reigned as late as last night. One of the incidents most startling to . the peasants occurred Sunday morning when two Soviet tanks ambled across the bridge onto Rumanian territory,- remained for i IS minutes while the crew looked around and then departed into Poland. Ceaseless Bombardment Foreign diplomats and Polish refugees who escaped into Rumania described a ceaseless German bombardment in towns and cities of un conquered sections of Poland. They reported towns were almost blasted into the air ahead of the German advance. On the rood from Warsaw to Seidlce Americans said they saw where German bombers attempted to. shatter telephone and telegraph lines. They had annihilated a Polish army convoy and hod bombed 15 civilian motor cars. Several were overturned with bodies of their occupants scattered about. Several Polish autos in Cernauti streets were marked by machinegun bullet holes. . The Japanese ambassador to Po land, Shulchi Sakoh, departed with his staff fdr Bucharest. The Japan ese were the last of the diplomatic missions accredited to Warsaw to leave Poland. 15 " The last American diplomat to leave. Leland Harrison, third secretary of' the United States embassy in Warsaw. said Polish Jews made up more than nan of a terrified mob which fled into Rumania from Zaleszczyki when t-onsn oorder guards opened the bar rier. Harrison left for Bucharest. The guards also scurried into Ru mania. The Jews had been held at the Po lish border for several days by Rumania's refusal at first to grant them entry. Many Polish Jews at the outbreak of hostilities moved into Polish cities near the Russian, frontier preferring to risk a Soviet occupation than Ger man conquest. .3 Allies To Defend Belgian Frontier ' PARIS, Sept. 19. (U.P.) T h e commanders of the British and French forces on the western front, meetings in northern France today with their staffs, were reported to have decided on a strong defense of the Belgian frontier to meet any possible threat of German invasion there. French quarters reported that part of the German forces being diverted from the Polish battlefronts were concentrated "within striking dis tance" of the Belgian and Dutch frontiers. - There seemed to be a measure of concern among the British and French that the Germans might try to repeat their tactics of 1914 when the German army invaded Belgium at Liege to strike at France. TO RESTORE ORDER ' CERNAUTI, Rumania, Sept. 19.- (A.P.) A British observer reported today a Russian tank column was nearing Kuty, on hte Rumanian border, as Poles and Ukrainians clashed in that area. The arrival of the Russians was expected to restore order. - t

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