Southern Press from Washington, District of Columbia on May 6, 1851 · 2
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Southern Press from Washington, District of Columbia · 2

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1 I SOUTHERN PRESS. WASHINGTON CITY. TUESDAY, WAY 6, 1851. ht The Hejjul/lic repeats iU accusations s^ninst Mr. Rhett of treason and perjury, for proposing the secession of South Carolina. Mr. Rhett, in taking his seat in the Senate, took an oath to support the Constitution of the United States, and now the Republic contends lie is for overthrowing it. Mr. Rhett thinks that the power of secession is a reserved power of the States recognized in the Constitution, 1 and that it must now be exercised to release one State froui violations of that instrument, and to deter the federal government from further viola iions 01 u as 10 outer nuiie*. It" the Republic speaks by authority in imputing treason and perjury in this manner, we must say that the abuse comes with u bad grace from the source that wrote the letter of " veneration" to Massachusetts. The Constitution was adopted to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, und promote domestic tranquility. The late compromise has established fraud, marred domestic tranquility, and depraved the Union, und has thus violated the fundamental principles of the Constitution. Submission to the compromise is either the support, or the toleration of this violation of the Constitution?in all who regard the compromise us at variunce with it?and that is the cose with nine-tenths of the people of the South. The originul confederation of these States was by its terms perpetual, and unalterable, except by unanimous consent. And each State bound its faith in the-most solemn manner to that com- , pact. Vet Washington, Hamilton, Franklin, Madison, & Co., deliberately planned its viola- 1 tion. They proposed a new system, and ad- vised the dissolution of the old confederacy, in t case nine out of the thirteen members would < combine lor tbat purpose. They accomplished ( their design. They actually disiolved that i Union, and left several of the States for some time out of the present one. North Carolina and Rhode Island, which had assisted in the common struggle for Independence, were left alone. Vet no imputation of treason was ever made against those disunionists. We would C like to know how much less treason (here is in 1 the secession of nine States thtjn of one, par- ' ticularly when they could not complain of their associates for oppression ? And which is the 1 most honorable, for nine States to desert two, ^ thun for one to leave thirty ? ^ Electro-AagoetlsM. r There has been no doubt for twelve or fifteen 0 years among scientific men, that any amount of power could be exerted by electro-magnetism, t But the difficulty has been that the cost was so e great as to render it unavailable for use. The j, following account by Prof. Page, of his experi- ? meiil the other day, is silent hm to the cost of ^ the power he produced?the only important item a in the case. If a locomotive weighing eleven tons, ran at s the rate of nineteen miles tin hour on a level, it * ]> would indicate about four-horse power, accord- ^ ing to the usual estimates, lie makes a double i, allowance for the friction of a new machine. If b correct in that, the power exerted was double. '' The Inlelligeitcr, in the preliminary notice of ^ Prof. Page's urticle, intimates that his power > costs probably a hundred times less than it has ? eost others. The cost of electro-magnetism a heretofore, has been about ten dollars a day per * horse power. If this is n hundred times less,it n is ten cents a day, which is as cheap as steam? v and the thing is done. But Mr. Page does not n venture to tell the public so, and from the size ^ of his battery on the occasion referred to, we should suppose that the cost of the power is ? still enormously greater than steam: Rxrin Progression of Electro Magnetic Power.?We lay before our readers a statement j from Professor Page respecting the Kltclro- j Magnetic Locomotive; and when we regard the j laci inr.i uie nignesi power ever auaineu ueiore his experiments was less thin half a hnrse power, and that costing probably one hundred times as ^ much as it does under this new mode of application, we cannot be indifferent to so great a resuit, and the high promises with which it seems , to be fraught : ] Messrs. Ed'Toks : The Electro Magnetic l Locomotive made a very favorable trip on Tues- i day last, more especially when it is taken into i the account that we were constrained to make this t trial with only one-half (or even a little less) of the power the engines and battery are capable oi yielding. Each engine, calculated upon the basis of my stationary engine, ought to give at the lowest estimate 12-horse power, which would make the locomotive 24-!ior?e power. The actual power I have not been nble to ascertain; but the following data may serve to ?ive some idea of its power. The locomotive, with the battery fully chrrged, weighs ten and a halt tons. With the seven passengers taken on the trip to and from BI.idenshurg the weight was eleven tons. Under the most favorable arrangements ri^hl pounds are required to start a ton on a perfectly level rail, and seven pounds will barely keep a ton in motion. Ordinarily, upon railroads the allowance is ten pounds to a ton, but this applies only to cars unincumbered by machinery. The friction of locomotive machinery renders its draught far greater, and can only be acurntely sscert anted by experiment in each case. The magneto locomotive, the first of its kind ever made is imperfect, nnd, from the newness nod stifTpess of all the work, it runs eveeedingly hird. \Ve will take 200 pounds, which is below the actual power required to keep it in motion on a level portion of the mad. A horse power upon the usual estimate is 160 pounds miles an hour, or 376 pounds 1 mile an hour. The speed of the magnetic locomotive is, we will say, 1ft miics an nour on ? ? *e< roan, has in tad made more,) and iU traction '200 ponnds. We have then J75 pound# 1 mile an hour for one horse, and 200 pounds 15 miles nn hour for the locomotive, which gives riqht horse power. But the euginchas inoro than thin Ithaa greater power at a slow speed, and must have, by all reaaoiiab'e estimates, twelve horse power; which, a# I said before, is about One-half its proper rapacity. One of the most serious defects arises from a want of insulation in the helices. After the engine was placed on the road it was found necessary to throw out of action five of the helices, and these at the most important point in the stroke. This difficulty could not. be reme died without taking Ixith engine* entirely out an undertaking for which I had neither lime nor means, as the track with which we are now accommodated is soon to he filled up for the purposes of Tile Railroad Company. Another se rious difficulty encountered was the