The Times-Independent from Moab, Utah on February 6, 1936 · 6
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The Times-Independent from Moab, Utah · 6

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Moab, Utah
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Thursday, February 6, 1936
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6
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- - -IIII " ' ! r I THE TIMES-INDEPENDENT TIMES INDEPENDENT- , . MOAB . . TJTAH UTAH TPPAA TPPAA- i I _ " i 4 4- THE - I j ! 4j THE "INVENTOR INVENTOR " " OF THE TYPEWRITER I I f i J By ELMO SCOTT WAT- SONIlrlJ WATSON- HL WATSON : a5 TIE HL ' c"cl ccl click " < nndand n " " clatter chlte . of- r 01- I of- i 01 of o- frj I j the Leys keys l.e le . , } s " were ere silenced 1 1as IlrlJ | nsas the \ visitors ISltors sisitors paused p'1l1sedp1l1sed ' be- I be- sIde beside be I side the desk from which which- the which- the which- 3J the noise came came- 'What'What What ' What are you , } you ou dolng'1 dolng1 doing dolngi- "I'm dolng- iIm ' ! ' ' uI'm uIm "I'm Im " ' ' \ writing rlUng an article on the time the- type tim- etype the- typevv type , . riter . " "I I " 1 know you are . . . . . . I can cnn "ee ee see "ee- that see- that " see- thatthat for myself mselt . } . . But what's whats ' ' It It- about it- about It- about"It's It- aboutIts about ? ' "It's Its " ' about the typewriter . . " 'Oh Oh "Oh 011 " ' ' ,, now I understandunderst'1ndunderst1nd ' I f ! You're Youre You're- wrJUng You're- writing You're- writing Youre- writing ' wrJUng writing an ' article 1rtlcJe ABOUT the type t\pe- t pe type- tpe- wrIter typewriter . typewriter \ - writer ON thetbe typewriter . But But- why But- why But- whywhy 7 ? ' "Well Well "lVell lVell " ,, you see , , February 14 hap happens happens hap- penspens to bethe anniversary of the the- birth the- birth the- birthbirth of or ChristopherChrlstopber Latham Sholes Sholes- and Sholes- and Sholes- andand he . . . " "Oh Oh uOh " yes , he was W'lS WlS ' the chap who who- Invented who- Invented wlio- InventedInvented the typewriter , wasn't wasnt ' he ? " That 'That "That . " ' depends upon what you you- mean you- mean you- mean ' ' be because because because mean when you saj say 'Inventor Inventor cause . . : . " ' ' * - . Yes , n a great gre'lt grelt ' deal does depend depend- upon depend- upon depend- nponupon the definition of that word word'- At word- At ' At least a dozen men didtliethe plopio plo- neerIng pioneering plo- neering neerIng work wort . that eventually eventuaUy re- re resulted resulted re resulted - ¬ - sulted In the modern high speed speed- wrlUng speed- writing speed- writingwrlUngwriting machinem'lchlne mlchlne ' andandeach each of them bashas bas- some has- some has- somesome claim to the title of or " "father father " of of- the of- the of- thethe typewritertypewrltcr " or to the honor of of- being of- being of- beingbeing Its "Inventor Inventor " . " Probably the first effort efYort to pro produce produce pro- duceduce a writini writing wrltml : ; machine " was 1S ' made made- by made- by made- byby an Englishngiish engineer named Hen Henry Henry Hen- ryry \ Mill l\I11l l I11l In 1714 A patent Issued to to- him to- him to- himhim by Queen Anne on Tanuary 4 7 ' 4- of 7- of 7- ofof that year states that he "invent invent "invented "invented "Invented Invented " ed and brought to perfection an ar art- lfic1al artificial ar- tiflclal tlfic1al tificial machine or methodfor tor the the- impression the- impression the- Impressionimpression or transcribingtranscrlbing of letters letters- simply letters- simply letters- simplysimply or progressivelyprogres.ively progresively : . one after after- another after- another after- anotheranother , as in writing . , , whereby nIl all nIl- wrltlngs all- writings all- writingswrltlngswritings whatsoeverwhatsoe\"er whatsoe "er er \ " may m'lY mlY ' be en engrossed engrossed en- grossedgrossed In paper p'lper plper ' or parchment so so- neat so- neat so- neatneat andnnd exact as not to be dlsdis dls- trngulshed distinguished dis- tingulshedtrngulshedtinguished from print ; that th'1t th1t ' said said- machme said- machine said- machinemachmemachine or method may be of great great- use great- use great- useuse In settlements and public rec records rec- orris rec- ordsordsorris ,, tliethe Impression beln being , : ! ; deeper deeper- and deeper- and deeper- andand mOl moie mote e lasting than other writ writ- lng writ- Ing writ- Ing lng Ing , , and not to be erased or coun coup counterfeited coup- terfected coun- terfeitedterfeited terfected without manifest disco discov discovery discov- cry v v- eryery . " Except 'CeeptCeept ' for this patent , . which Is Is- filed is- filed Is- filedfiled In the British patent office office- .there office- there . , tberethere is , . ho\\ ho how hoe however \ e\ e es eer \ er . , no other record record- of record- of record- ofof the principlesprmclples of operation of of- M1l1 of- Jill of- Mills M1l1 Jill s machine The same Is true true- of true- of true- ofof a writingwrltmg machine whicnwhlenwhica Is said said- to said- to said- toto have hae hale ha\ ha \ e been Invented In\"ented In "ented ented \ " In France rrance Prance In In- 178l In- 1784 178-l 178 l 1784 - So neithernelther Mill Mm nor this un unknown unknown un- knownknown Frenchman rrenehmanrrenchman have any ver very very- valid very- valid ) valid claim to the title of 'inven inven 'Inven- inven- 'Inventor 'inventor ' inventor ¬ tor " of the type1'1 typev\ typev type\\ type typevriter typewriter \ \ 1'111 ' riter ter . . First Claimant- The Claimant Claimant- TheThe first r.t rt : . real claimant to that- title that that- title , title " was "as as an nn American-William American William Amerlcan-William Amerlcan AmericanWilliam- Austin AmerlcanWilliam- Austin American - William- AustinAustin Burt , a native natne of Massachu Massachusetts Massacuu- fietts assachu assachu- settssetts , where he was born June 13 13,1792 131792 , , 17D2 1702 . , but a citizen cltzen [ of Michigan IichigaD In In- 2S23 1 , 1vhen ' \ When \vhen vhen he 1m ins Invented entedhis "typog typog "typographer "typographer "typographer typographer " rapher . " ' At any rate the record record- of record- of record- ofof his InventionInvenllon In the United United- States United- States United- StatesStates patent p'ltentpltent ' ofllce o onice lce declares tl.1at tl1at that that"this that"this tha- tthis . .tllis tllis "this this " . patent discloses the actual actual- construction - constructionof a typewriting pewrltlng tpewrltlng t\ t \ ma machine machine ma- chinechine for the fir flrbt first t time In . any .lny lny councoon coun- tr3 coon- try country tr3 try ; . " It then describes the worldnl working working- of working- of ; ot of the 'typographertypographer typogrn.pher typogrnpher ' . ' ' as follows : "The The " t type ) pe are arranged on the un under under un- derder side of a segment carried carned by a a- Jever a- lever a- lever Jever lever pivoted to swing vertically vertically- and vertically- and vertically- andand horizontall- y'rhe horizontallyhorlzontJ.llyhorlzontJlly . 