The Times from London, Greater London, England on December 27, 1882 · Page 7
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The Times from London, Greater London, England · Page 7

London, Greater London, England
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Wednesday, December 27, 1882
Page 7
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THE TIMES, WEDNESDAY. DECEMBER 27, 1882. CONTESTS OF THI8 DAY'S PAPEL ass l 1. fcraraa, ltarriarH ! Aovtamsafsrr Ihnctt a a ft . . a - arm. ...... Iti 1 i w - t li'umuun tsarina Ilonw, Carriac, rUioUo. ttJXokMi - TBBaaaas Laxa or ILmnaiaa. Shut, at Irntt (&t. 1 Utwr Irraxraurs - rU Oy4 Cwt - yrUJ - Th rim of ta WorU - LMtan to la Editor BwnilBCt ef raam CfcUJf ; Tnmtk u4 KafOta Treaties wit Ma4aear - rrtfrtck. 1 Ciumn txmttixitktt - UuuilaiM EJIU fTrk7 ulliMlmrKlTW Dtmtnrt lb XaUootl sfuaroaM ; Dr. t"uw j) I'm i t I. Ta Tonrira Kxrimn txT la - vat lornari - Jl aaa )UrrW - Letter to Um Editor (TVt UunM X0 - rr - 1 Tn 84 - riMllo TaltCVmrt Oito - IWJt Unenln Am aafiaJiKT. (Snik. Loto. Tbeari. f. UiHN AlTKW (Tk Antriaa EmU : Tie P Flshlnt TlJ . 1W ralun of kh1:j SocUUm and Tr4 Vslont ; SrtM TimMl ONtuarr - EacUoa IsUlIlfeDcs - Lrttcr W Um BVlltrv (SWryl - farwrar. 1 Turn rrri 8tat - Mr. roiWa's ; Tale of Um Mfrmuiint (Rrrtl Ta Udo QuMto - Ulnt Ship - Ha IatUlMM Ts War(n J VrslUaUni o Um Koral insane military adventurer, aa a rulf , thinks of touching it. A nationality that cannot do this often compels its neighbour to lay bands upon it, and to bring it under discipline and law. We bare oo doubt that the Austrian Govern ment is unfeignedly deiirous of avoiding annexation, but we hare just as little doubt that a great deal of annexation lies before it. Wallacha, Bulgara, Albanians, and Slats of a dozen rarieties are one and all incapable of forming strong and self - reliant States. To endow them, with autonomy mar bo agreeablo to theorists, and may even suit practical statesmen as a temporizing measure, but hss no chance of producing an organization vigorous enough to hold its own. These rices must size, and put to sea in considerable fleets, which do not return with their catch, bat deliver it to be pecked in ice and conveyed k shore by fast sailing cutters or steam carriers, and then resume their fishing, the process being repeated several times in the course of a single cruise. The size of the vessels has in consequence boen Largely increased. The smacks recently constructed for the H umber ports measure 85 or 00 tons, and, with steam capstans, stores, and nets, cost from 1.500 to 1,700 each when ready for sea. "They are," says the report, " among " the finest sea boats afloat." Each of the larger trawlers carries two boys as apprentices. They are often at sea for eight, ten. or even twelve weeks at come under the sway of some strong and well - 1 a time during the summer, when they sail in fleets, organized Stato if they are to emerge from the ! and in winter, when each smack works alone, the trip lasts from one to tkreo weeks. The diifereoce chaos thtt now broods over tho Balkan peninsula l nat state must Le either Austria or Russia, and. : between the two main branches of the hahing as a matter of fact these two will' divide the work. I indnstrr thus becomes annarent. It is something Austria cannot stsp the southward movement of f like the difference between the forge of the village i . . - 1 1 i ... . . . . . , . . IUNUnu - lM n train riuiH u, iwj . . - . . " ivwrto et Juik - ordieiiMM - Uturt to ib. tAiict iviti , cr gret neighbour, but neither can sho permit it , blacksmith and the engineer's workshop Rmnalkw . Tb T and 11. Simom Utl . LooJoo 8lru ImJm SaKl - rrTpU - I Hui(T MKrr ForrUn CmnnifrrlU lBtr.ico Sit ot TVJ. OklU J m HulMi - Tlkffi Kwvljxt - Acrtcul - aiml rro! Sml (Rt( tht Mtlla TL Iron Trad of Um l"ntJ KiE4vlom fint - Tti XorUirro CoJ HUm Irilrn to Uw lUUuw Tb Cm - f " IWU v. L " iriiniut KWIUm, C'Mtnctt, rbU Compamlca lfl NUer. Tr4 NoUm!. Amimuun lAltukUu. IkrtMnLir. Uooj. Ui teoi. Borl uhl nHlrtc. AxtoAU, OiBcn, rrorrt)r Waat4. rrottftr to b Lt bold, TrJ Nolico. Wkct a LOXDOX, KLDSESDA Y, DECEMBER 27, im Vienna and the Auitrian heroditary provinces ire' to - day eclsbrsting, with all the enUAiiasm thst befits a most tntersting occasion, tho six - humlredth anniversary of the reign oi the House ofHAfSBCSG. Ontho2Tthof December, 1282, Rvpoi.r of Hapsburg, then Emperor Ele:t of Germany, bestowed, by virtue of his high authority as head of the Holy Roman Empire, the vacant fiefs of Austria, Styria, Carinthis, and the Marches upon his sous IUdolf and Albert. He thus founded at once tho Austrian Empire and a dynasty which has played a groat part in the tubsequent history of Europe. For four hundred fears, with the interval of Maiui Tiiekesi's reign, the Hai - sbi rgs wore the Imperial Crown of Gennany, untd Napoleon compelled Francis I. to relinquish his proud and long - descended title ; onlft however, to assume, at a somewhat later date, that of Kaiser of Austria. The events which tns - ferred tho title of German Emperor to the Hohex - zolle&ns are too recent and too memorable to re quire notice, iney testuy, nowever, in an indirect way to the greatness and vitality of the HarsBUKa family and tnelr empire. Far from being weakened by the blow which brought about the unification of Gersaany nuder the Prussian King, Austria is at this moment stronger in every respect than before 1866. Her people may well look back with pride upon the six centuries of continuous national life which close to - day, under the lineal representative of the Suabian Count. The Emperor of Arsi&iA can add to his natural satisfaction at the retrospect the perhaps purer pleasure of knowing that, much as he owes to his ancestry, he can claim to have performed feats of consolidation not inferior to any in the history of his House. The present solidity of the bipartite Austro - Hungarian Empire is very greatly due to his personal qualities and scrupulous observance of the Constitution. Gslicia is almost the newest, as it is the largest, province of the Austrian Empire. A century ago it was forcibly annexed at the partition of Poland, an vent to