breaking of the porous cells in the battery, causing a mixture of the two acids, nnd the interception of a large portion of the power. I had great difli cnlty in procuring suitable porous cells, and the manufacture of such as I needed was, after a great expense, given up by f \o of the best pottery establishment.) in the country as a thing impracticable, . It was, however, accomplished through the ingenuity of Mr. Ari Uavia, my &it I uineer, but they wore made of a weak clay, and have now, from frequent use, become ao uiucli I impaired as to break from the slightest cause. ; llefore we started two of them broke, and the I defect w as only partially repaired. Not far i >rom uiauensburg two more gave way, and doi tmeted at once greatly from our working |>ower. i On our return, about two miles from filudcnsburg, three more gave WHy, and we were reduced to at leant one hulf of our power. Tin) running time from Washington to iiladeiiMhurg was tliirlv-nine minutes. We were stopped on the way five times, or we should have probably made the run in less than thirty minutes. Going and coming there were seven stops and three delays?that is, the engine was backed three times, but without entirely losing headway. Jt is a very important and interesting feature of this engine, which I demonstrated some years since, that the reversing power is greater than the propelling power ; it is nearly twice as great. When the engine is reversed, the magnetic electric induction is in favor of the battery current, and augments its effects. The defect of the cells is easily remedied. The trouble growing out of the oscillating motion of the cur can all he obviated by using rotary instead of reciprocating engines. The greatest speed attained on our last trip was about nineteen miles an hour, and about seven more than in any former experiment. CHARLES G. PAGE. Washington, May 1, 186-1. J-gr*"i'he article from the Tribune we publish to day, contains the view of the Compromise, which men of sense in the North generally entertain of that measure, and which they would express if they were not unwilling to be heard by the South. Tho editor of the Washington Southern Press charges us with " diffusing ignorance." Fisher sometimes diffuses and sometimes condenses it. fn some of his articles he condenses-as great an amount of ignorance in a given spu?o as if he operated with u forty-uss power.?Louisville Journal. No doubt our ignorance is condensed into a eery small space?so as to astonish the Journal ?which adopts the opposite policy of con lending its knowledge into ? small space, and lifl'using its ignorance into a largo one?a pro:ess so easy that we bco a single-nsspower is mtficient to ell'ect it. The Franking Privilege ok Members ok Congress.?Severul senators and members of Jongress elect having raised the question as to he tiine when their franking privilege coinnenced, we learn that the attorney general has It-cided that the privilege commences with the errn for which they are respectfully elect ed, und hat so far us relates to thia purpose t bey are nembers of Congress by their election . ind aceptance before taking their seats or oatli of ofice, and the privilege is given to thein aa. inemicrs during their term of service, with.out any eference to the time when they take tl ,cir seats r the oath of office. It requires not the gift of prophecy to foresee hat dangers await us. He is, indeed, the blindst of the blind,who cannot see that we are fast earing a precipice, the contempt' .tion of which i too frightful to dwell upon. ( tliio, the great State of the West, is represent* si in the U.S. Senate by two agitators and Abol.itionists, Chase nd Wade. Ne** York will also defile the Sen. te chamber with another disciple of Sewardmi, in the person of Hamilton Flab, while Masaclmsett*, the representative of New England entiment, and the exponent and pioneer of Jew England politics?repudiates and insults er great statesman, and gives in her adhesion n this unrelenting war upon tho Constitution, y electing a man to the {Senate who is the cmodyment offevery thing detestable in politics, loruls, and religion. The next Congress will resent a bold front in the way of agitation. lever oeiore has the tvmute been polluted by ucli a number of c?nscivnce-ridden hypocrites ikI despicable demagogues, us will take their cuts in the i; ext Congress. There are Seward nd Chase, Wade and Fish, Sumner and Davis? ot to speak of inany others, who, willing to >ound, but afraid to strike?will now take course and confidence lrcmi the more daring and 'solute recruits whiuh the Into elections have laced by their side.? St. I,ov, s Timer. turning of the Steamboat Webster?Dreadful Loss of Lit e. Vif ksbCjec, May 3, 1851. The rteamboat Webster, Captain Samuel teno, took tire yesterday afternoon, and was turned to the water's e igo, at the head of Island Eighty-six, one hundred miles above Vicksburg. The fire was first d\swovered and the alarm riven about 3 o'eloek, and almost instantly afterward*. the boat wr.s enveloped in flames. The pilot, (Mr. lturkmnn, to whom great -redit is due,) having ahairge of the wheel, imnedintely endeavored to run the boat ashore.? 11 e was in part successful; but the flames titialy drove him from Ids post, and the boat being inmanogeable, floated ngivin into deep water, bus depriving the panseugers and crew from .lie lirst and last hope of safety. At the first nlnon a scene ensued which it is impossible to describe, and, mingled as it was with the burnirg boi.t, from which the flinn-s Were spouting u all directions, became terrible in the extreme. Many rushed into the flames, while others crowded to the side of the boat, clinging convulsively to the gu rds, until driven away by tlm lire, and compelled to throw themselves into the current. It w as with ditli-'iilty that any of the females could bs saved, many of them being separated from their husbands and friends. About twelve or fifteen of the passengers jumped trom the boat, and with difficulty saved their lives by clinging to snag* until relieved by t'w yawl of the vessel, and skiff* from the shore. A.s soon as the fearful truth was known by the inhabitants of the shore, three or four boats were quickly rowed to the scene of disaster, and succeeded in saving the liven ot several persons who were elinging to the sides of the hont. and to snags in the river. They were taken on hoard of the store boat Grey F.agle, Capt. J. I.. Cane, who did all that could be done to afford an asylum to the faw women nnd children who were saved. The nmnher of pas-ciigers and hands on hoard the NVehater wna about one hundred, of whom or.ly about sixty ran be found ; the rest are supposed to have perished with the b -nt The ateipner New Orlt-ana, bound for New Orleans from St. Louia, hove in sight about an hour dl'ter the accident, and stopped nnd took, most kindly, on board all the survivors, and rendered all other assistance that could be desired. The following are the names of