'rhe rhe * ' . The.rhe rhe desired character Is brought brought- toto the printing prIntmg point pomt bY bYmo bymosing by mo\ mo moIng mosing mosing- this moving- this \ Ing Ing- thisthis lever Ieer loser Ie\ Ie \ er horizontally horIzont'llI tllI ' v to a position- over position position- over position- overover the same S1.me S1me . characterch'lrarterchlrarter ' In the In Inde in- des Index des de , and tbothothe Impression ! Is s made by by- then by- then by- thenthen depressing the lever . . Several'Several ' st styles ) lesof type may be be- nsed be- used be- usednsedused and they are arranged In two tw- oros two- rosss two- rows ro\\s ro s rosss \ on the lever These rows of of- type of- type of- typetype canbe shifted slmifted on the lever to to- bring to- bring to- bringbring either one to the prlnU1) prlnU1 printingprinting- point printing- point printingp- oint"The ) point point"The "The The " paper Is carried on anend endless endless end- lessless bandvhlch band which\vhlch vhlch \ tra travels trasels \ eIs cro crosswise crosswise- on < ; cwise cwise- on : ; on the machine andthis band Is Is- WILLIAM > r , J r r- rte rte- rte rteM rte- r - " M , k rtek r i ' ' 1 jy 1 I , t r r- t /t t / tJd Jd ) } 1 1r 1- WILLIAM r WILLIAM AUSTIN BURT- moved BURT BURT- movedmoved tor for letter spacing by tliethe 1m im 1m- pression im- presslon 1m- presslonpressionpresslon lever every time the lever lever- is lever- Is lever- Is is depres depressed ed to print . , ' TlieTheline space Is made by shIrtshift shIrt- Ing shift- tag shift- Ins Ing tag the frame carrying carr31n the prInting prInting- mechanism printing- mechanism printing- mechanismmechanism toward to\\ard to ard tossard \ the front or the the- rear the- rear the- rearrear of ot the machine , . the paper re- re to- to to- maining remaining re remaining - ¬ maining stationary"ink stationary- "lnh stationary stationary"Ink"Ink Ink "lnh lnh " pads are located at eachc'lch clch ' side side- of side- of side- ofof the Impression Impreslon ' ) point , . and all the the- type the- type the- typetype , . except xcept the one In printingprlntlDgprinthnb po- po - po- slUon position po-- Bitlon p- o Bi- tlon - - slUon sition , , are Inked every time the im impression im- presslon Im- presslonpressionpresslon 1I lever loser \ er Is depressed"A depr depressed depressed"A l > bed bed"A"A A " dial la Is provided wnlch wl1lch watch indl- Cates Indl Indl- cates Indl- cateacates the time len lenetb length th of paper pdper In Inches- which Inches- which Inches which hasbastins passed the thl printing point point- In point- In polm- la In printing eaclieach line , . and RDd as the the- operator the- loperatnr the- operator loperatnr , operator knowskno\\s kno s \ tliethe theIdth width\\Idth Idth \ of or the paper paper pa per being used . , the time to stoi stop . - A ' kw kw- irkirk \ , \ v ay ' AiM . Qyy \ t S'x- y Sx- y S'xy- d ' . , d aJs aJsra , FvF ra ' ' t Y w 1 , , y w'x ' Q ' w 'x x iiw .etc etc . a a- G v vr r G a f , ts 4 4- a' ki k- its : a A f ' - ' v \ , jpr ' a aa v a " , - vS S \ \ Ww WwY Y i i- Ww 2 2- aa I . , a s m r r- ff tA'N tAN tA'N- b ' b M ' b r- t . . ; W W- .m l , ' .m m . Miss Eileen Donohue as she appeared , in the costume of the seven . ties , In a skit presented by the New York Y . W . C . A . as a part of the the- celebration the- celebrationcelebration in 1933 to mark the sixtieth anniversary of the invention of of- the of- thethe typewriter and the entrance of women Into themodern business business- world business- worldworld . The typewriter shown In this picture is the original model per- per perfected perfected - fected by Christopher Latham Sholes from which thefirst manufacturedmanufactured- machine manufactured- machinemachine was copied . printing at the endof the line Is Is- IndicatecJ is- indicated Is- Indicated IndicatecJ indicated " Principle Rever'sed- This Revei'sed- This ReversedRever'sedRevei'sedReveised Reversed- This ' ' This IndicatesIndlcates that the prinelprlnel prinel- pIe prlnel- pie princi- pie pIe of Burt's Burts ' machinemaclune was tliethe Ie re re- serse ie- verse serse \ erse of that on modern machineb- In machines- In machlDemachines In the typographer pographer 'typographer ' t " the type type- moved type- moved type- movedmoved at the imprint of each letter letter- until letter- until letter- untiluntil the end of the ] line lne was was- leached was- reached was- leachedleachedreached and , instead Inste'ld Insteld ' of returning returnlnJ returnlnJ- the returning- the ; the carriage carnage , as is done on a mod modern mod- era mod- ernern era typewiiter typewl1ter typewriter ,, the frame carrying- the carryIng carryIng- the carrying- thethe printingprlDting mechanism \ was as shifted shifted- bact shifted- back shifted- back bact back . to the stallingstarting stal tlng point \ while sslillehlle the the- paper the- paper the- paperpaper lts Itself lt remained motionless- Burt motionless- Burt motionless motionless- BurtBurt obtainedobtamed type for his mil ma mil- chIne machine ma- chinechIne from John SbeltonShelton , editor and and- proprIetor and- proprietor and- proprietor proprIetor ofthe Detroit Gazette Gazette- and Gazette- and Gazette- andand SlieltonShelton on : May 25 , 1829 1820 1329 , . wrote wrote- the wrote- the wrote- thethe first letter on the new con con- traptlOn contraption con- traptiontraptlOntraption It \ was as addressed to Mar Martin Martin Mar- tintin Van Buien BUlen Buren , thenthea secretary of of- state of- state of- statestate , and said : "This This " Is a specimen of prInting prInting- done printing- done printing- donedone by me on Mr . BurtBurts 3 s typog typographer typog- rapper typog- rapherrapher rapper . You " will "Ill Ill observe obsene obserse some In Inaccuracies inaccuracies Inaccuracies accuracies In the situationsltu'ltlonsltultlon ' of the the- letters the- letters the- lettersletters These aieale owing to the time the- Imperfections tim- eimperfections the- ImperfectionsImperfections of the machine ; It It- havIng it- having It- havinghavIng been made m'1de m1de ' In the woods woods- of \ woods- of oods oods- ofof Michigan , wheiewhelcwhere no piopciplopel proper tools tools- could tools- could tools- couldcould be obtained by the time In-rentor In rentor inventorinventor- who - , who \ ho ,, In the time construction of It It- merely , merely wished to test the time plillCI piinci plillCI- pies piinci- pies pilnci- piespies ofIt , therefoie therefol e . , takingtab.lngtablng . lIttle ImttlelIttle- falDs Imttl- erains little- rains falDs rains In making mab.ing mabing . It I am saUsHed satisfied saUsHed- from satisfied- from satisfied- from from my hno\\ hno knowledge hnoledge \ ledge of the prlDtlngprinting prlDtlng- business printing- business printing- businessbusiness as well as fromthe time oper'l operl opera oper'l- tIon opera- tlon opera- tlon ' tIon tlon of the IOU6h rough lou h machinemachlae , . with with- sshich with- which sshich \ hlch I am printingpllntIng , . that tliethe typog typographer typographer typog- rapherrapher \ will well III be ranked with the the- most the- most the- mostmost novel no\el no el noiel \ , useful and pleasingpleasmg In in- sentions In- icntlons eoUons sentions \ of the age " On July 23 , 182'J182J 18291329 ' , patent No 2GO 2692G- Osigned 269- signed 2G- 9signed signed by President Andrew Jacl\ Jacl Jack Jaclson Jackson Jackson \ . son and Secretary VanBuren , wawas was- granted wa&- granted wa- granted & : . granted to Burt for his 'typo typo ' typo typO- slapher , lapherrapher " The original model of the the- machine the- machine the- machine machine \ was ssas as lost in thefire ofDe De- DoDe- cember December . ¬ cember 15 1G , 1836 , whichwhicb destro destroyeddestroyed- the destroyed- the . } ed ed- thethe patent othceollice office and all Its con contents contents contents conte- ntsFound tents tents- Found tents- FoundFound No Market . Burt's Burts ' Invention 1m entton was so far In- advance In in- advanceadvance of the times Urnes that tl1at it foun found found- no found- no no marketmarhet , so heturned his atten atten- tlon attention atten- tlontlontion to other things Among them them- was them- was them- waswas thetbe 1m ins Invention entton ention of the solar COin cow cow- pass COin- PIlsS coin- pass PIlsS pass , . an Instrument which wlmlch reme reme- dIed remedied reme- dieddIed variations of a magnetic magnetic- neellle magnetic- needle magnetic- needleneellleneedle , due to local causes , and his his- Interest his- interest his- Interest Interest in InternalInternai Improvements in in- Michigan In- Micbloan Uchiban Michigan territory . , Ibe 'lbe lbethe ' latter In Included In- eluded in- eludedcludedeluded a project for a canalaround around- the around- the around- thethe falls in St . Mary's Marys ' rh river riser er , the the- forLFunner the- forerunner the- tornunner forLFunner forerunner ? of the pre present ent canal at at- Sault at- Sault at- SaultSault St Marie , so Burt's Burts ' fame as- 'Father as as- Father Father'Father ' of the Soo Canal ' Is se secure secure se- curecure e\ e even een esen \ en It tr if his right to the tItle tItle- of title- of title- ofof "Father Father"rather rather " of the Typewriter '' has has- never has- never has- nevernever been firmly est'1bl1shed- During establisbed- During established est'1bl1shed est1bl1shedestablisbedestablished- During ' During the ne next neatt few years anum anum- ber