which other fragments of that kingdom are not yet reconciled. It is very muchfcb - lie credit of Austrian rule, and especially to the credit of tho present Emperor, that GalicU, notwithstanding its history and associations, is to - day celebrating tho anniversary not less heartily than the hereditary provinces themselves. We in this country are a little giea to supposing that delicate constitutional problems can be solved only by our own favourite machinery ; but the contrast between Galicia and Ireland ought to teach us, at least, that when harmony is not attained, the fault may not necessarily lie with the dominant race. The manner in which Austria is sometimes referred to by ardent advocates of nationality theories shows a singular want of generosity. No doubt it is easy to ransack Austrian history and find abundance of proceedings which are by no means in harmony with the views current to - day, but this is as unfair as it is easy. Nations, like men, have to be judged with constant reference to their time and the standards of action then accepted. Another allowance has constantly to be made if we desire to be just. We have to remember that the whole code of national ethics is profoundly affected by the accidents of geography. For a nation like ourselves, shut in by the sea, it is easy to theorize about the treatment to bo accorded to neighbours. The problem of national conduct becomes considerably more complicated when defensible frontiers have to be sought and diverse races and creeds have to be harmonized, under penalty of the obliteration of everything like organized government. Wo once had neighbours of a troublesome kind north of the Tweed, and a foreign critic judging our conduct according to new - fangled moralities might' find it difficult to sy wherein our treatment of them differed from that dealt out by Austria to troublesome tribes on her border. More recently wo had Highland clans to deal with. Had they dwelt in Montenegro and been a tlmm in the side of Austria while enthusiastic advocates expounded tbo beauties of ! to go on unchecked. As the disintegration of the Turkish Empire goes on to its end tho Iwlance of i powtr tetccn these two StaWs must bo practi - ; cally settled. Roth require outlets to tho sea, and j neither can afford to bold its hand when the i other acts. If any one can produce a practical schemo for erecting a new Stato on constitu - j tional principles which shall be ablo to withstand the double pressure, by all weans let us have it. Rut theories about nationality creating autonomies will not serve No matter what ingenuity may be expended on these things, we shall sooner or later have to deal with both Austria and Russia as Mediterranean Powers, and our capacity for meoting them on equal terms will very greatly depend upon the wisdom and courage wo display in utilizing the opportunity we now enjoy for securing our most important Mediterranean interests. The one, being rural, local, and individual, may rafely be left in the main to its own simple organization ; for the due regulation of juvenilo employment in the other tbo restrictions of a Factory Act aro needed. What is evidently wanted in the case of apprentices in trailers is something analogous, more or less, to the provisions of tho Factory Acts. Tho industry has manifestly passed out of tbe stago when apprenticeship could bo based and treaties j on tho analogy or presumption of family relations. the turn. "We can reauily imanine." says the report, mined, and it was proved that tho two paupers had been parties to the dissolution and had received a share of tho proceeds realized in the winding up. At the same time, no oua can doubt that many societies are far frcn being in a oond financial, state, and would be pronounced by actuaries to be hopelessly insolvent. When tablts of sickness and mortality are compiled from the large mass of information collected during the last twenty years, many societies will be found to bar msde scanty provision for the strain which comes in their old age. There may be nothing in the official evidence to support ' the view commsnly entertained, that tbe failure of these societies frequently brings their members te ruin. It is, however, sistter of common knowledge that many of them, especially those which' have hastily swallowed small village clubs, have ended in disaster ; and, in spite of Mr. Lcdlow's arguments, we can hardly believe that their record is so clean - as he would make out. No statistics aro, or can be, procured to show the ' magnitude of the discouragement to thrift caused j by the ruin of one such society. Nothing is mora likely to make the industrious poer cynical and j reckless than the destruction, by the defalcations elves the Pride cf Sussex or the Hop of Kant, can be expect! U do whas companies with big offices and highly - paid servants may be fairly called upon to perform. Our Geneva Correspondent describes this morning a condition of things which almost takes the terror and impreasiveness out of the statistics wielded by Ma. Hot li and Sir Wiltjud Lawsox. For every 130 human' beings in Switzerland there is a pablicbouse. That is to say, after deduction of women, children, and tick, ne tavern is supported by every 30 persons. Were the alcohol sold population, a majority woold traapto oa th reasonable likings cf a xzrincritT. Th cfeasg would simply invest tha asreral divisions of tba Swiss people with a right to protect thanuolres and their weaker citizens from riot and temptation, and fasten upon these which might not choose to use it the responsibility for their own rnissry and, disorder, OBITUARY. We regret to record t& death of the Bev. Sir Henry Bonrchier Wrey, of Tawstock, - IV tod, waieb occurred on Saturday, at Corffe. near BarosUple. Tbe deceased waS . uaouiiMii safe by grocejs and confectioners to be reckoned, tat j of the lato Sir Rmrchier Wrey, seventh proportions te consumption of spirituous liquors in ' baronet. D.C.L.. of Tawstcek (who died in UCG),byhi marriage with Anne, daughter of Mr. John Osborne, or Alderler. Ckmeertershire. and was born at Tawstock - the Confederation would be shown to be more - enormous still, hxcessive