the killed, drowned, burned nnd missing, so far as at pro enI known :? Capt. Samuel Reno nnd wife. Mr. Henry Harrison and child. Mrs. Ruekman, the wife of the pilot, and one child. : (ieorgo Rliss, chief elerk. John Cumplxdl, second do. i Child of Mr. Rob win, of New Orleans. Mary Rueknor, colored chambermaid. ! Henry, barkeeper, from Cincinnati. J McCarty, Lynchburg, and girl belonging to Met 'arty. | Several others are missing, whose names are unknown. The boat, papers, and money, were nil lost. The above statement was given by the crew | and passengers saved. ( citton is Liberia.? letters from Monrovia to the 13th of February, state that Liberia will soon become a I irgv exporter of cotton The success which attends its cultivation is beyond ihs sipectation of ity warmvsl friends. " t From ike Mobile (Ma.) Register. Willi my la?t number, 1 intended to clone my communications on the subjects of " non-intervention," the "Missouri compromise," and the "Nashville convention." The comniunication of "Lowudea" renders it necessary to tax the patience of your readers with another urticle. The position of "Lowndes" is, that the Nashville convention, in recommending the adoption 1 of the Missouri compromise line, violated the doctrine of non-intervention, and sacrificed the permanent interests and the just rights of the South. 1 have endeavored to controvert these positions ; and to do this, I have made extracts from the resolutions and address of the Nnsh villo convention, anil Itave luiiy expiaiueu vue origin and passage of the Missouri compromise bill. From these statements, it appear# that the Nashville convention recommended the South "to acquiesce" in the adoption of the Missouri compromise line, us "an extreme concession, upon considerations of what is due to the stability of our institutions;" and in the address, the reason for this acquiescence is stated to be, that although the "compromise is not co-extensive with our rights," yet as it "has been twice sanctioned by those who have gone before us," the South " might accept it if offered by the North." The proceedings of the Nashville convention hIiow conclusively, that there were " grave objections" to the adoption of the Missouri compromise line?that it did not give the South all she had a right to demand ; hut as the North were unanimous in the assertion of her rights, and the South were divided us to the " mode and meusuru of redress," for the sake of peace and harmony, and to quiet the distractions of the country.it was better, under existing circumstances, to acquiesce in the adoption of the Missouri compromise line, extended to tho Pacific Ocean. When Texas wan annexed, this covenant between the North und the South was again renewed, nod slave territory was admitted into the Union, under the restrictions and prohibitions of the Missouri compromise. This compromise was faithfully observed by the South until 1847, when the North repudiated all obii gutions further to respect or regard its provisions, and avowed the constitutional right to exclude slavery from all of our present and future territorial acquisitions. This right the South denies. Its enforcement violates the Constitution, and destroys the equality of the States. It makes a discrimination between the property of the North and the property of the South, that is injurious in its tendency, partial in its operations, and degrading in its effects. The assertion of this right by the North, and its denial by the South, have brought the two sections of the country in fearful and angry colli sion. The South must either submit to .the-e unjust exactions, or resist these arrogant usurpations, or these conflicting rights and claims must be adjusted by compromise. Now the question is, which course shall he taken? In the first place, the South will not submit. A portion of her citizens will cheerfully do so. They have been palliating the aggressions of the North, and are read v now to distract and dash the counsels of the South. But the majority of the people are determined not to surrender all their rights and privileges. They have some respect for the example and instructions of their revolutionary projenitors, and resistance to unjust and unconstitutional oppression is one of the first lessons they have learned. Unconditional submission then is out of the question. In the second place, should the South boldly and at once resist the aggressive policy of the | V^.tk c?? U, tk.it tko Jnnllnn ,.f .i?, I measure that destroys the equality of the Stutes, and interdicts the South from an equal participation in our territoriai acquisitions, wM bt*egarded by her as a dissolution of the Union.? In the opinion of many, this course is demanded by the feelings, the dignity, and the true interest of the South. But they are regarded as irltraists, disunionists and traitors. The idea of resistance to even unconstitutional agression, is still considered by many as rebellion and treason. To make this resistance efficient, there must be identity of feeling, union of sentiment, and conceit of action among ourselves. In the South we are divided and distracted, and it is tf part of prudence and of wisdom, to avoid alike the disgrace of unconditional submission 1 and the dangpr of unqualified resistance. This j was the opinion of the Nashville convention.; Its position was at once grand and commanding \ The distiny of the South and existence of the [ Union wore, in some measure, committed to its ! custody. It took a comprehensive view of our, wrongs and injuries, of our rights snd duties,1 and of its obligations and responsibilities. In I the spirit of compromise, and as "an extreme concession," the South is recommended "to acquiesce" in the adoption of the Missouri compromise line. A large majority of her citizens sanction and ratify the recommendation. .Meeting after meeting is held, apd with scarcely exeep'ions enough to vary the monotony of their proceedings, the resolutions of the Nashville convention are approved, and the adoption of the Missouri compromise line is rocom mended. Tho " olive branch," that was tendered hv the North and accepted by the South in 1820, is now offered by the South to the North?and hehold! it is rejected with unanimity and spurned with contempt. With the North, a fragment ot the Whig partv in some of the Si uthern States is found co-operating. The democratic party approve the proceedings of the Nashville Convention, and the Whig party generally are willing to acquiesce in the adoption of the Missouri compromise line. On what grounds do these " seccders" from the Whig ranks oppose this measure ? It violates, say they, the great Southern doctrine of" non-intervention*?the doctrine that originated with our favorite, (ien. Cass? j that was sanctioned by the wisdom of tho Haiti- ' more convention, and that was illustrated and defended by the genius of the South'* most distinguished and patriotic son, the lamented Calhoun. In 1817, weeondemned the proceedings of the