a num num- her num- berberher of \ wiltingwriting lltlng machines of one sorl sort sorl- or sort- or son- oror another made their appearanceappearance- The appearance- The appearance- TheThe first ofthesetbese , and one which which- showed which- stmosved whicli- showedshowed stmosved a nearer approach (0 0 { ( o tht thetht- modern the- modern tlu- modernmodern t typewriter pewrlter , \ was as Charles Charles- Thurber's Charles- Thurber's Charles- Thurber's Charles- Thurbers Thurber's Thurbers ' printer which svhich he patent patented patented patent- eded August 20 26 , 1843- The 1343- The 18431343 1843- TheThe firstmachine to use con contin continuous continuous tin tin- uousuous roll paper feed , Instead of an an- endless an- endless an- endlessendless strip of tape , . as originated orlgh1'1ted orlgh11tedoriginlteil ' by Burt , , " was "olS olS Invented by John B B- Fairbanks B- Fairbanks B- FairbanksFairbanks , who produced bishis "pho pho "phonetic "phonetic " "phonetic phonetic " netic ' writing machine , patentedpatented- September patented- September patented- SeptemberSeptember 17 , I8jO- On 1850- On 1810 I8jO 1850 1810- OnOn May 20 , 18 18oG . > 0 G ,, John H B Coop Cooper Coop- erer patented patente a writingwrlUng machine tshlcli tshlcli- exhibited \ which- exhibited hleh hleh- exhibitedexhibitedfor tor the first time the the- principle the- principle tho- principleprinciple of hammerhammcr printing against against- aa " wheel "heel heel or dl dibc disc e . , which correspondscorresponds- very corresponds- very corresponds- veryvery closely clo'3elyclo3ely ' to the modern type type- vrlting typewriting type- writing\vrlting vrlting writing \ machine- In machine machine- InIn June , ISTiO lBiO 13.50 1350 : . , Alfred E B Beach Beach.- editor Beach- editor . , editor of ot the Scientific American American- brought American- brought American- broughtbrought out a mechanical writer writer- whose , . whose principle principlefiS was \\-fiS fiS ssas \ - to record- raised record record- raised record- raisedraised letters Instead of or prInting prInting- them printing- them printing- themthem It contained the firstall align align- went alignment n n- mentment went of type barshars in a circle ' ,, de de- IIvcrlng de- livening de- llveringIIvcrlnglivening their ImpiesslonImplesslonimpression ona "om om nom "om- mon nom- mon , " uia- mon ) mon center . First Portable Portable.- In Portable- In . InISm 17 18T & ; 7 , . Dr . S W I 1 t rands rnnei'i rnneii ravels ' () of f NcwNew Ncw- Yorl New- York Now- York Yorl York added to this form of writing writing- machine writing- machine writing- machinemachine the pianoforte ke keyboaril keyboaril- action keyboard- action , ) boarl ' action for tor the first time This This- greatly This- greatly This- greatlygreatly simplified the methodof of- striking of- striking of- strikingstriking the keys . In 18G1 lSG11361 , Thomas Hall H'111H111 ' of New New- York New- York New- YorkYork , who Is said to have ha\e ha e \ perfectedperfected- the perfected- the perfected- thethe first portable 'portable ' " typewriting ma machine machine ma- chinechine , a model of ot ' a larger Instru Instrument instru- meat Instru- mentmentmeat on which he " was "as as workingwor1.ingwor1ing . , was was- the wast- ime was- thethe time first to use an Inked Inl.ed Inled . ribbon for for- lecordmg for- recording for- lecordmglecordmgrecording the letters and characters character " , . . In the m me meantime ; > antlmeantime another Amerl AmenlAmerl- cnn Amenl- can Ameri- cancnncan , 11in lisin 11\ 11 living \ in . ; , In EnglandLngland , \ was \ as "orklng orklng working " working- on "orklng- onon an Invention " which hlch was to have- a base- a ha\ hahae base ha- a \ e a direct hearingbearing upon the dc\ dc dcclop develop develop- meat development \ clop clop- mentmentmeat ofthe t ) typewriter pewriter in Its prespros present pros- eat pres- entent eat form and to give ghe gise him a strong strong- chlm strong- claim strong- claim chlm claim to the time title of 'Inventor Inventor ' of of- the of- the of- thethe t3 typewriter perHer pe\\ pe \ rHer " He lIe was John John- Pratt John- Pratt John- PrattPratt , born In UnloD\ UnloDUnlonville UnloDme Unionville \ me , S C C- Aprl1 C- April C- April Aprl1 April 14 , 1831 , andnnd for several ye'lrs yelrs years ye'lrs- after years- after years- after ' after his hlS graduation from Col.es Coles Cokes Col.es- bury Cokesbury Cokesbury . bury college In 1849 1549 , a JournalistJournalist- and journalist- and journalist- andand lawyer 1vcr fawver 1\ 1 ' \ " vcr In the South- In South- In South South- InIn 1864 ISM Pratt and anal his ss \ wife \ Ife w " went "ent ent ent to to- Dngland to- EnglandDngland nghnd ,, where he devoted his atten atten- tlon attention atten- tlontlontion to perfecting a ss \ writingrltmg machine machine- "hlch machine- w machine- which "hlch hlch w " hichhe calledc'llled cllled ' the "pterotvpe pterotvpe " ' " for for- "hleh for- ss for- which "hleh hleh ss " hich hebe was ( ; granted ranted a BritishBrltlsh patent patent pat ! ent In 18GG lSGG 1366 AccordingAccorchng to thetbe Na Na- tlon'11 National National tlon'11tlon11 tional ' 03 Cyclopaedia clopaedla of American American- mograph American- Biography American- Biography mograph Biography , which wh1ch calls him the "In In "Inventor "inventor "Inventor Inventor " ventor of the t typewriter perlter pe\\ pe \ \ rlter " and whIch whIch- says which- says which- sayssays that his was'the wasthe was W'lS WlS ' ' thefirst ssorking ssorking- typewriter \ working- typewriter \ orhlng orhlng- t3 pewrlter typewriter t3 thattbat e\ e ever eer eser \ er secured a a- sale a- sale a- salesale , " P-ratt P ratt PIattPratt - claimed four operationsoperations- asas requisite to the accompllsbmentaccomplishmentaccomplishment- of accompllsbment- ofofhis purpose They weie weae " el e : "That That "chat chat " .rhat rhat . It was necessary to bring bring- anyone bring- any bring- any anyone any one of a number of tvpes t\pes t pes tspes \ at the time the- wiII tim- ewill the- will wiII will of the theopeiator opel opeiator ator . , and In arbitr'lryarbitrlryarbltrary arbltrary- succession arbitr'lry- succession arbitrary- succession ' succession , to common point ; to to- form to- form to- formform a colored or other leglblelegible leglble- character legible- character legible- charactercharacter at that common point ; to to- feed to- feed to- feedfeed the paper p'lper plper ' across the common common- point common- point common- pointpoint so asae ; tojmke tomake to .n11he n11he . proper Interv'lls Intervlls intervalsInterv'lls- bet intervals- between Intervals- between ' beteen betweenbet\\ bet \ een the letters and the words ; to prepare a de\ de device deIce \ Ice for brln bringing ln the the- pnper the- paper the- paperpnperpaperreadilyre'1dilyre1dily ' and speedily backb'lc1 blc1 ' . to to- its to- its to- itsits startingst'lrtlngstlrtlng ' point , . with an inten internal internal- betsseen Interval- between al al- betbetbetsseen " een the lines- In lines " In lSG 18G71SG7 his machine ID'lchlne IDlchlne ' " was "fiS fiS e\hlblted e hlblted ehlblted- before e exhibited- before ' ' \ : hihited hihited- beforebeforethe time Society of Arts and a a- paper a- paper a- paperpaper readrend by lhy the Inventor before before- that before- that before- thatthat society " was as printed In Its jonrjour jonr- nnl journal journal nnl nal In that same year also he he- made he- made he- mademade and sold several of his ma nia machines nia- chines nia- chineschines In la London , among the pur purchasers purchasers pur- chaserschasers being Sir Charles Wbe'lt Wbelt Wheat Wheatstone Wheatstone Wbe'lt- stone ' stone and Dr Bence Jones , the time au author author au- thorthor of a "Life Life " of raradayFaraday Faraday"Three Faraday- Three . " Three "Cranks Cranks " " But more Important still In the the- hItory the- history the- history hItory history ' ) of the typewriter \ was ns the the- f'lct the- fact the- factf'lct flct fact ' that during the time " winter Inter of lSGG 1366 lSGG- G7 1800- G7G7 67 in a littleuttle machine shop In the the- outsl.lrts the- outskirts the- outskirtsoutsl.lrtsoutsllrtsoutskirts . ofthe time clt city clts , of lIIlwaub.ee- Wis Milwaukee- Wis \ Milwaukee