The Courier News from Blytheville, Arkansas on March 24, 1948 · Page 3
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The Courier News from Blytheville, Arkansas · Page 3

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Blytheville, Arkansas
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Wednesday, March 24, 1948
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' WKDNESDAY, MARCH Z\, 1048 BLYTNEVILLK (ARK.) 1 COURIER NEWS PAGE • •num. Multi-Billion Dollar Marshall Plan Soon to Begin Operations To Save W. Europe from Chaos BY R. H. Shai'kfttrd United Press Slaff Currr.siHindenl : WASHINGTON,—(U.I 1 .)— What is Hie Marshall Plan? When the millions of words and figures are distilled, the administration's answer is this: It is a multi-billion dollar American program for helping Europe help itself buck to. economic health. It is H plan to save non-Communist Europe from Communism. Originally it w;is a irojucl which was expected to stop Russian expansion short of war—with economic rather than ^military measures. But by tlie lime Congress got around to action on it, President Truman warned on March 17 that the Marshall Plan would not he enough. He has now asked for U. S. military preparedness to supplement the Marshall Plan. He wants immediate selective service and universal military service. Congress also is in the mood t* appropriate big sums for a larger Air Force. + — ' • ,The Marshall plan still is lhc liard core of the long-ranee American program for combatting communism in Europe, but the "cold war" is moving so fast that the administration now fctl.s force must be injected into the situation to give the recovery program ,\ change '.o gel started. The Marshall plan is a procedure for priming the European economic pump \vith major emphasis on cooperative self-help by the Europeans themselves. Not Merely Relief ft is not jnst another relief program. Although it will keep a lot of the 270,000,000 Western Europeans Irom .starving, it involves al.so hu^e sums of money for raw materials, machinery, locomotives, steel and other capital equipment. It Is a plan which ihr. administration and Us leading supporters In Congress hnpe will stop World War 111 before It starts. It is a plan to stabilize Europe, first economically and then politically. Until such stability is established, the administration has abandoned all hope of negotiating a German or Japanese peace settlement with the Russians. The plan is not considered char •^ty. But little, if any, of the money will be returned directly. The plan is said to be of vital .self-intcrpsl to tne U. S. because "n free, stable and productive community of nations In Europe" is essential <a American security. Summary of Plan That is a streamlined summary of the administration's complicated argument for the. Marshall Pla:l, which is officially known as the European Recovery Program (ERP). It envisages an estimated American investment of ahout $17,01)0,000.000 over a period of 1 1-1 years. Expenditures under It are expected to decrease during the years of operation eventually to nothing, but during the first year they will lie lit Ihe r»u- of $440,000,000 a niiinth. Secretary of State George C. Marshall, whose name adorns the plan, explained the^ historic? -project in simple terms when he tossed out the idea on June 5. lEWi, in a speech at Harvard University. He cited the disastrous affects of the war on tile "fabric" of Euru- nclutling Russia, lo participate. Bnt Russia elected to stay out, thus eliminating what might have been n embarrassing situation for Marshall. If the Russians had agreed participate, it is doubtful that Congress could have been persuaded to appropriate billions for the project. s i Russians Change Plan But, nevertheless, it started ouj lhat way. And the Russians—by walking out—converted the plan overnight into a program for Western Europe and one lo resist Communism. Marshall was relatively certain in advance the Russians would not accept his proposal. His first experience in Big Pour diplomacy ai Moscow last spring had convinced him the Russians did not want stability in Europe—either economic or political, herefore, at Harvard, Marshall carefully defined his objectives—and conditions: "Our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation and chaos. "Its purpose should be tile revival of a working economy in the world so as to permit ' tile eineV- gence of political and social conditions in which free institutions can exist. . . . Tiny Finland May Be