arm king is not con fined to manufacturing districts like the canton of Geneva, containing a vast ind us trial and urban population. Pastoral and agricultural regions, such as the Grisons and Glares, display figures as portentously high. A large pan of Swiss earnings can be proved to be expended on drink. Workmen are known often to waste four - fifths of their wages in this way, carrying home no more than three or four francs. In Geneva, where the citizens live of officials or gross actuarial miscalculations, of the j commonly in flats, it is computed that hardly a stay in which they or their fellow - workers had their trust. Mr, Lcdlow suggests reasons for put be lieving that there is a real connexion between the increase of friendly societies snd the decline of pauperism : and it is tho fact that in the counties tho Ossianic poetry, wo should probably have thought them very fine fellows and the Austrian very great tyrants. As we were cooped up with them in the same island, we made no scruple of suppressing them. We did quite right, but let us try to remember that Austria has always had a dozen Irelands and Caledonias on hand, and has besides been compelled by the proximity of power ful and dangerous rivals to act with a vigour which is not required of us, even when a province proves recalcitrant.. The nationalities that swarm on tho Austrian frontiers or are in process of amalgamation with the Empire may have very amiable characteristics of their own, and may bo very estimable and precious in tho eyes of people with historical, ethnic, or religious theories to propagate. But tho practical question for their neighbours is whether they constitute responsible States with which it is possible to havo regular relations. If they do, then it it a mists ko from which Continental statesmen shrink to attempt their absorption. Switzerland maintains her independence limply because, aided by her position, she constitutes such a State. Tho Swiss do not satisfy the ordinary nationality tests. They do not speak ono language and cannot bo supposed to have sprung from one stcck. But they form an entity among the nations with which orderly relations j can be established, and they aro consequently safe. Tho nationalities which Austria has absorbed, or is expected to absorb, do not satisfy this condition. Their race affinities may bo anything that any athnologist choose to fancy, but tho practical disability remain that they are not capable of form - kog compact political entity whoso orderly bo. bariour can be calculated upon. Therefore, th probability is that they will be absorbed, if not by Austria, then by tome other Power. A nation or nationality that can stand on its own feet is a morsel so very difficult of digestion that only some Wo print else whore tho leading reeommends - tions of a Committee lately appointed by the Board ofTrado to inquiro into the circumstances of the Sea Fishing Trade, and especially into the causes of the numerous desertions that are reported to have taken piace among the crews of tishing vessels. The whole subject is one of no little public interest. Tho fishing industry of our coasts has largely increased of late years to the great advantage of tho wholo community, and th wholo community is very directly concerned in its permaaent well - being. Symptoms, however, have exhibited themselves of late of something far from satisfactory in tho internal economy of the trade. Desertions of apprentices have been frequent, and more than one shocking case has been reported of cruelty inflicted by masters of fiihing - smac'ts on some of their younger hands. " The recent convictions," says the report of the Committee, " of the skipper " for th murder of the lad He.nrt Pepper on " board the smack Rising Sun, of Hull, and of the " second hand for the murder of the lad Peter " Hcgues, on board the smack Gleaner, of Hull, " and of the skipper and of tho'second and third " hands of tho smack Achievement, of Grimsby, " for cruel, debasing, and disgusting treatment of " tw lads at sea, have disclosed beyond all doubt " a state of things which, however exceptional it " msy be, renders tome legislative measures for tho " protection of the lads imperatively necessary." It might he thought that cruelty is tho immediate cause of desertion, and no doubt thero is some indirect relation between the two. But though rough nsago is probably common enough sinco tho lifo is bard and neither tho boys nor their masters are much given to refinement, yet the Committee have come to the conclusion that cases of cruelty and deliberate ill - treatment aro rare; and that the masters and skippers, as a body, are humane and considerate. Tho causes of desertion aro various. The apprentices aro chiefly taken from a class naturally somewhat restless and insubordinate ; in many cases they are bou nd on terms which thoy very imperfectly understand, and they aro enabled to release themselves by virtue of a certain ambiguity of tho law, of which they havo learnt to take advantage ; thoy are often employed in such numbers tnat it is no longer convenient or even feasible for the master to receive - them into his own house, and they aro left to find their own lodging on shore, too often falling into bad hands and contracting vagrant habits and evil associa tions. From theso and other causes it results that tho supply of Ashing hands is liable to fall off and its quality to deteriorate, and it is easy to seo tho injury that might bo inflicted on an important national industry if no effective remedy could be found. Tho report of the Committee, drafted, wo believe, by tho competent pn of Me. Norwood, the membtr for Hull, gives a very interesting account of tha growth and present condition ot the coaat fisheries of Great Britain. There are, it appears, 25,268 registered vessels engaged in the trade, 7.988 of which are of 15 tons and upwards. In these vessels 56,089 men and boys are constantly eniployed,whilo 38,675 additional hands, not being regular fishermen, find occasional employment at certain seasons of tho year. The whole industry of these boats and their crews msy be roughly divided into two main classes that