l\IIlwaub.ee lIIlwaub.ee l IIlwaub.ee IIlwaubee . WIs Wis , . "three three " middle aged , thoughtful- and thoughtfulthoughtful- and thoughtful- andand h'1.rdh1.rd h1rdhard hardworking ' . working menloohed men , looked upon upon- as upon- as upon- asas "cranks cranks 'CfanhsCfanhs 'cranks " ' ' by tlicir their neighbors , were were- each \ were- each \ ere ere- e'lche'lch elch each ' bardhard at work "orh orh " on a pet im ins Inven- tlon en en- tion en- tiontion of his own " So snvs sn\s sn s sass \ 'The The 'The- Story 'The- Story The- Story ' 3toryStory ' of the Typewriter ' . issued bs bs- the b by- the , the HistoricalHlstorlcnl society of HerhlmerHerkimerHerhlmer- county Herkimer- county Herklmer- countycounty . , New York Yorl , In 1923 It con con- tlnues continues con- tinuestlnuestinues : "One One " One ofthese men , ChrIstopherChristopher- I ChrIstopher- rr I athamath'lm athlm ' Sholes , a printer and ne\\ ne nes news ne- paper newspaper newspaper \ \ s paper man , was engaged In develop develop- Ing developing developing Ing amachine for numbering serl'll serlll serial serl'll- Iy serially serially ' Iy ly the pages ofblank blnnl . booksboohs In this this- nor1 this- work this- work nor1 work . he had Interested one of the time the- othels tim- eothers the- otheisothels others , Samuel S'1l11uel S1l11uel ' W . Soule \ while \ hllethe the- third the- third the- thirdthird of the group CariosCarlos Glidden Glidden- put Glidden- put Glidden- putput In his time ( tiyinghying tying to Invent a a- mech'1nlcal a- mechanical a- mechanicalmech'1nlcalmech1nlcalmechanical ' 'spader spader ' ' to take t'1he t1he ' the the- plnce the- place the- place plnceplace of a 1 ' plow Chance Ch'1nce Ch1nce ' caused c'tl1sed ctl1sed ' these three men to drop the Inven Inven- Uons inven- ions Inven- tlons Uons ions ( on " which "hlc.h hlc.h hlch . they had been work work- tag \ work- In ort . Ing tag ? and to pool their Interests In a anew anew a- newnew and far greater undertaking"According undert'1Ilng- "According undertakingundert'1Ilng undert1Ilng undertaking"According ' , "According According " to one story , the Idea Idea- arose idea- arose Idea- arosearose out of a remark made bv by GildGlid Gild- den Glidden Gild- denden while the paging machine wawas was- nearing wa- nearing ? ne.trlng netrlng nearing . completion : 'Why Why .Why ' . c'lnnol clnnol cannot cannot- such cannot- such ' 3l1ch such ' a maclilnemachine bemade that111 ( that lint \\111 111 will will- write \ vvll- lwrite 11- 1write write Ictteislcttelsletters nndand words andnnd not n fig figures O- Rurcs ures only7only ? ' A subsequent article In Inthe in- the In- thethe Scientific AmerK.an AmerKan AmerllanAmerican . describing describing- the describing- the describing- thethe model Dlodel of the pterotype .pterotype 'pterotype . ' ; , ' a m'1 m1 ma machine m'1- chIne machine ' chIne de designed ined , . : for just ; suchfuch a n purpose pur par purpose par- posepose hutbut neverperfected , camcamecause as as'a- as- an ns- an an n ' an additional su suggestion g ( > stlon to ihemthem ihem- Then * ' Then a chnncechance visit to the 1\111 1 111 Mil Milwaukee 111- 1wauhee \ Milwaukee wauheewaukee machine mac.hine . shop of one WIl 'Vii Vii WIl- lIam 'Vii- lain ' WII- Ham ! lIam lain GLaDue G LaDue Lanue . , " who "ho ho hadhall Imad for many many- y m minv- years 111) 111 ) y , } ears been dreaming of tliethe time Im'en Imen inven Im'en- tlon inven- tlon Inven- tlon ' tlon of 'typewriter typewriter .typerlter a'typewriter atypewriter a .type\\ .type ' . \ \ rlter : ; , ' completed the the- drcult ( lie lie- circuit lie- circuit drcult circuit of suggestion that thntsct SLt set Sholes Sholes- Glidden Sliolps- Glidilcn hol ( > s s- GlIdllenGlIdllen Glidden and Soule to working working- ssholchenrtediv \ working- wholeheartedly orb.ln orbln . ssholchenrtediv \ hoJdleart <> dlv , . and to theeclu the- the time thecxclus- lon - ' - e\clu e clu ewclu eclu- slon ewclu- sion cxclu- slon ' \ : slonsion of ot everything else , on the new new- Idea new- idea new- IdeaIdea A prl1 prnctlcalpractical C'tC'1 CtC1 ' ! ' I me meilianicnhethanic , h'1nic h1nic ' Mat Mat- thfas Mat- Ihlas f'lt flt f'lt- thlas ' thlasthfas Schwalbach , " who "ho ho had hclpeilhelped Sholes Shole ' ! develop his r > paging 'lglng lglng ' mnchlnemachine mnchlne- as machine- was , \\as as was \ \ added to the group of cxpeliexpeii cxpeli- menters expeii- menters evpcri- mentors menters In the time Iltlle lIU1e little machine n1'1chlnen11chlne ' shop shop- and , 'lm lm and ' ] pro\ pro proved proed prosed \ ed quite a u handy man m'1n m1n ' ,, both both- in both- in both- In in carrying out Ideas and alhd sugges sugges- tlon8 sugges- ions sugges- tlons tlon8 ions ( But Sholes was W'1SW1S ' the man with with- the with- the with- the the big Idea Icle'l Iclel ' and to him the 1m ins Inven Invention en- en en- tlon en- tion ¬ - tiontlon of the first pructlc pructlcil practical 11 type\\ type typerIter typewritertypewriter- Is \ rIter rIter- IsIs credited " John AIdcn Alden Descendant- Sholes Descendant- Sholes Descendant Descendant- SholesSholes was a descendantFescendant of John John- and John- and John- and and Priscllla Prlsc1lJa Priscilla Alden . , . and \ was ssns flS born born- In born- in born- In In Columbia county , . PennsylvaniaPennsylvania- Febmary , rebruary l'ebl lebl ' uary 14 , 1819 1810 1319 At the age of of- fourteen of- fourteen ot- fourteen fourteen he was W'1SW1S ' applentice apprenticed nppi enticed to the the- editor the- editor the- editor editor ofthe time DanvilleD3nvllle ( Pa P'l Pl ' ) Intelll Intelll- gencer Intelll- gencer Intelll- genccr gencer to leain lellln learn the printing busl busl- ne busl- ness busl- nebs ne ness s , but at the time age of el eighteen hteen he he- decided he- decided decIded to join his biothcrblother brother , who was wasI was- thcn was- then was- then I thcnthen ! living Ihlng sing In Green Bay , Wls- Two 1VIs- Two WIs Wls 1VIs WIs- TwoTwo yearsyenrs later Sholes \ went ent to to- Madison to- Madison to- Madison Madison and took chargecll'lrge clllrge ' of the thei the- WIsconsin the- Wisconsin the- Wisconsin WIsconsin InquirelInqulrelInquirer , owned onDed by his his- brother his- brother brotherbrother , Charles , . an and In 1840 he eel ed ee- lIted edited ed- Ited Ited the SouthSouthport port Iater ( ( later KenoshaKenoslta Kenosha- Telegraph ) Telegraph Four rour lour years later he be became became became came the postmaster postma'3terpostma3ter ' there and after after- moing after- mosing after- moving mo\ing mo ing mosing \ to Milwaukeel\IIl"aulcee l IIl"aulcee IIlaulcee \ " " was "as as postmas postmas- tel postmaster pogtmas- tcr tel ter ' In that city He was also ed editor editor editor itor of or the SentinelSentmel and the News News- commissioner News- commissioner News- commissioner commissioner of publicpubllc works "orks orks " and and- collector and- collector and- collector collector of customs It was dur dur- Ing dur- Ing dur- Ing Ing his career in tbls this ' " ' office that helie he- became lie- became he- became became Interested In makingmnI.lngmnIlng . anum anum- berlng a num numbering numbering berlngbering machine and working with with- the with- the with- the the other two men In their little ma machine machine machine chine shop on a writing "ritlng ritlng " machine machine- AA One Letter Affair . The first machine which he In ! Invented n n- seatedseated \ ented was a simple one-letter one letter- af- af affair af affair ¬ fair , madeth made \th th wjth \ v\th v th \ ' } ] an old teleglaph telegraphteleglaph- hey telegraph- key telegiaph- key heykey , , a sheet of glass andodds and and- ends and- ends and- ends ends of wood nndand metal It printed- only printedprinted- only printed- only only a scriesseries of W's Ws ' , , but It was the the- germ the- germ he he- germgerm of tlietllethe final fln'll flnll ' machinemachme For , . to to- quote to- quote to- quote quote fiomflom the HeiklmcrHelhlmerHerkimer county county- hi county- history county- history hi history , > tory : ' This Tlmis machinemaculae was W'lS WlS ' Important in in- the Inthe Inthe the historyhlstory of the typewriter for- only for for- only for- onlyonly one thing-It thing It thing it - It Introduced an another another another