Next to Fall Under Soviet Domination But Red Coup Not in Cards Today Bjr Sumntr P. ^Ahlbunk NKA Staff Cnrrwpondrnt Joseph Stalin's letlfr to Finland does not spoil anoltvr Czechoslovakia. Tlmt is the conviction of many Informed Fhuis. now thai tliey have overcome the panic first inspired by Die Sovlej note. It sin prised Finnish leaders. They exp«led such a letter—not, perhaps, in Stalin's own 'i handwriting. But they did not expert it so soon. And even now they hvve good reasons not In expect wljnt happened to the Czech wltho'it. any such letter of warning.' ; They will have to, give"'some ground because of ihe flow .of food supplies across ilie Karnllim Peninsula from Russl< Into Fin- laud. If Russia cuts oft these supplies, the Finns have rp guarantee they could find another source In the U- S. or anywhei^ else. Tlie prospect leaves them (tile choice but to grant some of -he concessions Russia Is seeklnpi In its rc.- que.st lor "ymituaV dsfeuso < and friendship." ; But they can resist jumping all the way through the Soviet hoop because of the reverse How—across the Peninsula and up ihe Gulf of Finland Into Russia—of ships, ma- chlnerv. and wood prodlcts. This the Indemnity Russia Is] collecting [or Finnish opposition i in Wovld War II About 45 per <int of tiie j:![>:i-mil]!on bill remains to be paid between now aim 1052. A breakdown In production, of these useful reparations, eithei; by Rod- Inspired strikes or by pverthrow of the government, is nniiconsider- ed part of the Russtans plnn tor the moment. ' ( t I What RussU is after rl e lil now is fairly obvious to the linns. Stalin's letter has two goals: . 1. Strategic—The riflil ; ln establish, when necessary, radar detection and alarm posts at well as transit rlffllCs in Northerri KinUvnd and military hasrs hi Wej^ern [-'inland overlooking Sweden. These concessions would makr iv easy lo left-wing Social Democratic Union crah a corridor in Noryay and Party under the ntnne of the IVo- Northern Sweden to comrlcln Ihe pie's Democratic Union, hold six chain of alarm posts if evr'nts dictated such a move. , , 2. Prestige—In the expansion °,f Soviet domination. Finland'Is the only country on Russia's weslcrn border in which ttir Cumouinisls do not have top power. A "mutual defense" part would satisfy tllal 'presllur without a Czech-like coup. The Finns, have no idea Ihey could stand off Russia, which has RUSSIA HAS: Three chunks of Finland (in black), plus 50-y<ar lease on Porkkala Peninsula (black area near Helsinki) under terms of 1944 armistice. RUSSIAN GOAL: DC- teclion posts in Northern Finland, easy access lo the top ol Sweden and Norway, bases in Western Finland. of the 18 cabinet posts, ftt o[ the ; 200 Parliament seals. "Ally government which maneuvers lo block the recovery of other countries cannot expect help from U.S. "Furthermore, governments, political parties or «roups which seek I defeated them twice since tliey first lo perpetuate human misery in or- ' won independence in 1918." dor to profit' therefrom politically or otherwise will encounter the opposition ol the United States," That's how it all started warm June day at Harvard. on a Employment Security Activities Curtailed nlsh measure, to Inke control Pnrllnweiilnry tncans. H is. In effect, loo .small even to promote convincing demonstrations In Finland. The Communists nor- Thc Minister of the Interior, a I mnlly rto not find their minority favorite snot for ambitious Com- 1 position a- handicap in making n inuuLsUs, is Yrjo Lcino, schooled In | WK noise. H docs not work mil Russia nnri once Imprisoned by ihe | t], nt wa> . m pnilantl, however, be- Fiun.s; he was. hiding In the Red \ call SR the mtisses are not curious underground when Armistice terms j about what the Communists arc I freed all Coninuinlst.s. His wife, | preaching. Tliey are too Mire that Hertta Kuusinen. is chiiiniutn of' the Flnni.sh .standards of Socialism i the People's Democratic Union and ! nr" far ahead of anything Hint's I lhe lop Communist In Finland. \ being offered by the party with hot!, times, Russia paid" far more ' The Minister of Social Welfare j tllc d(?nclH!(! r ' St ' heavily In manpower, material and : and lhe Second Minister of Sup- 1 Communist InsLronlcs. aimed at prestige than did the Finns. And piles nr e communists. Prime Min- I Piwoking "incidents 1 ' have fallen Finland emerged with U- S. a>' isler Pakkala is a member of the" 111 r """"' <I1 " 1 "" rt ' p ' l(1 ""' "'™ v Great Britain as one of Ihe, only Social Democratic Union Parly (the nations in World 'War U , other h[Uf of lhc communist coalition i. So «re the Second Minister of Foreign Affairs and Justice Mhi- Loney Continues To Soy He Won't Seek Third Term IJ'l-n.E HOCK, Mm-. 