of "drivers," or " drifters," as they are called, using tho " drift net " in some form or another for surfaeo fishing, chiefly in pursuit of tho herring, mackerel, and pilchard, and that of the " trawlers," using the beam trawl for deep sea bottom fishing, chiefly in tho Channel and North Sea. There is considerable difference in tho characters of thos3 two industries. The drift - net fishery is more or less intermittent ; it depends on the presence of tho particular fish occupying tho drifter for tho time ; tho drifters rarely leave tbo shcro for moro than a couple of nights' fishing, and in many cases, especially in Scotland and on tho Cornish coasts, they contino their operations to their own locality, though some of the larger vessels follow tho shoals southward and westward, and aro sometimes absent from their own ports for several weeks at a time. Tire drifters, however, do not, as a rule, carry apprentices ; thero is generally only one lad in the crew, who serves as cook, and, except at Yarmouth, desertion is very rare. It is probable that tho local chiracter of the enterprise gives a stability to its organization, and engenders a feeling of common interest among the men ongagod in it, such as may well bo wanting in the'other branch of the tishing industry. For the conditions of trawl f shing are altogether different. This is an industry which has grown at an enormous pace with tho development of rapid means of transit and internal 'communication. that, at a period anterior to tho recent great where th latter is most prevalent the " development of our fishery, when a singlo owner " rarely possessed more than two or three boats, " and the masters were able to lodgo their appren - '" tices in their own houses.superviso their conduct, " and otherwise act towards them in ltco jxirriitU, " tho lads were contented with their lot, and repaid " by faithful servicj tho cost of their sustenance, "and tho caro bestowed upon them." This description, however, no longer corresponds to tho facts, and tho report of tho Committee indicates several reasons why the apprentices in trawlers are both loss contented and less well - behaved than they used to bo. L A seafaring lifo, especially that of a fisherman, is necessarily a very rough ono ; but thero is no reason why it should bo made harder than it need lo. Tho boys who bocome apprentices aro obtained chiefly from workhouses and reformatories, or elxo they aro lads who, owing to various causes, have left their homes and found their way to th seaports in a more or loss destitute condition. These lads are often lodged on shore with strangers of doubtful character and o responsibility ; they are left to choose their own society, often in the lowest haunts of squalid vie ; they are frequently apprenticed at a tender age for a long term of years on conditions with which they are very imperlectly acquainted ; and against injustice or ill - treatment they have no redress save what they can extort for themselves or can obtain from the honesty or good will of their masters. What wonder if in such circumstances they are often discontented and prone to take every advantage of a confused and ambiguous state of the law enabling them practically to cancel their indentures with impunity ? Very likely they are often troublesome enough ; indeed, it is difficult te seo how, as matters at present stand, they aro likely to be anything else. Boys will be boys ; and many of those employed in smacks are likely enough to be very lad boys. Yet their condition, moral and physical, and their re latino to their employers are matters of no slight public concern, " inasmuch," as tho report very pertinently remarks, "as it is upon their character, " habits, and competency and tho inducements " offored to respectablo boys to fill their places, " that the future conduct of the trade mainly " depends." It will bo seen that tho recommendations of tho Committee, which wo give in two, go a long way towards providing a remedy for tho chief evils found to bo incident to tho existing system, or rather want of system. They .fix a minimum ago for apprenticeship', as well j as a tiuurimum, period of service, they increase tho resionsibility of tho master, they specify the reciprocal duties of master and apprentice, and they provide tho apprentice with an official guardian charged to look after his interest in case of dispute. After careful and patient investigation, the Committee have co mo to the conclusion that tho system of apprenticeship is not in itself to bo condemned ; but they acknowledge that there is a great deal in tho practico as at present pursued which calls for regulation and amendment. Tho concluding paragraph of the Report is also ono which demands attentive consideration. It calls attention to tbo pernicious practice of " coopering," or tho salo ef spirits snd tobacco to fishing vessels st sea by smacks fitted out for the purposo. " Wo havo it in evidence," says the report, " that these " vessels aro floating grog - shops of the worst de - " scription, and that they aro under no control " whatever." It is difficult to imagino a moro mischievous form of the traffic in liquor than this, . .... or one more iraugni wiin uanger to lue, property. and morals. Sixty years ago, wo learn from tho report, trawl fishing appears to have been confined to Brixham and to Barking on tho Thames. From Brixham it spread to Ramsgato in 1835, and some - ten years later Hull was colonized from theso two ports. But in 1845 . thero were only forty trawlers of moderate size at Hull, while in 1863 there were 270, and in 1881, 420. Tho growth of Grimsby as a fishing port hss boen still more remarkable, ; it was only in 1858 that five smacks migrated from Hnll to Grimsby ; their number increased in 1E63 to 70, in 1872 to 248, and in 1881 to 625. A similar increase has taken place at other ports, though Grimsby has established its supremacy as the head - quarters of trawl fishing. The character of tho fishing, moreover, has changed as remarkably as its extent has increased. Trawlers were formerly of comparatively small size, fishing as single boats, and rarely at sea for moro than two or three