Democratic meeting in Montgomery, because it approved of the opinions of ( lass, Dallas and Buchanan, who advocated tho doctrine that | Congress had no right to interfere with the " slavery question"?but that it should bo left to the inhabitants ot the territories to decide it; but those " aounil views" were not correctly appreciated by ns then. This doctrine is the " corner st' no" of our rights and safety, and now when its wisdom and j efficiency are appreciated and admitted by all, 1 the Nashville convention inconsiderately abnn dons i', and artnallv recommends the Missouri compromise, that violates the Constitution an,I sacrifice* the rights of the S uth. It is true, 1 hat compromise was forced through Congress ' by the influence arid eloquence of our favorite, Mr. Clay ; 'tis true it restored pence and harI motiy to a districted country, and settled o firmer foundations, the pillars of our govern nient; 'tis true we have always approved of the settlement, and ridiculed the scruples of those who thought it violated the Constitution: 'lis true Mr. Clay himself has said, " that nothing could l>e more to be deprecated than to disre gard the compromise, and to open anew the bh eding wounds which were happily bound up and healed by it but it violates the great doe trine of " non-intervention,'" and we strict constructionists must oppose it.. Well, be it so. I hope you will be " left alone in your glory." ltut " Lowndes says, it ( ongrcss were to i adopt the Missouri compromise line !>y the exi erciae of the constitutional power of Congress | by h majority of the mem here, it might niter wards be repented by (mother Inw of the same j body." I admit tho power, hut deny the rn;/i/ Would not such n change in the legislation of j the country, after a solemn agreement between the North and the .South to nbide by it, he re j parded by every one no n breach of faith ? It | Congress respected the Missouri compromise ! for 27 years, and the taritr compromise for 10 1 years, we should have some I ope that a compart more definitely understood, more formally guarded, and more solemnly executed, would he ; observed. The South will he true to her engagerueutc. 1 have less confidence in the North, but unlike " Lowndes," 1 am willing to trust i her once mare. An act passed under such eir- i cu instances may be repealed by a reck leas " ma- i jority," but euch a violation of confidence and such a breach of faith, would justify at once, a dissolution of the Union. Again, "Lowndes" says, that with the old | disturbers of the country's peace, I maintain, that " Congress lias the power to determine that some Stale* Khali be free and others slave," in other wordfc, that Congress hus the power to pass the Missouri compromise bill. My reply is simply this: If it was deemed advisable in 1820, by such men us Samuel Smith, of Mary- i land; Lewis McLane, of Delaware; Floyd, uud Nelson, of Virginia ; Williams, of North Carolina; Crawford, of Georgia; Win. H. King, of Alabama; Johnson, of Kentucky ; Williams, of Tennessee, and otheisrtn waive their constitutional rights, and compromise the question?may it not be prudent for their successors to do the same thing? If, when Texas was annexed to the Union, the North and the South agreed to adopt uud upply the Missouri compromise to that territory, may it riot with equal propriety, be applied now to California, New Mexico, und Utah ? If able, honest, and patriotic men could sustain tlria measure from 1820 to the time of Hie meeting of the Nashville convention, without abandoning the rights, or sacrificing the interests of tiie South, may it not done now, when the same necessity exists for the exercise i of a spirit of peace, liberality, and fraternal re- i gurd 1 Thei-e are plain questions, and I should like to see them satisfactorily answered. Congress, with the consent of the North and the South, can do in 1850, what was done in 1820. i If it had power to pass the Missouri compromise then, with the same understanding and agreement, it has power to puss it now. What doctrine is violated and what interest is sacrificed now, that was not violated and sacrificed then ? The situation of the country is verv much the same. It is agitated, distracted and convulsed now, as it was then. The stability of the government is shaken, and the Union itself trembles under the earthquake shock o. popular excitement. If concessions were necessary then, they are demanded now. "Lowndes" seems to forget that in making a compromise, rigli i can be waived. Concession of rights is the very ground of all compromise. In the ; formation of our constitution?the chart of our t rights and the bond of our Union?prejudices bad to be overcome, preconceived opinions nbnn- i doned, conscientious scruples waived and iin- j portaut rights sacrificed. Who regrets the Hacri- i lices that were then made 1 The North and the i South, the East nnd the West were required to i make concessions. Their preferences ana pre- I judices, their rights and interests, were laid cheer- i fully oil the altar of liberty, and upon the ruins < of despotism and oppression, the temple of free- ' dom was soon roared, with its broad foundations ( resting for their support upon the pillars of ( justice, equality and State sovereignty. i After all, the real issue between "Lowndes" I and myself is a very simple one. lie is opposed | to and 1 am in favor of the adoption of the Mis- i Houri compromise line, as the basis on which the i difficulties between the North and the South c ought to be adjusted. With an interested and I active majority against, us at the North, and u j dissatisfied and restless minority against us at c the South, we are forced, as I before stated, eithe- to submit, or resist, or to compromise. Under all the circumstances, I agree w ith the Nash- j ville convention, that it is the interest of the ^ South, although the "course is open to grave objections," to "acquiesce in the adoption of the " line of 36 deg. 30 min. north latitude, us an extreine concession, upon considerations of what is due to the stability of qur institutions" 1 HANCOCK. , _ ( From the .Wir York Tribune. , The Fugitive Slave Law.?The great battle ' of this generation, between freedom and slavery, I has been fought, and won by those ^vlio from ( 1846 to 1850. resolutely upheld, during all the \ fierce conflicts of those years, the Wihnot Pro- |1 viso. The contest on the proviso secured our 1 Mexican territories to freedom. In this great ' result we behold its glorious reward. We may t therefore, in the main, be content with tho fruits ' of that contest. Had it not been for the agita- ( tion upon the subject of slavery, and the powerful demonstration of the free Stales, slave* ' would now be washing the golden sands of t'ali 1 fornia, and barren New Mexico herself would be bowing in still more hopeless sterility before I the withering trend of African servitude. But, 1 thanks to the indomitable spirit of freedom in the North, the future