other cranlto crank cranl\ cranl \ . to the machine shop- shop shop- J'lmes shop- James shop-James shop James - J'lmes Jlmes James ' Densmore , , y\ho y ho "ho who " \ dioppeddlOppeddropped In Inone in- one Inone one day , looked the machine over over- and , and pronounced It good for nothing nothing- S'lve nothing- save nothing- save S'lveSlve save ' to show that the Idea was was- fe'lslble was- feasible was- feasible fe'lslble felslble feasible ' He lie was just the man that that- ShoJec that- Sholes that- Slides ShoJec Sholes ; , . the dieamerdleamer dreamer and Idealist Idealist- needed , needed . . Slides 'SI101es SI101es Sholes ' ' nndand Densmore kept lcept ham ham- ham- mermg hammering hammering ¬ - mering mermg avvav a\\av a av away \ on the Invention Imentlon , , built built- model built- model built- model model after model until 2 25 : > or 30 had- t had had- CHRISTCPHER 0 0v t \v v \ v- uu rl dt dt- t dt- cr t , Jr Jrq q ! & cr / / . fr , r rr ' ' /r r / f v 1 1 1- CHRISTCPHER CHRISTCPHER L SHOLES- been SHOLES SHOLES- beenbeen made , , and'lnd lnd ' finally fin'llly finllly ' ; ; , in 1873 18i3 , they they- turned they- turned they- turned turned out a machinem'lchine mlchine ' which whicl1 wawas was- deemed was- deemed " deemed sufficiently sl1n1ciently perfected for for- actu'll for- actual for- actual actu'll actull actual ' manufacture manuf'lcture manuflcture ' It " was as Sholes- that Sholes Sholes- that Sholes- thatthat named his In\ In mns invention Inentum \ entum entipn ; the "t t 'type type 'typewriter 'typewriter typewriter ' " ) pe pe- "riter"riter riter writer " ' Ihe 'Ihe 7.he 7he ' . modelas model \ was \\as as biought blOUght brought to to- Ilion to- Ilion 111011 Ilion , , HerLImer lIerb.lmer lIerblmer Herkimer . county count3 , New crew ew York York- where , ' "here here tshere " the RemingtonsHemingtonsItemingtons had a n gun gun- factory gun- factoiy factOlY factory , . , and It was ssas \ as \ with Ith the Hem Item Hem- mgtons Item- ingtons Rein- ingtons mgtons ingtons that the time 1m Inventors entors made made- the made- the made- the the first contract for the time rnanufacmanufac rnanufac- tUle manufac- tune manufac- tuie tUle tune of the new typewriting t3pe\uitlng t3pe uitlng \ ma machine machine machine chine Thisas This \ was \\as as In February rebruary . , 1873187- 3'lhe 1873- lime 187- 3Ihe 'lhe lhe lime ' actualactu'1lactu1l ' manufacturemnnufacture of the time ma ma- clune machine ma- dune clunechine began In the follo\\ follo following folloIng \ Ing Sep Sep- tcmber September September tcmbertember . It was a 11 very primitive 1001.1ng 10011ng looking 1001.1n- gnf1alr looking- affair looking- aflair . nf1alraffair : that was "as as " tuined tUlned turned out by the the- Hemlnbtonsbut the- lteminetonsbut the- Remingtons Hemlnbtons-but Hemlnbtons but lteminetons-but lteminetons - but itas it was \\as as \ the ances ancestor ancestor ancestor tor ofall the typewiiterstypewllters typewriters andnnd Is Is- still is- still is- still still labeled , , in Its museum rep05I reposi rep05I- tory repository repo&- ilory repoi- lory & tory as the time 'mo mo 'model model ' el 1 HemluJton RemingtonRemington'- It Remington- It ' It Itrote \ wrote \\rote rote \ only capitalcapIt'll capItll ' letteilettelletters & : . 'he he 'hes- ewing ' thes- ewing 1 he he- semg se\\mg se mg sewing \ maclilnemachine Influence " was "as as np np- p'lrent np- parent np- parent p'lrent plrent parent ' in Its appointmentsappointnments 'lhe lhethe the- carringe 'lhe- c'lrrln6e ' The- carrln c'lrrln6e clrrln6e carringe ' e " was "as as returned rc.turned rcturned . by a cu cu- fious curious curious fiousrious foot treadle tre3dle , , whichwhlrb , ho\\ ho hots hoc"er however- quickly \ c\"er c "er er ever \ ' " , qulcb.ly qulcblyquickly . demonstrated ics Its useless- ne u"eless- ne u"eless ueless useless useless- nets " nets ne < ; ' < s and was soon displaced by thc timethc- now tim- enow tlie- now now familiarfolmlliar hand carnaee curnage carriage return return- Nc return- Nesertheless return- Nevertheless Nc\ Nc Ncertheless Nesertheless \ ertheless . , , the tl10 fundamental prln grin grin- ciples prln- clple prin- cipleb clple ciples of construction constructlOn embodied In Inthis in- this In- tins this tlr fir&t firt first & t pe\Hlter pe Hlter typewriter t tv , } pew \ riter still 8Ul suivi.e suivie suivhe.ti- lOUoh suivheti- lOUoh vh ' . e . , thoubh though their application has since since- been since- been since- been beenmodified or transformedtmnsformed In Inmany in- many Inmany many ways WolyS in the time marselous man clouselous lIttle lIttle- machines little- machines little- machines machines of tod'1 tod1 today ' " One other Item In tliethc time history or of or- Clmstopher of- Christopher of- Christopher ClmstopherChristopher Latham Sholes as the the- 'bather tlie- '1'atlicr tlie- 1atlicr 'bather bather ' , 1 < ' ather of the lypevvritcr 7ypewrlter 'l l ' pewriter '' de- de de- sen de- scrses de deserves - serves scrsessen es mention Incidentally Uncldent"1.lly Uncldent1.llyUncldent1lly ( " . , . the the- National the- National the- National National C Cvclopedia Cyclopedia clopedh S'l Sl says says ' s that "It It "If If "It- bholes "If- Sholes " "If- Sholes IfS- holes " bholes Sholes can be called c'1J1ed c1J1ed ' the 'fatlierfatlier'father father ' of of- the of- the of- the the t typewriter pe\\ pe periter \ \ riter . , ' Pratt may tl1'lYtl1lY nlay ' ju jubtly justly tly be be- c'1lled be- called be- called c'1lled c1lledcalled ' tlie the time grandfathergrandf'lthergrandflthergrandfatiier ' . ' . " ' " ' ) At the the- time the- time the- time time Sholes " was "as as making m'1b.tngm1b.tng m1btng ' . the time final fina- lImproements final- improvements final- Improvements Impro\ements Impro ements improvements \ on nisnls typewriter tpe\Hlter tpe Hlter ) \ a a- bitter a- better a- bitter bitter better political campaigncnmpaign \ was J.S JS < . be be- iii be- ln 1116 iii , waged \ wa \ aed . ; ed and poll politics tics \ was as in the the- minds the- minds the- minus minds and on the tongues tonlIcs ' ; of or e\ e \ every eery esery- esery esery- one everyone ery- ery ery- one - one 1 ' That's Thats Zliat'sZliats hat's hats ' ' wliy why svhy today , when you you- sit you- sit you- sit sit tryits 'tryIts downdo\\n do n \ at your our typewritertypewrlter t pe\\r1ter pe r1ter \ to 'try try ' Its action . ' ' or to 'n n ' w irm arm up " be before before before fore you . } you ou begin wiltlnjwittlng " dtln . ; , . } you ou tap out out- on out- on out- on on it these \ words orcJs : "Now Now "how how " ow is the time time- for time- for time- for for all good men to come conic to the aid aid- IIr aid- of aid- of IIr of LathamSholes tliethe party P.lrt3 Plrt3 . " Christopher Latham Latlinm- Sliolos Sholes ' ; holes \ was 'lS lS ' the "Inventor Inventor "iasentor iasentor " 1m entor " of or tl1'lt tl1lt that that- sentenre tl1'lt- sentenl'C that- sentence ' sentenl'CsentenlC sentenre ' ! 1 I A < S > WMternWesternWeetern Newspaper Newspa.per . UnionUnloD . , . what . ( bb d J1tthinkSd 1H } 1HJ1tthinkS , J1tthinkS ) 0 0t t n n- about _ about . : Middle Aee Age and painless Painie * . Denti.try Dentitry Dentistry . . CULVER ULVR ) : CITY-Especially CITY Especially CITYEspecially- to CITY . - EspecIally- to Especially CULVER CULVR C to those ncaring nearmg nearing middle age- the age- the age age- the beginbegm to ex- ex exchange exchange ex exchange ¬ -the the - the age when you changeyour change your your emotions for sym- ptomsits symp symp-sym- ptomsit's symptoms ' to hear a a- New a- New a- New toms toms-it's toms it's its toms-its - it's its gratifyinggratifymg New York scientist has hit Il1t on a a- formula a- formula a- formulaformula for really painless pam1ess den- den dentistry dentistry den dentistry ' the operation operatJOn "m m will "m- only will- only " win- only tistry . If he's hes right , only begin to hurt when you get the the- bill the- bill the- billbill Time was when- you when onto onto- ffPT onto- AR ont- oy . " - you could lould hang ruins un- un tin- tin un- Z'c tin- x nn- -\ n- n nn- o - stately , AR ' - 5 y our ffPT ! : " / x , ' til t11 ill there was EngllshEnglish English\ English English- ivy \ ' > ' ; Z'c Zc ; . . ( " \ o . 