days at a stretch. Now they are largely increased in There was a time when much greater results were expected from tho spread of friendly societies than bow appear to their best friends to bo probable or even possible. Those who once thought that they wero to do much to extinguish pauperism, to introduce new habits of frugal ihnd, generally, to alter the character of the pooFof England, havo either lost their faith or moderated their hopes as to tbe power of this agency. The chances of bringing about a millennium by the multiplication of Recha bites, Free Gardeners, or Druids, are but slender. Nevcrtbeloas, tho growth and prosperity of these societies, which hav sprung up of themselves without artificial encouragement, are no mean evidence of the presence of a spirit of thrift and independence. In the latest annual report by Mr. Ludlow, the Chief Registrar, are some curious figures which show that, though not likely to diminish in any very remarkable way the evil of pauperism, they may hare a whole some effect upon it. The members of non - registered societies amount to about 5,CG0,G00t Those who belong to registered societies are above 2,000,000 more. Mk. Lcdlow estimates that of the entire 7,000,000 members, about 4,COO,000 are males. Now, certain returns moved for lately by Lord Lymingtox enable ono to tell the number of male paupers in the workhouses of England in 1881 who had been members of friendly societies. Thsy wer 11,304, or 028 per cent, of tho whol. Considering that tbe proportion of paupers to the entire population of England wss then about one in 28, or 3 - 6 per cent., this result is satisfactory. The figures, however, do not put th matter in a Euflicieatly favourable light. The most important item in Lord Ltmjngtox's return is the number of paupers who have been members cf dissolved society, and whoso misfortunes in life may have bad some connexion with the dissolution. Charitable people occasionally hear pathetic stories of industrious workmen reduced to poverty by the breaking - up of societies to which they had intrusted their savings. Th conclusion to be gathered from Mr. Lcdlow's observations is that such stories should b carefully scanned, for though som of them may he well - founded, it is also quite common for societies to dissolve because the members think they hav got too much money. Two cases in which it was alleged that workmen had been thrown upon th parish - by this causa war exa - former are comparatively rare. But the best friend to such societies may hav his doubts whether they are destined to iacrease greatly. We do not say that their day is over ; seme of them msy have a prosperous future before them. But tkev aro not in tho ascendant. The Post - office Savings Banks have ousted them in some quarters, trade unions in others. Making every allowance fcr the fewer instances cf tho process of the conversion of societies into branches, there is the fact that tho total number, registered or certified, has fallen from 2,589 to 2,182 ; in other words, according to tho last returns there is a decrease of 407. All things seem to shew that the saving members of the working classes more and more favour building societies ; and for good reasons. To buy due's houio is a clear aim. It comes hsme to every man. To provide against sickness may or may not turn out to be prudent, according as one enjoys health ; and many artisans in good health, like men in all other grades of society, can with difficulty bo brought to believe that they will evsr be long sick. But every work ing man knows that he will always want a house. He does not hire his furniture, and he does not, as a rule, seo why he should hire his house, and why quarter day should continue to have its terrors It is a surprising fact, fraught with great significance, that the number of new building societies has increased in a year by 45 por cent. Co - operative societies are also in favour. But the building society tho society which offers to work ing men the prospect of becoming owners of their houses is at present by far the most attractive form of investment. In Middlesex, Lancashire, and Surrey, such societies havs sprung up with remarkable rapidity. It is characteristic of the hasty manner in which our most important legislation is passed that, though the transactions of these societies aro already of great consequence, and are daily increasing though they are mortgagees to the amount of 40,0C0,OCO the Conveyancing and Law of Real Property Act of 1881 was apparently drawn with entire fbrgetfulness of the existence of such societies ; tho draftsssen of the Act appear to have assumed that tbe only known form of mortgage of any consequence covenanted for repayment of the sum advanced in a lump and at a fixed period. So, too, as Mr. Lvdlow points out, the frame rs of tho Married Women's Property Act of 1882 appear not to have taken the trouble to con sider tho effect of seme of the words which they use upon building societies. Ve should like those persons who dogmatize about tho condition of the working classes to master the facts which come to light as to the position of trade unions. It would bo interesting to compare what was written and said about tbeso organizatioBs a dozen years ago with tbo narrative of the Chief Registrar. The worst possible consequences were anticipated from then as years went on. Their growth to alarming dimensions seemed certain ; they wero destined to overshadow, it was said, the whole field of industry ; and tho most doleful re sults were predicted as to the consequence of their extension. Most of us taa ako recollect that a few sanguiae spirits coBceived that these organizations would become the nucleus of institutions which would wholly revolutionize the relations of labour and capital to the benefit of tbe former. These surmises stand in curious contrast with the actual facts, as recorded by Mr. Lcdlow. The number of members returned in 1881 was 22,483 less than the year before, and the income of the societies which mad returns was nearly thirty thousand pounds less. We do not forget that not a few powerful unions msde no returns, and that they are subject to great