millions who are to inhabit; the vast valleys of the Gila, the Colorado, the i v an Jon uiin, and Sacramento, have the unspeak- , i able boon of liberty for their inheritance. This 11 is the animating spectacle presented to our gaze as we survey the Held whereon liuve fought for vears the champions of free-soil. In this rich harvest true friends of liberty everywhere share, and may rejoice in its abundance. They may ' well regard it \\ iLli a proud satisfaction, and repose in tranquility over what is thus achieved ] for the cause of humanity. But the offensive lees of the agitation from which all this has resulted, is now held to the nostrils of the successful party in the contest, in the form of the Fugitive-slave law. As in the dispensation of Providence, unmixed good is seldom the lot even of those upon whom earthly blessings are most abundantly showered, so we should not wonder that the share of good which lias fallen to the adversaries of slavery, in this contest, should he dashed with an unwelcome admixture. But it would be the height of ingratitude, as well as theheiglitof stolidity, to fail to recognre and enjoy what we have of good in our existing circumstances, because all j is not good. The devil was in Paradise. Wp are not of those who are cut to the quick 1 hy the operation of the Fugitive slave law. It ] is wicked enough no donht. But we precipitate ourselves into no tumult of passionate objurgation over its natural operation of sncce sfully j returning a slave to his servitude. We rejoice ; in the escape of a human being from slavery, j We lament his seizure and return to bondage, j Rut we preserve th?* expression of our pro[ founHest emotions upon the subject of slavery, for the seasons of our contemplation of the monster iniquity, as its gigantic proportions rise to view in the shape of the three millions of our I fellow-countrymen, who daily rise in the nooning nnd lie down at night under the lash of the task master. Ft is painful to behold a single individual i'i slavery : but n thousand time- more bitter, infinitely more poignant to the reflective mind, is the thought of that stupendous aggregate of wrong mi AT-red by the millions who hopelessly t >il in the cotton fields nnd rice swamps of the South, In the triumphant march of the cause of freedom finally marked by the signal events alluded to, we find the liveliest satisfaction. 'I hat cause had suffered no serious interruption in it-* career, though assailed at. every step by open foes and treacherous friends Its course has been steadily forward, its conquests Ifneqilivocal and glorious The operation of the Fugitive slave law is hut the picking off of here and there a straggler by the enemy. Blit while even this loss is to he deplored, we can hnrdlv regard it otherwise than as an inevitable evil. The very net of moving squadrons through an enemy's country involves the necessity of loss The most fortunate and successful hat tuitions do not come out of a eontest unscathed. Let us count onr gains, and consider, hut not magnify, our losses. The violent ngitntions of the time upon the law will cease. and comparative tranquility i>" restored. while the rich bleasinps aecured by the friends of freedom. In the late contest with sla very, will clow with an ever increasing lustre, and develop from age to age in nn ever increasing magnitude. The law of ]8.r>0 must turn out to ho na in operative enactment. Indeed, it is practically nullified already, when it. costs, ns in (he case of Sims, five thousand dollnrs to catch and return h single runaway. But. if it is to lie anything | hut a self.nnllifying net, lying dend on the atntute ; book, its repeal, or eaaential mollification, ia in j eviUble. Its one hideous feature, giving to a creature of the government, railed a " commissioner," the authority to consign a free man to slavery, is too intolerable to be borne in any ! j long course of practic al enforcement. The trial j by jury, in every case involving personal liberty, , in too precious to be surrendered at the desire j or the dictate of any administration, or ai^ see- j tion of the confederacy; and the demand of | such trial in the case of alleged fugitives, is, : t moreover, too reasonable to b; refused by any { (Congress which shall approach this subject in a J j spirit of just regard, we will not say to llie fun- j | duiuental rights of the citizen, but to his well- | established and indub't^ble constitutional privi- < leges. i I'll us it is we, entertain no doubt that tho question of resistance to this law, now so rife, j and so distressing to all manner of cattle boat i feed at tiie troughs of trade and the treasury, so | alarming to aldermunie sensibilities and quilted ; velvet patriotism in general, and the cause of so | many lugubrious jeremiads and inate platitudes ] from gentlemen in high stations and in low, who ' think their political or pecuniary fortunes de- I pend upon sustaining it in all its parts and to j , the fullest extent; will, nfter merging i:i more ! | SUlMUlllll.il issues, soon lliuti eiiwrcijr mini oi^m. i , 111 Mr. Clay's elaborate treatment of the hub. j jects embraced by the "Omnibus," ho entered into ] this question of trial by jury, and true to hie own j ( instincts, and alive to what ho felt to be the rea- | non able demand of every clear-seeing man jealous , of liberty, he acknowledged that the claim of a | trial by jury for every person arrested was most i reasonable. And with his aecustomed adroit- | ne.ss he proposed to grant so much to tlio advocates of freedom. But be insisted that that trial should be in the State from which the fugitive was alleged to have fled, and not in the Stute in | which he was arrested. To this extent, Mr. t Clay, to be consistent with liityself, must even ( now be willing to go. It may be that he has j seen enough to convince him that it would be i , best now to yield t > a demand for such a modi- ; j fication of the law us would secure such a trial t at the point of arrest. , Impressed with these views and sentiments, t wo are content patiently to a wait the course of ^ events. We confide in the clain ; of truth, e justice and propriety, which sooner or later make t their own way in the world, and triumph over j nil obslne'.ci gr> at ;.nd small. Before those , claims nnnies ure nothing?men are nothing ( Wliere Mr. Clay is, or where Mr. Webster is, t on great questions involving the constitutional , rights of tlie citizen, or the fundamental rights l of man, is a matter that concerns them and their i reputation far more than the cause itself, or j ( inything or anybody else It is not within | v tumnn power, at this day, long to successfully j ? resist the right and maintain the wrong. As ? well might a inan attempt to gather the rushing ' ' voters of a river as it pours its flood through its j ] ieepest channels, as undertake to arrest and ' c onfirio great ^current of events whose springs j ; ire in the human heart and whose streams j n orever swell the tide of human progress. Blind i j jartisanship, interested advocacy, selfish and I L otten support of public measures, mark this t ige as they hnve all ages. For them we of ' r nurse liave no respect, and we entertain no I i ear that they can sensibly defer the hour of i v u hi lee, which assuredly awaits the oppressed I n fall nations. Truth is mighty and will prevail, i ( Invitation to Mr. Wf.bster.?The follow j ^ ng call appears in the New York papers,signed t y between five and six thousand names: i t ' 7b the friends of the ' Union,' without distinc ' j' tion of Party. , " In view of the services and sacrifices of tlie 1ui1. 