2\ 2 \ 2t11 ' \ 1 I ivy growing on them- a them the- mB m'ltter mltter matter m'ltte- rb'f matter- what matter\ matter matter- what ' a ; q qNowadays NowadaysNo\\adays No adays \ , no b'f bf ' : $ } \ what ails mls you , , the- yri they F ' ' ' / X tee teeth teeth- l teeth- lfc t h , ri riF , y yt , / t 'ii ii B SraY ray your : Y ; < fc whichwluch Is a mistake to- r to r ' ) y/ y yy , / y begin with , , becaus- er because becnns . I I- never " µ ncvernever yet saw an an- X y . r . " X 1 ray pliotographphotograph that that- was that- was that- waswas flatteringflattcring . And the the- Irvin the- Irvin the- IrvinIrvin S . Cobb . ne nextneat .t t > . thing you know , you've youve ' il t taste t.1ste t1ste . In your your- month your- mouth your- moutb ' Rnd and Rnd- your and- your and- your monthmouth like Uke a druggist'sdruggists dishragdlshrag ; fashIonedfashIoned- buckskin fashioned- buckskin fashioned- buckskin your face looks like an old buckskin purse , with thetbe draw drawstringc- oming string string- coming string- comingcoming undone ; and . , on the Inside Inside- feels , feels as empty as a haunted bousehouse . the plate from a a- mall a- mall a- mall Still sun , getting upper mall order house has Its compensacompensa- Uons compensations compensa- tlons bIls bUs bIls- tel's bUs- tern blls- ters Uons tions Hot soup no longer makesmahes tel's tels tern ' In the palate . . Just a slight smell smell- of smell- of smell- ofof burning rubber-that's rubber that's thats rubber - - that's thats ' all . And a beautiful beautIfnl brilliant new set set- shimmering , shimmering from a tumbler of "ater ater water "atera- longside water- alongside " water- alongsidealongside the reading lamp , . certainly certainly- does certainly- does certainly- doesdoes brightenbrigbten up the boudoir . * . * . s . s- AA True Maker of MclodietMelodies . UDY gave a dinner here to the son son- of son- of son- of T HUEY THDY TUDY of desperately poor Immigrants , a a- modest a- modest a- modestmodest , kindly kindl ) little lIttIe man who star started started- life started- life ed ed- IlfeIlfelife as a singingsingmg waiterwalter In a bo\\ bo boa boery bowery- bar \ ery ery- b'1r ery- bar b'1r b1r bar ' room The dinnerdmner celebrated his his- silver his- silver his- silversilver jubileejubllee asa maker mal.er maler . of melodies- It melodies It has been just 25 23 years ye'lrs yelrs ' since he "ct ct set "ct- the set- the " set- thethe toes of the nationn'ltion nltion ' to tinglingtingllng with with"Alexander's with"Alexander's with"Alexander's with- Alexanders "Alexander's Alexanders " ' RagtimeRagtlme Band " I can thinkthinh of an occasionaloccaslonnl popular popular- composer popular- composer popular- composercomposer , \ who ho might be defined as a a- person a- person a- personperson who liash'ls hls has ' a good memory and and- hopes and- hopes and- hopeshopes no one else has h'ls hls ' , just as now and an- dthenbut an- dthenbut and- then then-but then but - but this is a trade secret- secret secretou secret-you secret you secretyous- trike secret - vou- strike ou ou- strikestrike a writer who is getting by not not- because not- because not- becausebecause he Is such a good writer , but but- bec'luse but- because but- becausebec'luse becluse because ' he has been such a clos closO closO- reader close- readerreader . But for Irving Berlin , It may be saId saId- that said- that said- thatthat his lyrics are his Ius own andnnd his airs airs- are airs- are airs- areare his 0\\ 0 0nand own \ \ nand and his hlS Ideas are hisbls own own- Maybe own- Maybe own- MaybeMaybe that's thats tha1"5 tha15 " ' why his Ius tuneful output output- is Is so good-It good It good - it reflectsrefiects the spirit of nn an nn- authentIc an- authentic an- authenticauthentIc creator , a genuine mInstrel mInstre- lbard minstrel- bard minstrel- bard bard . . . . . The Great Republican Republacan Hope . NDV NEVER NDVL'R NDVLR ' n thought the stocks stocles tll'1t- llcl.ed that- licked that tll'1ttll1t that- licked ' I INDV licked llcl.ed llcled . the desert and the Apaches Apaches- would Apaches- would Apaches- wouldwould be slackersslacl.ersslaclers . , but neithernelther In Ari Arizona An Anzona Arl- zonazona nor In New Mexico Meico " , can I find find- trace find- trace find- tracetrace of an authenticPresidential boom boom- for boom- for boom- forfor any Lome home grown statesman st'ltesmanstltesman ' On On- the On- the On- thethe other hand , the sheep sbell ) crop Is re- re reported reported re reported - ¬ ported good . Maybe It's Its ' just as well Alrea Already y there there- has there- has there- hashas been more th than J.n Jn < . one fa\ fa fax favorite faonte \ onte orite son son- boom son- boom son- boomboom that reminded roeme of a new trunl\ trunl trunk trunl- store trunk- store trunk- store \ . store on a side sh stteet-you stteet you stieet eet- eet eetou - you ou know , the the- hind the- kind the- kindhindkind thatth'lt thlt ' always alwa35 opens w \ with Itbrth a grand grand- closing grand- closing grand- closingclosing out sale- Republicans sale- Republicans sale sale- RepublicansRepublicans heiehere hel e spe'llhighly speakspe'll\ spe'll spell ' \ . highly of of- Goernor of- Gosernor of- Governor Go\ernor Go ernor Gosernor \ Landon of Kansas Kans'lS KanslS ' Still , you you- never ) you- never OU O- Unever never can tell If , vou 011 nu can C'1n C1n ' belle\ belle belles believe bellee \ ea ss \ vvliat- the h'lt hlt hat h'lt- the hat- the ' the Sunday Sunda3 II 1m pipeis IIlel hliei . ' II pr ( [ Hint mt lint when the edi edi- editors edi- edi edi- tom editors - ¬ - tors tom can t till think tlunl III . , of my inything anything thing else , trag tragedy tragedy trag- edyedy alwavs always aIwa3 s foIl followed 0\\ 0 0e \ e o\Vnln o Vnln owning \ the Hope Hope- diamond hope- diamond Hope- diamonddiamond or diggingdigblng Into h.in hin . KingTing Tut's Tuts Tut's- tomb Tut's- tomb Tut's- tomb Tutst- omb ' tombBut beingbemg Indorsed for f01 " olh'e olhe oihceolh'e- by oihce- by odice- by ( ' by W . R n Hearst Hear51 Is pretty fat fatil 11 rl , too too- seems , seems to me * . * . . A New Kindof Kind of Inflation Inflation- .TTTHEN Inflation- TTTHEN . , WIIDN IiDN one ofthe New Deal De.ll Dell . gioups- the gioups gioups- Tv l oups oups- the Tv -the the - the Presidents consumers consumers'c- ouncil consumersc- ouncil ' council-announced council announced - announced the other day d.lY dlY . thntthat thnt- Americans that- Americans that- AmericansAmericans h'l\ h'l hl have h'le hale ' \ e largerlargcr hips thanth'ln thln ' for formerly formerly for- merlymerly , I just said ' . "Well Well "Nell Nell " , . 1 Im m gl'ld glld glad gl'ld- thmgs glad- things glad- things ' thmgsthings are expanding Tliere There were S\\ S sus Seral sus- eral s ( \ \ v- oral eral years i1 \ when hen nothingnotIllng I 1 owned owned- showed owned- showed owned- sliowedshowed a tendency to go up e except Clpt ru my mv- bloodblood myblood pressure , and If hips < . aie J.IC JIC ate spre spread J < . lng Ing spreadIng ,, It mOl meielymerelyely means \ wider lcJer detouisdetours detoUi s for for- a for- a for- aa fellow when dancing on a clo\\dL clo dL crowded crowded- floor ciowd.d- floor ciowddf- loor \ ( . 