fluctuations in strength and wealth. But, takiag account of this, we fail to see any sign that such organizations are waxing in importance. The evidence, so far aa it goes, is the other way. Why, indeed, should it be otherwise ? Why should sucn societies, born in a state of warfare, bo other than temporary phases of industry 1 They grew up at a time when the law pressed heavily against tho workman ; when the Combination Laws mad the odds in favour of th capitalist in any struggle very decided ; and it would not bo wonderful if their importance were diminished when truo equality had bean established. A Home Secretary with a little time on his hands would do well to look into the position of the unregistered friendly and. industrial societies of all sorts. Notwithstanding the inducements held out to register, they abcund ; they are certain to continue to exist; and legislate houso can be found which does not contain a wine shop, tavern, or coffee - house. The most respectable townsmen are dram - drinking from morning to night. Artisans and labourers are not worse than their reputable neighbours, although they cannot dissemble the effects so decorously. More than half the crime in the republic, it has been calculated, is committed under the influence of or as a court in tbe year 1797. He was edocated at Eton, and afterwards entered EalEal College, Oxford, where be took bis baeaebr's degree in 1819, and proceeded MJL. in due cjnrse. He was cnlained deacon in 1820, and admitted into priest's crier in the following year, and he bad been rectcr cf Tawtock since 1&40. The deeeaaad succeeded U tbe family hnnoan on the death of his half - brother ninth borocet, in 1879. Sir Henry, who wa a magistrate for Devonshire, as twice married - 8r ft, in 1827, to Ellen Maria, daughter of Mr. Nicholas Boundell Toke, of Godinton, Kent, which lady died in 18, and, secondly, n ISCi, to Jaae, daughter of Mr. H. Lamb, of Bjton, county Daraam,and widjw of Mr. John Steavenjon, of. New castle - on - Tyne. He is srcceeded in the baronetcy by his elder son, Mr Henry Eonrtrhier Toke Wrey, some time captain in tbe 1st Devon Militia, who was bora in 1829, and married in 1354 tho Hon. Marianne Sarah Sherard, only child cf Philip Castell. n:nth LcrJ Sherard. by whom be has a family. The third baronet married the third daughter and co - be iress of Edward Bcurcbier, Earl of Bath and Baron Fitzwarin. At tfce death of the earl tbe sequel to intoxication. Tbe only excuse tbe and 4 Barony of Fitzwarin tell into abeyance, and Las so murderer, whose conviction our Genera Corre - . remained fcr nearly two centnries. In right of tLat conld nlpad for his marriage present baronet is one cf the co - heirs ot t&0 spondent reported yesterday. dastardly offence was that he was drunk Englishmen are severe critics of their domestic institutions and usages. To many it will bo a sur - 1 prise to hear that English drinking does not equal that of a country like Switzerland. Some diffe - 1 rence must, indeed, be conceded in its charac teristics. Abroad the tavern plays a more various part than here. Foreign publicans continue to be licensed victuallers in the wider and more liberal a9 well as more literal senso of the term. They keep a public kitchen besides a public tap. Foreigners naturally live moro out of doors than Englishmen. Tho local tavern is the local club and cent rv of general recreation. Yet, after all allowances, it would appear that in Switzerland drinking absorbs more time and money than in theso islands. Our Geneva Correspondent furnishes reasons' for believing that elsewhere on the Continent the excess over England is as marked. Of recent years a general deterioration in this respect has been observable over Europe. Political and social excitement has strengthened the temptations which the public - house srstom holds out. Men havo become more restless,and more sensitive to acraving for means of ' Radicals. of the korogh to nominate iidat. .... .. . .. .... , , i as a protest against the aetion of the bon. baronet in Par bridging over the incidental intervals of depression, npon various questions. A cenfarence of memben In several vast divisions of western and central ' of the Radical associations is being convened toeonsidei Barsny of Fitzwarin. Fanny Catherine Ladr Knatcnball, mother of Card Era - boarne, died on Christmas - ere. at Provender, Favershaxo, Kent, haring nearly eimpleted her SOth year. She wis tbe eldest daughter of the late Mr. Edard Knight, of Gcdmersham - park, Kentutd carried in 1820, as bis second wife, tbe Right Hon. Sir Edward KaatchbaU,who died on the 21th ot May, 1849. As will be feen frost the announcement in oar rt column, Mr. John Bleckley, tha well - known composer ef piece for the pianoforte, died oa Sunday last, at his residence. Park - road. Harerttcck - hill, at the grrat age cf 82. Mr. BlockJey's name has long been associated with maay channin; melodies. He will, perhaps, be best recollected as tbe composer of aa accompaniment to Tennyson's poem The Brook." . ELECTIOX INTELLIGENCE. ' Chelsea. The appointment of Sir Charles Duke as President of the Local Government Board will cause a vacancy in the representation of Chelsea ; lut it is probable that Sir Charles Duke will be returned without opposition. A correspondent, however, writes : "There is no probability of any Conservative candidate's appearing, bat a strong disposition exists among the it is but fair to legislate on tnat assumption. I in power are not likely to Hitherto that has not besn done, and the Courts anxious to incur, the enmity Europe tho accident of tho vine disease and a dearth of wino has contributed to incline to tho employment of speedier, cheaper, and moro mischievous stimulants. In the canton of Geneva a bottlo of brandy may be bought for eightpence. The Canton spends 10 a head in drink. With brandy at the existing price an easy sum will show how tremendous an amount of prompt intoxication is procurable, and doubtless isprocured. Such sobriety as there may bo sup posed to anger even in Geneva among a section of tho people leaves a larger share of insobriety for appropriation by tha rest. Everywhere, as in Geneva, the