1sa741&.i tv MSS'l'lMt, III jiiviihmijC j| he Constitution and laws ?<f his country, in con- N rast with the recent act of the mayor and aldei- r nen of Huston, in refusing the use of Faneuil s ila.ll to the friends of that gentleman, to con- ; ( rratulate eacli other on the recent verification | >( his representations regarding that ancient n joniinonwealth; and in view, also, of the re- ? 'usal of the legislature of New York to invite j v VIr. Webster to visit Albany, as the guest of' c he State?indignities cast upon that distin- t riiished statesman by Abolitionists, and others , jpposed to his patriotic course?the undersigned, , :itizens of New York, respectfully invite Mr. | Webster to meet them in tliis city, at some pe- v iod convenient to himself, in order that they \ nay express to him, in person, their deep and ? -rutcful appreciation of his devotion to the great s uiblic interests of his country. j " New Yonx, April 19, 1851." v The New York Ex press says: t " The signatures attached to the Webster call r numbered between fiv e and six thousand, and | embrace most of the leading men and firms of 1 the city. The listcould have been increased ten * or twenty fold had it been thought advisable to 1 do so. The original signatures will be laid be- I fore Mr. Webster by a special messenger sent from the city, under the direction ot a sub-corn- 1 mittce of thirty-ono, corresponding with the I number of States, and accompanied bv a letter ' urging a visit from h;m to the city. Mr. Web- 1 ster, we understand, will be in the city cn or < ibont the 13th instant, and w ill then probably take occasion to answer in person the compli- < rnentary invitation now tendered by so many of ' the citizens of New York, and which wc believe-, i expresses the sentiments of more than nineteentwentieths of the people of New York city." s The Rotation or the Earth. ? At the smrcr I held on Wednesday evening at the Russell In- I stitution, 1'rofessor A listed, at King's College, I gave a lecture on the supply of water to large I towns, illustrated by numerous maps and dia- , I grams, which was listened to w ith great alien- < lion ; after which, Foncault's recent experiment, 1 affording a palpable dcin mstrution of the rota- ' lion of the earth, was exhibited, and was con- I ducted in a manner similar to the experimental < the Pantheon nt Paris. The wire, which bus- j ' pended ft weight of *28 pounds, was of the size ' of the middle (' string of a piano. It was 30 ' feet long, and vibrated over a graduated table fixed to the floor. The rotation of the tab-.. 1 implying that of the earth on which it rested, | I was visible in About five minutes, and the won- 1 t derful spectacle was presented of the rotation of ttie room round the pendulum. The experi- * nient excited the astonishment of every be- ' holder, and many eminent scientific gentlemen ' who w -e present., expressed great delight in I witnessing a phenomenon which they considered i the most satisfactory they had witnessed in the ' whole course of their lives We believe this 1 is the first time that the experiment has been I v-uritiuH iii t I, i4 cnmit rv?Ismdnn Time*. An. 12 ' 1 initf.n statfs Mi?t ?f phaaditnifk? ! There was coined at this mint during the month I of April, $3,176,058 in gold, comprising 117,- ; 714 douhlo eagles, 21,170 eagles, 88,008 qnsrter eagles, 387,118 gold dollars, and only $24 1 in silver, or 2,100 dimes. The copper coinage j amounted to 1,333,676 cents. The coinage of the rew three cent piccoa has | reached to about $ 16 000?and ia progre-sing j rapidly. By inslri ctions from the department, one half of this coinage is t? he reserved for the assistant treasurer and government depo?itories in dillerent cities, who w ill, by exchanges and otherwise, introduce them into cireula ion. | The balance will he pnid' out nt the Mint, in 1 amounts of $30, $00, and $150. The issue will take place on the 8th inst. , | I luring (he month, $2,860 500 in gold was de- > | posiled for coinage, of which $2,785,600 whs j from ("alifornia. The silver hullion deposited dining the same time, amounted to $18,000. ( Tiif. I'i ius IixvAsiomsTS.?The New York I /',.*/ states that it has been ascertained from I aom? of the persons recently arrested in that city ' on fretting up the contemplated invasion of Cuba, that it was the intention of the loaders to t ateer direct for New Orleans, and thence to ' some other American port before landing at i ' Cuba. 1 ] iwrt iBfilir Miiim?>h im Pw. A traveler throsgh fte highlands of Peru foRod lately in the Dead* of ^Ucama, the dried remains of (in assemblage of human beings, seatid in a aenU'imle, as *ben alive, and staring into the burning waste before them. They had not been buried here; lift had rot departed before they thus aat around; but hope was gone ; the invader was at band; and no escape being left, thev iiad come hither to die. They still sit immovable in that dreary desert; dried like mummies by the effect of the hut sir, they still keep their position, sitting up as in solemn council, while over that dread Areopagus silence broods everlastingly. The scene is described by Dr. Kied, in a letter from Valparaiso to a friend at Rstisbon, to whom lie sent some of the mummies for deposition in the museum of Zoological-Mincroiog cal ! Society of that eity, where they now are. The j etter is dated from the old Peruvian fortress of; l-usans, on the skirts of the desert of Alacutua, j iiid is us follows: As 1 announced to you in my last, 1 am now in the road to Sucre, the capital of Bolivia.? Pour days after our departure from Valparaiso we reached Cohij i, from which the road leads for one nnd a half or two leagues (twenty eagues to a degree) along the coast; it then .urns towurds the East. The shore consists of oarse sand, and is hesprcud with fragments of -ock, which the frequent earthquakes have iliuken down from the overhanging cliffs. The irst mount .in range, which runt parallel with he sea, at a distance of at moat 1,000 paces, ises to a height of about 4,000 feet. The way jp leads through a steep ravine, the bed of an intediluvian torrent, and in four, or four and a talf hours, we find ourselves on the plain?in lie desert of Atucarna. I will not venture to rive a description of this waste. You may mngine, however, a vast undulating plain, vbereon no