11001 floor ' " petthe But now another White House HOl1se douse llet pet , the WorksWorl.s Worls . Progress ndmlnIstrntion administration administration- gives , gh gI es n a leal thrill by promisin promising promisinJ to to- pose l c ( -\pose pose - \ ' pose spinachspln'lch splnlch ' ,, pro\ pro proving proIng prosing \ Ing thel theiethere e arenre plent plenty plenty- of plenty- of . } of vegetablesveget'lbles vegetlbles ' just as ns good for the dlct Fleet . , diet.that dietthat that tastetnste like lil.e lile . somethingsomeiliing some1hln . ; andnnd not ill\.e ill.e ill .e e like ill.e- SpinlCh like- spinach like- spinach \ . Spin-lCh Spin lCh spinach - Maybe M'1ybe M1ybe ' they 11 Il yet . } et find n a use for usefor spInach-by spInach by spinach - by applyingnpplylng it e\ternfillv e ternfillv e externally- say ' \ ternaliv , S'l Sl say ' . } ' ? PeisonallyPelsonallyI'elsonallyIelsonally ' ' I'd Id ' r.1therear ratlier r.1ther r1therrather . \ wear \\ear ear It in in- my In- my In- mymy hair hmr than try to cat C'lt Clt ' It . foould , bo fo So \\ould ould shouldshould- you \ would- you ould- youyou , reader , If youcre you \ were \\cre cre ytere only hrn\e hrn e brute hrnee- nough brute- enough hruve- enough \ enough to come out " with "ilh ilh the truthtrutb . * . . S * . S- England's King.TN KingTN England England'sEnglands ' * . New King . N 'l'n ln ' Tnc THL ' matter of their IN I ruling mon- oarchs monarchs mon- mon mono monarchs - ± - archs , the English nglish at aie e lucller luclbud ler ter th'ln thln than th'ln- some than- some than- some ' some tainlshodnor nlshednor tamnishednor ' ' the 'lhe lhe 'the crown Is ne\ ne never neer \ er t'11t11 tamnished ' nlshed nor the people ever slininedshnmedshamed , for nil all alltheir niltheir their kingsl.ings lings . are gentlemen andnnd all nB their their- queens their- queens their- queensqueens are ( queens IUeens ' ' Hint's Hints 'lhnt's lhnts 'that's thats ' vvliy why . , I linewhile thlnl think ithink Ithlnl . , Britain111 Britain \ will \\111 111 I keep eep her roval roal roynl . } line . , williewhile tobe we keepl.eep leep . our flag fI'lg fIlg ' . , which ou ollJht ought ht to cornmunlstic COlDwunlsUc coinmunistlc be quite a long spell . , In casecuse nnyany COlD coin wunlsUc munistlc person should askash you ou boho So youbo ouho youSo , to the witty and . youngsh youngIsh en'tlglnJ entlglnJ enmging en . ' igin , , young Ish gentlemangentIelUlD , , . \ who ho picks UI up ) the lUHn man mnntie lUHntIe mantie tIe that slippedsUpped from Crom the tired Ured sholllshoal sliuiilders sholllclers shoalders clers ders of a n kindlyIdndly and eldeilygentlemaneldellygentJemnn eldellgentleman graciousgr'll1ollsgrll1ollsgraeious ' eldelly eldell Y gentJemnn gentleman , , we over herebere bestwishes stwlshe offer- Y offer- wishes ofYcrolTer offer our 11 <> st wlshe wishes we 1Ve . know 1.now 1now in.variably invariably Insariably . * Your Majesty M'Jesty MJesty hje ' ty InIn- In . - arlably sariably \ \ will wI11III show andwhilstandwhlist good tu tustetaste te , . Qlld and \itthinj-that itthinj that rlitthinjthat rlhtthlnthnt htthinthat .hllst hllst whlist , . . , } iou you ou maynmy not always ah\us ah us alstays \ ) do the time rlri rlht . : ' \ ht I rlhtI thln-thnt thlnthnt thin-that thin that muchof muchof mUlhof , . ; - would be acl.ln aclln asking ; . . ; too much much mUlh of nnyany lUnn-we lUnn we man-We man man-were man were - re dead sure 11 II . you al al.vvav alvvav I mUlhI ways \ a 'i i ' < } say It . IRVIN S COBB C0Ba . e © NorthNerth American .ric ric . . NewsPIlPor Newspapor p , Alliance . , . lul lulWNU IuWNU Iu -WNU WNU - f > orvl borvaee . All 11 Aroood AoiniU Aomd- de AoiniUflousJtJ /le le / HouseIIouse flousJtJ flousJtJIodi- ne r 'J J ' Iodine stains may bobe lemo\ed lemo ed icmosed icmovedfrom- white \ from from- "hlte from- white "hlte hlte white " cotton cottbn or linen Unen If fatains blains tans me ale me- sonled ale- soaked me- soaked sonled soaked { In fl a solution solutlOn of ammonianmmonla and and- ater and- water and- water \\ater ater water \ , n a teaspoon of ammonia to a- pint a- pint a a- pintpint ot of " water "ater ater . * . s " use canned pineapple In In- ge1'1t1n in- gelatln In- gelatin Al"a Ala Always " s ge1'1t1nge11t1n gelatln ' mixtures mi'CtufesmiCtufes mlxtures ' If frC frc&h frch fresh ! ' > & h pme'lpplepmelpplepineapple pineapple- l-i pineappl- el i pme'lpple- Ii pineappleI- 'a ' Ii I'a Ia - ' uu&ed ued used & ! > ed the m.ture111 ml\ture ml ture m\.ture m.ture m .ture mIxture ! \ . \ will \\111 111 \ \ not congeal . 4* . , " * * . If fruit cake c'll\e c'll cll e ' \ : becomes very hard h.m1 hm1 bard . It Itcan it- can It- cancan beHapped be \ ' wrapped\Happed Happed 'crappedcrapped In a cloth s fcatur b\tur b tur ' \ ttur tcd tted tted- tsith ited- with tcdI tsith \ ltll orange or spiced peach pe'lcll pelcll ' jUlce Juice jUlce- and Juice- and juice- andand stored In an airtight air tight box bo'CboCbow ' . S . * . S * . S- IfIf It cake Is very ver1 hard It can be be- m'lde be- mado be- madem'lde mlde mado ' Into a delicious dellcous ! puddingpuddmg by by- steaming by- steaming by- steamingsteaming 30 minutes In double double- doublebollel - bollel bollci- and , andsel sewing sen \ Ing hot " with "lth lth any desireddesire- dsaucehard desire- dsaucehard desired- gauce sauce-hard sauce hard - - hard ,, creamy cre.1mycre1my . , foamy or fruit S . S . A few bright colored flower pots pots- with , "lth lth with " a naicissus n'llCi&SUS nllCiSUSnalciSSns ' & bulb planted 111 In 11- 1each In- each In- eacheach , set on the window sill In the the- living the- living the- livingliving room will wi1l , when the bulbebulbs bulbs- blossom bulbs- blossom ; blossom , give color and dccoiationdccolahondecoration to- the to- the to to- thethe loom . S < . . . When maple sirup becomes becomeCJ cloudy cloudy- set cloudy- set cloudy- setset It over the fire un until hI it bolls , then then- take then- take then- taketake It on off : the fire and let cool . S . S . S- Don't < * . Don't Dont ' beatbe'lt belt ' fudge ns as soon aCJ a < ' ? It Is Is- tah.en Is- taken Is- taken tah.en tahentaken . from the fire . . You will w11l find It It- wl1l it- will It- will wl1l will be much creamier If first put put- Into put- into put- IntoInto a cold bowl , .and and . then beaten . . S . . * . # Never set cut flowers In a dr'lft drlft draft draft.- If draft- If ' . . If sou you ) ou do you.lll you \ ' v.Ul vUl \.lll .lll will . find they \ will \ ll1 soo- nllt soon- wilt soon soon- wilt wilt \\llt llt \ \ . . . S . S- Place S * .. Place a hot riot water "ater ater " bottle In the the- clothes the- clothes the- clothesclothes basket b.Jshet bJshet . wlienwhen hanginghangmg out .md md .rnd rnd . jnd- taking .md- taJdng .rn- dtaking taJdng taking In clothes In cold weather . It It- wl11 It- will It- will wl11 will keepheep the handsh'1nd h1nd ' warmwmm . S . " 4* . * . If It " woolen "oolen oolen stocl stockings ings ; shunk chunl shrink " "hUe hUe while"hUe- waslung while- washing " while- washing waslungwashing , put them tinthi thiough ough the1 tliethe \\1- 1 wa- wa water ' \ " wa water 1- ter ' - ¬ ter again and nnd whilewhlIe still sUll wet svet put put- them put- them put- themthem on a stocking stocl\.lng stocl.lng stocl .lng lng \ . strctclicrstretcher . S . S * . * . Twine Twme will tiebundles much tight tight- CI tight- ei tight- ci CI ei and will wIn not slip slll1 wlienwhen knots l\.nots l.nots l .nots nots \ . 1re are are- made 1re- n1l1de ' are- made n1l1de made If It it is dampenedd'1mpenedd1mpened ' before U5Wg- Q using- Q using U5Wg Q © ( AssociatedAssoclatod NewspapersV Nowspapers-w Nowspapers w Newspapers -\V V - \ WNU tU U Servlc ServIce Exercise E"ercise Eercise " and Study Do- Not Do Do- NotNot Affect Child's Childs ' Sleep- The Sleep Sleep- TheThe question of whethciwhethel whether or not excx extremely cx- tremely es- tremolytremely act1\ act1 active act1e \ e play or concentratetlconcentrated concentratetl- sLudy concentrated- study concentrated- study sLudy study by a cluldchild shortly before . , re retiring retiring re- tiringtiring affectsalTectsall'ects allects ' thechild'schilds ' sleep need need- Lot need- cot need- not Lot cot trouble mothers and nnd teaLhers teachers teaLhers- flny teachers- any teachers- any flny any longer for tor It Is answered with with- authority with- authority with- authorityauthority by Dr . GIcnvllleGlenville GIddIngs Giddlngs- In GIddIngs- InIn "Your Your " Child'b Childb Chrld'bChrldb ehlld ' Sleep , " an article article- In article- in article- InIn H 113 Hygelageia Bela . The sleep patterns p'ltterns pltterns ' of a group of of- twelve of- twelve of- twelvetwelve children were recorded by an an- electric an- electric an- electricelectric device on nightsmghts when they they- had they- had they- hadhad participatedp'lrtfclpatedplrtfclpated ' In tliese these actlv1tles activities actlv1tles- and activities- and activities- andand on normal norm'll normll ' nights . . Comparison- of Comparlcon- or Comparl"on Comparlon Comparlcon " of or thetho sleep patterns p'ltterns pltterns ' of the two periods pe- pe pe- rIods pe-- nods p- e nods - - rIods showed conclusively , the au author author au- thorthor sa3s says says , , that Intensive Intenshelntensise study of of- theIr of- their of- theirtheIr school lessons or