addiction - to ardent spirits in preference to the slower and "dearer operation of wino is manifesting itself. It is a dubious set - off that, when the habit becomes confirmed, its signs grow less conspicuous. Half a population may be going about really intoxicated ia the senso that alcoholic excitement pulls or checks the strings of the judg ment, yet retain an air of decent gravity. Rather less equivocal comfort is derivable from tho reliction that, in this state pf things, the alleged connexion between drinking and criminality itself permits of question. With a people at large de voted to drink, the passionate, dissolute, and indo lent, who necessarily provide the criminal supply, will as necessarily be f. - equenters of the public - house. It does not as certainly follow that if tho publichouse had been closed thoy would not have discovered another starting place for their career of law - breaking. Our' Correspondent rests his remonstrances against the extent and continual increase of the Swisj habit of drinking on less debatable ground than the particular connexion between it and Swiss crime. Whether Swiss criminals be criminals because they are drunkards or drunkards as well as criminals, it is indisputable that an annual outlay on alcohol of 10 for each human being in the population of a great city implies an extravagant waste both of time and money. A habit like this expands, and will gradually sap tho entire vigour and prosperity of a population, unless means be devised of thwarting the tendency. An enhancement of education can hardly be the specific in Switzerland, and especially in a Swiss canton which is among tbe foremojt in cultivation and enlightenment. A dissemination of more varied and refined amusements cannot be recommended as a suro remedy. German mechanics and peasants are not like Englishmen of the same degree. They have their choice of distractions and have tried them all. Rude and rough an agency as restrictive legislation may be thought, tbo liquor traffic, once established, has hitherto yielded to no other. Sik Wilfbid Law son and the publicans occupy common ground in this respect. The only difference between them is about the nature ' and machinery of restriction. , In Switzerland t the trade in alcohol is as free as in mutton and ; ; sugar. A direct consequence has been a multiplica - 1 tion ot taverns in ten years by twenty - two per ; cent. If the Swiss people is to be preserved from imminent ruin, tbe Legislature must pass a new licensing law, or restore the right of local option' to the Cantons. The politicians be exceedingly of tha the question. In esse of a contest, th Irish electors havs already been oSciallj adf - ised to oppose the re - election of Sir Charles Dilke. on the ground that by roting fcr the - pnliion of Irih irembers, and in farourlof tte Crimes Act, tbe ha in office forfeited the support he obtained from the Irih electors at the general election." SALISBURY Tte Contrvatives have .rai.ed f jrmal.ib - jectioc to the sureties (Mest - sr. Read and AVhiteb rn) in the matter cf the election p'titian, ard January 11 has been fixed fcr.hfarirg erioVcee on the tbjeeti - jrs. Mr. Grenfelh tke defeated candidate, has now, it u understood, signified bis asert t the petition, and the inquiry, if it ekes ccme off. "ill probably commence about the end of February in Salisbury. A"e.T Cheshire. It ' ij generallv ur.derstxd t'attlie West Cheshire Liberals will ad pt Mr. David Duncan. Carton Hall. Nest4j, as fie fecond Liberal candidate f - r West Cheshire. Mr. Dorean recently aRncncced that if invited he would be prepared to contest the constituency with Mr. Tomkinscn, wh) has already unsuccessfully fought Weft Cheshire against bis c - usi, Mr. Tcllemaebe. M.P. A meeting of delegate fr.m the divMnn will ahcrtly be convened ts consider Mr. Duncan's candidature. SHERliY. TO THE EDITOR OF THE TIMES. Sir, On my return fnca Spain my attention hai been' directed to a leading article ia The Timts of Octorerl2 list, treating of tfii oVbposal for a commercial treaty with Spam, and I trust you will permit me tj make some ob - serTatiens upon the statements in it regarding aherry. Sir Robert Morier is stated to have expressed his belief that tbe demard fes, really good sherry already exceeds the supply ; but if hi knew the actual state of things at Jerez he would see reason to change his opinion. Unfortunately, tha Britisa public in general ran after a low - pried article, and thera are not wanting dealers ready to supply them with so - called bargains, ht neverthelew make good profit out of an inferior article. - Thus th - re Is a strong demand for common new sherry,' increased by purchases on French account. The price of such wine, - which, prttwrved with brandy, can be shipped at once, i elattrely much higher than that of superior o!d wine at good ard medium quality. Iht? " raorto," or new wine, from the grod soil, whlcl most bo krpt for years to mature, cannot at present be vl at a price remunerative to th - s vineyard owner. Tblf alon" would prore to any oae acquainted with the proceM of " brwHllrj up " fherry in the " scleras that tbe dotrand for gbed herry i not equal to the supply, for the leading shippers, who hold large stocks of fine old wine, would be only too lad te see them leaving their "bodegas" fast enough to enable them to purchase freely the " mostoe " axil matsrt - d wiara for replenishing the ,r solera.'