trace of life is to be seen, where no nsect shows itself, where no plant grows, where he stillness of the grave is only broken bv the noaning of the wind, where the surface of the sarth consists of a calcareous mass?out of vbieh salt and saltpetre, and similar products, thine forth abundantly?where a fine dust and l glaring refraction of the sun's rays make it Kiinfnl to look around ; and where, finally, here md there, as the sole proof that men hud once >een here, the mummies of mules, of horses, tnd of human beings, are seen dried and unde omposed?and you may have a faint pxture of \tacatna. After four days march I came to Calarna, a tolony in the midst of an immense morass, vhere the trnveller gives the mules water, and 1II0W8 thern to rest. One cannot possibly imtirine anything more dreary than this place, rhe marsh contains a sort of bulrush, and n iquid which has nothing in common with water, 'xcept that, it is liquid, and which it is almost mpossible to drink?and yet we must drink it, ilthnugh it p-oduces diarrhoea. This morass is he source of a river, which, nearer the coast, nnd inder appellation Loa, forms the boundary lieween Bolivia and Peru. If little channels are nade in toe banks of this river, their bed soon lecomes petrified ; and grass, bulrushes, and vhatever vegetation may be near, is covered with , crust of lime. In two days time I reached ^hiu-Chiu, an ancient Peruvian buryiog-place, ,nd here, in an extensive half moon, sit men, vonien, and children?from 500 to (500?all in he same nltitude, and gazing vacantly before hem?some fallen down, and some partly covrdTf with sand. One feels himself transplanted nto another world, and fancies that these ghastly catures ask, " What seekest thou here ?" The common opinion is, that, they were buried n this place; mine is, that they buried themclves. For, firstly, there is no place in the leigbborhood where they could huv'e dwellt; ecundly, many women are among them with heir infants at the breast; and thirtly, the siiniar attitude of them all, and the expression of gief which is still discernible on most of the ountenances, prove sufficiently that they had vithdrawn hither in despair when the Spair.ards onquered their land. There is, moreover, 011 he boundary of this desert a place called Tucu nan, which, in trio language of Ihc country, nouns, "All is lost." They had the belief that if they died, they vould be removed to a better world towards (he Vest, on which account there are cooking utenils found beside them full of maize. The whole eene produces a deeply melancholly impression ?on mo at least it had that effect. With this ou will receive two of the-e dried human icings. more I cannot Bend, on account of the na y difficulties, and the great expense oftrnns>ort. The cases for these two must be sent lither from Valparaiso, for in Oobija there is no vood at all. The people and the mules must he lired at the last-named place, and for each mule must pay from eighteen to twenty dollars. At the Northeast end of the coast 1 reached [.asann, a fortress of the old Peruvians. It is mill on a tongue of land between the two arms ?f a small river, anil appears to have been the ast plare of refuge whither the Peruvians withIrew when pursued on nil sides hy the Spaniards, rhe style of building is exactly similar to that if our old German marauder fortresses?the .vails being of coarse masonry, and the small ootns, holes, and hiding places endless and indescribable. No room is more than eight feet iqnnre, many scarcely five; doors two feet in teight; windows few in number, and those not arger than one's'fist' and with nil the whole own (a hundred or a hundred and fifty fnmilies oerhnps may have dwelt here) built like one louse, in which the greater part had to pass .hrough from ten to fifteen rooms to get to their iwn apartment. All this, together with the ivildness of the she, tho high river hanks, which >o cover this castle of the Incas, that from the evel of the desert one is not aware of its exist>nc.e?forms s .remarkable spectacle. An old legro, who has lived down by the river for upwards of forty years, told me I was the first s-hite man who had been there in that time. Fhe inliabitai t? must have died of hunger, for ?p literally walked on skulls and bones. Every loleand corner is full of them. I was unable .o find out the meaning of the word Ijisana. rhe language of this district is now unknown. I pot acquainted with n Bolivian officer, who' it the command of his government, had underinken the journey to the frontier of Paraguay His necounts nre very delightful, and he showed tie various medicinal plants, as vet unknown,of ivhich I will send you some hy-und-hy. An in-! iect which in Bolivia is found in great quanti-1 ties, and which intimity raises s blister on the I i in like boiling water, is used by the natives as i remedy for sore throat; and a plant which! noses much pain, is excellent for scrofula and j rheumatism. It is enlled jarilla (charija.) Hnd i leserves to he used. From this letter it will be ' seen that a stay in this desert alone could furnish matter for researches and observations for x \? hole year. I will only ndd, that through the very middle of the desert a mountain-chain stretches itself, consisting of naked rocks, of which I send some fragments. Everywhere around we see the broad snd deep beds of rivers, one of which fall three th< isnnd feet in the space of four leagues. The granite to the right, and to the left is polished like marble. Everywhere are traces of the gigantic effects of water, hnt no where any water, neither any historical accounts of rain. And now enough of Atacamn. May what I have sent arrive safely at its destination, and help to complete the picture which the pen of a passing wnnderor is too wenk to give. I ho sensation pro need by thorium or mono mummies is very different from thnt experienced when viewing those Egyptian one* which we invo hitherto been accnatomed to sec. In the latter, the reciimhent posture takea from the mrp?e nil thnt might eo? neot it in our mind* with the functions of :he living body. Like our iwn (lend, it lion stretched out stits full length, ihe hands generally crossed over t o hreasl, nor loos the coun'ennrce rotnin much of a life-like ?\prossion ; but in the former the attitude reiiinds us at 01100 of the time when the warm blood atill circulated through the now dry body, while the face hae etfN Itodietinot features, en^' in oaa-iaataaae eweWy,,U?