intensIveintensIve- physical intensive- physical Intensive- physicalphysical exercise c'Cercse cCercse ' ! In the late I1te after afternoon afternoon after- noonnoon or early evening eenlng esening e\ e \ enlng bv by norms norm'll normll norm'll- children norrna'- children norrna- children ' ' children has no appreciable apprecl'1bloapprecl1blo ' effect effect- on effect- on effect- onon their sleep . WWo 0 Marry Mnry : Earher EarlierEarher- In Earlier- In Earlier- InIn the United States today the avo av- av avo- erage average av average - ¬ erage age at marriagem'lrrl1gemlrrl1ge ' Is 21 217 7 y veais- for C"us Cus eats C"u- sfor eats- for " for women and 24 248 S years e'lrs elrs ' for men men- Tod'lY men- Today men- Today Tod'lYTodlY Today ' , , women many marry four monthsmonths- earlier months- earlier months- earlierearlier and men eleven months ear- ller e'lr elr ear e'lr- Her ear- Her ' Her ller thin th'ln thln than ' they did 25 yeaisyeals years agoCol ago-Col ago Col agoColl- ler's ago - -Col Col Col- Her's - Co- lller's Co- lllers Her's Hers ller's llers ' ' . Mclntyrc McIntyre Sees See , 1936al 19 1936 36 36Year al Y YcarYear 1936ofSun ' car of ofSun Su Super ParPa- rThe , - it of 10of fl361of The super.thrillss year . ] 936 fl361 Is IsgOIng s gOIng $ o1Og 10f f super.thrl11 superthrl11 super.thrills superthrills ' ! 10 to \a a b \ and a'lho J11Candvatt andvatt andvattb 'lho lho J11C ' _ most andvattmost " ( illst ex e- xa we Iwe shall ccltlng exciting llvQ , I firm Q il il- tions ! ever live llv a ! ) ilbo 1ilbo 6pbe tlonstions lions nny m'ly mly m'tY mtY ' dl dl- a die c throngc andn andO and6p and throllgb throng throngF n n v " , 1- 1 - 6p ( . r F : bo be bornhorn Europe turope matl na O atl and1nd ' unless we "e e ne ne- a9 " watch syatch watchOUr syatchour wa lIIay m a9 beIQ belt bel- tmay be IQ ' 'l- may l- may ' may find o o- syatch OUr s Sf! ourselves ourscIvcs urselves sumingsliming Sl1mlll lSl1mlll 'tsliming bla7eblaze bla . e , . tinder tfOde H " : la 1D 1- D1'd I 't t ' l I'd Id 1'd 1d ' rdhketobeihen ' like to be themparency the them lIIedhu , parency p1reney for a I little l1ttle lttle ' " ! t ! findand 11ght fight but I motemots B- 1 ' nndllghtbutldonti'SofnndllghtbutldontiSof 1of Tot don t like 1 Its of tilingsthings To m me It 811 t lit li- tand and nnel the Mack I is consoloniis ! > tint th'1t th1tthat thattl only consolemert csoleme1 csoleme1on consoloni on on- Is tl 1 , ' 1 I ini m nl Q ! tMnTnt , , nsuaiir Uutlly i14Ually , ' ! : \ ' . . t McIntyre i14UallyMcIntyre MnTnt in t CosmoPolitan Cosanopole r-- r rOS - - 1\'r01 1 'r01 r01 t OS . ? WoTA GraspinllGrasping Right ' b1 i We tWe b1We we can all .111 111 .111of . of ? ng us mate In3k . , , , L L- sublime ° IDttt IDt- ttsublime f . t t- i ' sublimesubllme by sellfa matet.a O t.a ta < t.- amakiug seizing set71ng g g- mate o0- jc on o0 O m'lhlng mlhlng makiug ' them hem t t- o0 jc rt + a Sl grett-o grett o great-0 great 0 grettoa 8-1 8 : - - a Marden flMarden Mardent . , grettofl a fl { Salt Lake Cjj City Direc Dire- cU.S t < , i ' I stm stmtf tf tfft ft ft- DtDt , Ir IrBt Bt Btcf cf cf- aa 9 9m a s sd d m yi yi1a 1a I I- II I " 1aht Ih h ht Write trite Stgtrite For ior ior- kb : Spring Stg htStg , Ca"6 Ca6 " l kb b b- Jf - kbhF u hFU U.S US . S . Cerhfl Certify Certified d Pu1I6 Pullcra PuUCrQ -Jf Jf l- Tested vc- Tested hF . -I I ' - , Tested ChickiChicks | he- white ItCarred IfBarred WIllt Wiute white * Lcshtnu Leghorns Legbon , . , . RhrA Ithcd Rhode , L4 laid ! laidIf T.I TI . . j . Hi Hi- delivery It If Carred Barred Plymouth PJyniootii Rc flocks , , < ks , ht fl III m In Ia lchvcry delivery Inlchvcry Iadelivery delivery . UcadqWtt llcadq1W"tt1 llcadq1Wtt1 I1cadquatn ' , , , " * for f ( it I aa : ! , II , ; Habroodcrt aabrooders brooders for nitaral nabra nahral . ,, .rI.t rI.t rIt srltScal . . aaI , . " OI- gas a . a- OI /:1lS :1lS 1lS gas / : artiSoil.iCO artiSoiliCO * . , , . can un be mcd D3cd aicd D3cdInnrh aicdsnyxb Innrh snyxbnprk a U.K.- neTf UK.- neTf UKn- eTf re . . , Aa ty . ll ' " ll- new i"1 i1 new itmn fewlro ewire Sol Sll Sal : Dot not IIot Radiint Radiant ftcy l'htl1t lhtl1t P ' & , , r6i rQ , { ' ' fe f e wlrowire . for Cor pncn prutj prices : inil and ciaf\i ciaf i eorli COl ! : \ ltd , f , I1hon ationlion ; EAMSHAWRAMSIL\W RAMSIL W IIAMSILtW \ HAICHUmHATCIIDIr HATCahmr . ! , tb 3tS7 36513657 S Sa So ) Sate S ale at * StSI . . , Sai'LgCiSaiLgCi Sai'LgCiOf gilt Salt ' L Le liltCSfi e , of of- TIloIPAMGOS Of- TIMPArOG09 0 miPANOGOSTIloIPAMGOS TIMPArOG09 HdItamah HAICHni HAtCll HdItam ! t tsb I811- 30 sbah sb- 30S30S 505$ South 7th 'Hh Hh , H li ' ' Eait Eat Past ! PI'II\ PI'II PIII rnt PI'IIHI rntli ? ' nn \ " ' _ . . " ' INN INN- to i ' ' 'j.m--i j.mi 'j.m jm i y ; - : tll to tllIstois is- SALT Is SALTLAKE'SLAKES ' NEWEST i 15- 115- Q fah : 3 0 Q OnrOur lo lobby b1 is 13 dtiIghlM11dtiIghlM11r dtiIghlM1- 1cooled deUhtMy defig6116 { dr dr- cooled r drj cooled dmlngtbesummer dnringtiesammadaring the tnmmtiMt it sG It- RadIo sG- Radio | Radio lorfor Every Room Roos Roomto , J | to tO- 200Rocros200Batihs t0- 200Rccnis-200Bat t- 0200Rccnis 2- 00Bat 200 200Rocros-200Batihs 200Rocros 200Batihs Rocms-200 Rocms 200 - BafbJ & 1 ( fO 10 f- OHO ; , - RoomI , , , ' I \ In TflU . _ "i i " " (11 11 ( 11J 'il il ' J t if ! " ' * 1 \ Ita ba ba- s yaps s , icy tmlicy : s - I l lee .i i . ° : _ _ , r + a " . . L . : - ' ' ! - - ' T'tPT TtPT T'tPT- f T'tPTy- t - : y- t I ; : -1 1 - ed1 _ f r rfm il fm iled - ! edd d- yotyot yotdos HOTEL HOTELd dosHOTEL HO d dos S : dfYTemple Temple HOTELdfY SqUSqnrR- ates SqurSqnr . dfY Rates lIotRates $1.50 1.50 150 $ L5o2 . ! to ! $3 3 $ ! CD CDtra tra lIot , 0 G The notcl note Hotel ! Tempi Temple TempleS1UL1 * 1quJ'I1quJI S1UL1 : . t ! < I " ' b l f " 'highly ighly ' highly dc.lraLlt dclraLlt desirable deirabie . , . , tlcnd/ tlcnd tlcndII ( fr riraad ' / , , III- Iphcro 1 1- plicro.louwinahaioswaplicro.louwinahaioswaplicrolouwinahaioswa phcro phcro-k phcro k . _ ' \ - \UllllhfB1SfrII:1 UllllhfB1SfrII:1UllllhfB1SfrII1 ouUllllhfB1SfrII:1 ou \ w.11w11 . ' " , , 'i11 i11 ' : , ' . u ulatc ate , upremclysupremely COlD tomlow 0 i- tl.orouehlynercMiIc i- tlorouehlynercMiIc wn tl loaaotl thoroughl1ngre . ateuaupremcl oro uaupremcl uaupremclIe ghly gr gr- foro le Ie le1i 1i loaao l-K l K : ' . - " n8D n8D- HIGI1LY ] foro lore undcrsfnil underat4Ddunderstand " . why .by by wby t th thiib- thiib thii- bmcnLY II ° I- IIn ' - ' InllICIILY mcnLY llICIILY HIGI1LY RECOt111F REcovlueoo IlECO\I1IL'1)D IlECO I1IL'1)D I1IL1D \ ' ) D0 ) tow lntII In lntI- IYou tow- YouYou can nIeo also l o IIpprcdatnh1 apprcdatebf pprctlit * , tha- tIt's , " ! > 'It's ts ' It's Its ' a mark of 01 distlnttCDUd < Si.W SiW cIlstInw ' . and and- at and- atthsbeaubfnlhor D- dBtthisbeaultfulhuw at atthsbeaubfnlhor flus , beauJfulhbeauJful- hERNEST ! ERNEST rRNEST C ROSSITERROSSITIR ROSSITERMJ'v ROSSITIR,1v ROSSITBj v > ,1vv MJ'v MJv ,1v 1v ; ' , , - .r r - = . " " 1 1- that ; . : , that [ mna- U "How How IfHow If U " ® w do 0 I lfeel feel . . . < . , ton- ton to- nw "Ba Ba "Ba- It " - RolfQn Rottenl Rottenlwhy R ® e , , ! ! why do i iy iraga oouasc y you ask ask1 ? . It " raga ragac- c "agn agn " toil thin toilthin : 1 Because ccBecause "B B "BtrJl cc " ecause , \ trJl you are not yourself I ! I " _ $ art- Is Mis TT l"e3tTT isoil nllnil so simple , too I ! 'I1la I1la ' That f ; tiredbrcd , , run-down run down run-downe downe - - , c.xbl1ustecxbl1uste c.xbl1usteb1)Jd . exhausted : tbaustedfeelma tbaustedfeelmapeon d fcehD fcA b1)Jd b1Jd ! ) . : peon l"e3t le3t " L n h- oftenoften ften is 1S due ue to lack of a sufficiencysufficlcncy of thosetbose precious Prenous ra rc rca : ! a ( zoDbh jobbiJust btI5lObbEJust zoDbhJust Just bu build d up thesethcse o"tj otj o-y o y oxygen " - gen carrying carrymg cells and the V } 1vhole Yho y yefl lrod9 . l ldJ efl dJ ' ' , n R n- new R- new n- newnew h life.food lifefood life e . . . . food is really rcaUy turned tntoenergyandstrenth'YtntoenergyandstrenthY into energy an and str strtI strengui tI tII ; t.ea tea ; . ' rtd t- ibid help but feeland feel and look betterbettcr . . S SS TomeTomc Tonic restores deficcflideftcfcnt d C I en en- 3S bid " , ' i- cellscclls "Dcclls cchsit . . . , , . and digestion It Itb lta h h- c 3S . . 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