." I soppese it will be taken fcr anjUd that the reduction of d - Jty on any article increases the consumption, and farours the importation of better quality. The duty on sherry, amounting as it djes. to 5s. per dozen, forms a eonsiderablo percentage of the price, aM were it reduced the consumer would get better wine for his money, to the benefit of his health, while England and Spain would both be gainers by the increase m tho exchange of their commodities in bjth quantity and value. I remain. Sir, yo.r vrry obediently. ALBERT G. SANDKMAN, partner ii the firm of Sandeman, Buck, and Co., Jerez. London. i Th GrusfAX Ambsssjdor, Count MQnster and tbe Countesses Marie and Olga Miinster feft tbe Ger - viait to the Earl aad continue to disclose the anomalous and unsatis - ! public aas of the Confederation. They can appeal factory condition of such societies. We greatly fear to tho fate of their recent innocuous Education' that a large number of organizations which have Act and their laudable Vaccination Act as evidence not been registered under the Friendly Societies , of the indisposition of tbe Cantons to accept social, Acts or the Companies Acta are little better than i reforms from Berne. There would, however. be roan Embassy vesterday on a Countess of Derbr at Kcowsley. Sijt Herbert MAcrtiEBsoy. The Town Council and citizeas of Inverness yesterday presented Sir Herbert Macpverrcn with a Highland cIaymorerand entertained him at a baiKjuet. Sir Herbert, in replying to a statement published in a Scotch magazine, that the 7'JJ were so done up be fon; tbey reached Zagazig that they sail to be ccn - Teyed thither by trvin, said there was cot the slightest , Jha.lo - o( Tout latum tor sucn a statement. He eiplainot Eyptua division was coming from Salahieh, andas he had only 20 hirsemea, a train was despatched for roiaforce - ments. As it happened the 72d were brought ia. but they were quite fresh and ready for anything. The AitcaiEAc)5RY or Cikjexcestek. The Bishou of Gloucester acd Bristol has atmointed the Ker - - , , , - I ' . " J ;...t,inr seated the clergy of tne diocese in Coavocahoo, to the new Arcbdeaconryof Cirencester, jost created by an order in Council. Mr. Uavwara is a late J - ellowof Pembroke College. OtfcrJ, where he graduated ia 1853, taking a fourth da's in Lxtfru HumanurUil. 'The Dza.x or Exrrra. Mr. Archibald Boyd acu v( vue t n uviiw uiir man rwioruia uuu iuo. iuwo niuu, uuwoci. iiu writes xo us irvuiuie nocei aexrance, v ienca,on JJecembe! outlaws, and that they might be plundered" with im - i nothing invidious for their own popnlarityJand "Ji11 re(erneo otDeaofJ (Dr.Boyd'sjilless . i;.i 7 L - i;S - : - ll.;!..!.!! - ".1."!10 g wa a fracture of tke nexk bow pUUJty. A" ua Mtvcjjr IWUXIWQ Q J.u. uiu . UJtu jmwu v iw f - w vyiuu I qJ IRQ tnigU, but show the propriety of a change in their status. It was ' takehostile hold of ,in an explanatory amendmeikof writes to us from the Hotel de France, Vienna, on December efert ainri tbJ FTnUy and has given no trouble since. The Dean had . . . . I L " . 1 . . . t . .... . . not UnT cm thA Oiin RatK T;;.; f K law for tha nnrnoaflof liaaitiniran inordinate JnHi. ol ronemns aoooi two mocuaago.Dat U11S also nas " n - a - - j i r r o 1 Tionl HDC ceased to trouble mm tnat a trustee oi a loan or mutual beneht society I ciai extension oi tne rreeaom oi iraae. me r eaerai consisting of more than twenty members, and not i Court has decided, according to its judicial duty, registered under the Companies Act, could not sue ! that the absolute liberty of trade granted in 1874 upon a promissory, note given by the defendant to tbo trustee ; it was an illegal society, of which the law took no notice. Tha possibility of such a decision is a scandal : and yet we have no doubt that such cases will be often repeated. They reveal an aitogetner lnuetenaiDie stato ox tnings. To punish non - compliance with statutory require ments is quite right ; and tho Legislature might well employ stringent measures., in order to make all friendly cr benefit societies come under a particular Act. But the worst possible way of attaining this is to give a licence to rogues to prey upon non - registered societies. Tho pro - sent legislation benefits bo ana hut the unscru pulous. Something simpler, a system more ia accordance with the facts of human nature, ia seeaaa : we anouia no longer assume tnat twantr or thirtr ahoemakers, calling than by the Swiss Constitution to all Swiss citizens includes absolute liberty to trade in drink. The authors of the Federal Constitution probably never contemplated tha breaking of all fetters on the traffic in aleohoL If it were in their thoughts, as there is no cause to assume it was, tha indulgence of half a dozen years has demonstrated abundantly tbe impracticable character of the experiment. By a grant to the several communities) which form the Swiss Republic of the jurisdiction they till lately possessed at least no violence would be offered to their independence. Any Canton which preferred to leave dissoluteness unchecked might figure, aa it pleased, as the drunken Helot of the Confederation. Each is large enough to govern itself in these matters, and is a customed to tbe task. No fear need be felt for Swiss Cantons that, as possibly might be apprehended in smaller sections of a bans of the thigh, bat this bone has knit together must wonder - Me Is now trior Burnt dangerooaly ill from aa internal complaint to which be has long been a martyr, and it Is the exhaustion das to he continuance of this malady which causes us to appre - end the gravest result." Floods rs WanwicxsHiar. Heavy rains havs fallen in Warwickshire and other Midland districts. Tbe rivers have in many places overflowed their banks and large tracts of Lrw lyirg land are wholly cr partially sub - xnerged. The CrxAED Lrxz. Yeiterday. a new Cunard liner, the Anrania, was launched from the yard of Meters. J. and G. Thomson, Clydebank. Tbe new vessel, whiek is bu:It entirely of steel, is of 7,500 tens grots register, h 470ft. in length, 57ft. in breadth, and 39ft. in depth. All tbe internal arrangements have been subordinated - to ftrexgth and rafety, aaJ there are no fewer tkaa 11 watertight bulkheads aU carried up to the deck. She will carry eaormoos sail, and will be independent ef steam shook accident render sach a course accessary. She will hava aommodation for 500 first - elasa passengers. Her f ore - castle is 97ft. long and hex poop 74ft - lac?, aad the promenade deck is roomy and wiU be dear ef danger, iaa much as the 15 beats will be carried high up. ATI the deckhouses are bcilt of iron, aad all the craemags tetbe engine and baler room are protected by donhlecasmgs. Tbe ship will be lighted by 600 Swan oleeefiaW aad: the precelling engines are capable of dmkqne aloe 10.000 hcrso - power. ' - v - ' r - p mart by tha Ccsateas of Eglistbat

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