^wN*#iF tense suffering. They do act MM fbr ia. tuovecWrom our owe preasot state at tb* embalmed nueonny of Egypt; by that eyMga'aa of hunten- suffering, and by tbeir erect fmtmki,' there etit! seems to toe link between atwMNMM. Hence perhaps' oar peinAil sympathy; while, ee we (im on the nbraehea forte thei, bath Mp thousand* of yearn within the P|iwiihh> ?M b at laet onawathed before oer acretinuluf apes, we feel, " between ua and thee there in no connecting link ; toe live, and thy realm ia death." And it ia juat because theae mummies of Pern do nut remind ua of death, that they produce an ua the impression which they do. T ere they ait before ua, inanimate and immovable, yet am hoc ia ted by this attitude and aspect with all the phenomena of life. The two niuuitniea at present in the num. tun at Ratiebon?of which one ia be body of a man, the other of a feirale?may than be described : The kneea are drawn up close to the body the nrina are pressed against the ribs, und in each iifatunce the right afm falls between tlie bent knees the ground. The body of the (nun is of it reddish copper color, approaching to bro .n; that of the women of n dirty brownish yellow. The nails of the ting ra and toes are perfectly preserved, even the iiuir of both still remains, and that oi the female is. prettily braided, and at the end fastened with a knot. The eyelids, too, ure in a good state of preservation. The heads of both itre bent backwards, as if death hud overtaken them in their present posture and as if, too, they had had to combat with exhaustion. The mouth of the woman i< open, giving to the whole face an expression which m kes it painful to dwi II upon; one turns away from it as soon as possible, and is glad to do so?Suffering, terrible suffering, is depicted on that countenance, und the last convulsive efforts of nature are distinctly visible. l)r. Uied, the traveller, from whose letters the extrude above quoted have been taken, is by birth a Scotchman. While still young, be was sent to the Scotch monastery at Ratisbon to rtrfive his education, and since, twenty yesrs, bus traversed the world in all directions, meeting with the strangest adventures, and adding greatly to our knowledge of the country, ana the people of the interior of South America. Ilis present journey was undertaken - in the character of inspector-general of the military hospitals in the free States of Bcl.via; and it was while proceeding thither that these letters, dated from l<asann were written. The Army ik New Mexico.?Col. Sumner, of the 1st United States infantry, is now making a short sojourn in our city, on his route to Fort Leavenworth, and thence to Santa Fe, to take command of the United States military force in that department. Without any authoritative information of trie order of the War Department, or of Col. S.'s plans, we huve reason to hope that important und beneficial changes will be made by him, in the location and efficiency of the army, and its influence on the prosperity, settlement, und security of that country. Col. Sumner, it is understood, will take out. with him six or seven hundred fresh recruits, to fill up the companies now in New Mexico. Ha will also take out n supply of fresh horses for the dragoon und artillery service; and we learn that orders have been given to take out improved slock, bulls, cows, hogs, &c., and a large amount of seeds, grains, &c., &e.,?with farming implements, and appliances for irrigating and otherwise developing the capacity of the soil of New Mexico. We think it probable, from what we can hear, that the head-quarters of the artny, and the position of the troops will be materially changed upon his arrival. There are now in New Mexico twenty one companies of the different arms of the service. The head-quarters will be removed from Santa Fe to Los Vegos.or to some point where the fertility of the soil will justify the opening of a large farm. Sufiicient troops will be retained in Santa Fe to protect that place; other portions of the troops will be stationed 011 such parts of the frontier, and in such proximity to the Indians, as will afford the greatest facility to observe their movements and cliastite their d 'predations.? Si. Louis Repvb. Hold Him is.?An editor out West acknowledges the receipt of an heir?a fourteen pounder, una 11 boy nt that. Somebody hold hitn?the editor, not the baby. Hour how he splurges: " I am this day multiplied by two?I am a duplicate?I am number one of an indefinite series,. und there is my continuation ! And, you observe, it is not a block, nor a blockhead, nor a painting, nor a bust, nor u fragment of anything,, however, beautiful; I ut a combination of all. ? the arts and sciences in one?painting, sculp-, ture, music?hear, hear him cry!?mineralogy, mechanics?see him kick !?geography and thei use of the globes ; see him nurse !?and withal,, he is a perpetual motion?a time-piece that will never run down ! and who wound him up ?" A French Work recently published,contain* an interesting account of the rage for gaAingat the Court of Louis XIV. Madame de Monte spin was in the habit of losing $70 She once bet $200,000 on three' cards and won. On one Christinas eve she lost about $600,000. A courtier, named Dnrgeau,, had such knowledge of algebra, that he calculated the chances during the sliufHing of thecards, and often won enormous sums by It. A Lawy er's Toast.?Belonging, as he said,, to the profession w hich had the reputation ot being fond of fees, he offered? Fee simple, and a simple fee. And all ihe fees in tail. Are nothing when compared to thee, Thou best of fees?Female. TELEGRAPHIC New Yon*, May 5, 4 r. m. Philip Hone, naval officer, died to-day between 1 nnd 2 o'clock. An arrival from Mntanzaa reports great excitement existing there relative to the invasion of the island. Two thousand troops were kept constantly under arms. The smnll pox was raging fearfully nt Rarbndoes and Martinique. The inhabitants of Grenada had held a meeting 111 op|H)Hition to ii farther reduction of the duty on sugar. The captain and crew of A British vessel, which had been destroyed by fire, arrived at St. Thomas on the 19th of April. The name of the vessel ia not mentioned. New York, May 5. Cotton Advanced one-eighth to a quarter? sales 3,000 bales. . Philadelphia, May 5. The supposed murderer of the Farbol family was arrested to-day. Ryan's alcohol manufactory, Southwark, blew up this afternoon by alcohol taking 6re, roof blown oft building shattered, workmen badly Injured. Proceeds of the Lind concert divided among charitable institutions, amounts to $6,550. New York, May 5-2 r, m. Markets.?stocks are steady. U. 3. 6's 1867, 117$ offered. The weather to-day has been wet, which hss< checked boainesa operations. Hales of 1800 bbla. flour, common brands, at #4,06$ a # 1,18}. Southern, #4,68 a #4,87$. Rye flour #3,44 a #3.50. Corn meal $3,00 a #3,12$. Wheat unchanged. Ryo 75c.; oats,. 46 a 47c. Hales of 10,000 bushels yellow oofd, at 05c. Provisions and groceries steady. Cotton is firm at previous nnotations. Whiskey 23 n 23H-ts. Phh.*., Mny 5-2 p. m. Judge Stroud wn? thrown (tut of his carriage this morning, and broke his arm. The tventhor hits been exceedingly stormy, which has checked business. Slocks arc dull. Sales of Penna. 5's at 93$. Flonr unchanged. Sales of common brands at 01.25 a $4 31. Grain without alteration. Provisions And groceries unchanged. Cotton remains unchanged. Whiskey, 23$ctr,

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