24. (UP) — 'lie Draft-Hen I/aney Movement pparently had slowed down in rkunsas todny after the chief ox- cutlve yoslcrday rebuffed nil of- oils lo • bUUR him Into the 1048 ubcitutorial race. • Following i conference with a. onr-nmn committee, I.aney said he epeKtcd his ulanrt that he "did wl now" what li* would do II the raft-Laney for s. third leim eln- nor spreads slulc-widc. Tlie com- nltlee was named at a closed-door netting of 25 or 30 prominent Ar- knnsan* in a Uitle nock hotel. It >va.s composed ot W. .1. Smith of LllUe Rock, Son. Jerry finreeton of Uazeu. Rep. Curl llendrlx of loi'ntio and Edgar Pryor of Cnm- den. I he comintllee. was Ilie only pos- llve out-growth of the conference. Dan Felton of Minimum, host for the group, said "[hose attending were 100 per cent behind the BOV- rvnor and v. p e.'i'r U'ylns miv l>csl Vo let him to njiV" Frlton said no plans wei'fl made r a future meeting of the group. Lions Club Announces Two New Members Frank Nelson and Toler nuclmn nn were elected members of the Dlylheville Lions Club nl the organization's weekly meeting yesterday noon in the Hotel Noble. No lormal program was presented following Hie regular business session. Slale Polices does not wipe out .strong Finnish feeling Hint a complete Red overlhroxv of the ijover ment right now would provoke civil war. The' result of such a revolt Is o/ course, n foregone conclusion. But it wouldn't stop the nnll-ftcli Finns Irom IlghUng again. And this tnbbornnc'M wou.UI keep I.Ufltl.OtlO lusslans busy silling on Finland o keep Communism in power. It would, also be a tremendous ilo\v to tlie reparations program, ligh iirodunlion und civil wur do lot go hniul-in-hand. Nhireover. vestern mvtlons, from wliom l-*ln- and must Import much of the ma- la) that goes into reparations, night not be so willing to sell iti •'Inland If she went the way of the Czechs. I three nations In World 'War whose soil was not overrun by the enemy. Thus the Finns are convinced they could make a much better .show against Communists than did the Czechs. So far, Finland has maintained strong -semblance of on failo\v gromio. The first, sifter AvmSslicc WH.S sl^'ted In September, 1944, H Red officer wn.i .shot on Finnish soil; the Finns LITTLE ROCK. Mar. 24. (UP) — High employment and a decline in employment compensation and vet- eraos readjuKtine'nt .a 1 l;o w a nce dence, despite the hoi brenth of the claims have made IV necessary to Russian bear that -blows across reduce employment security \-itir.s in Arkansas. Punfoy Gil!, state administrator of the Arkansas. Employment Security Division, said yesterday that net i- Fit\ln nd's easier n borders. The Communists, In coalition with the i.stcr Eino Pukkaln, who once was j assisted over the Finnish, border, ensUljound, for his Soviet sympathies. •" y, Tliis is an imposing list, hul, there arc 12 other cabinet posts, "arid 14F) other seat.s in PfirliEimcnL The difference makes the Communist party's stature too small, by any I>:n- cnlmly proved he hart been shot by fellow - Rnsslnn.s Anil - Russian pamphlets, vigovoust v assailed by the communists as vlolRthiR ArrX* tice tei'ins, turned out to have beer distributed by the Commvinisfx themselves in nn effort to get somc- Lhlni? to shout about. .... Even the fact that Communlsi 1-rino's post as Minister of the Interior gives him control over tin u-ould take another three or four , wjl] years of intensive help by the Unit- ! nff . A ed States and extensive work by the Europeans themselves to put. Europe back on its feet. Marshall then electrified Western Europe and put a chain ol events into operation by stating: Marshall's Challenge continue to operate 26 local offices, 14 full-time offices, and .serve 22 towns on a part-time basis. He said that congressional grants made available to the state now arc on a "workload" basis, > A new super aviation gnsoline J that surpasses the popular 100- in its efforts to alleviate the situation and help .start, the European world on it.s way to recovery, there must- be some agreement among | the, countries of Europe as to the | requirements of the situation and j Ihe part.s those countries them- ] selves \vili take in order to glvo j proper effect to whatever action might be undertaken by the government. ... - "The initiative must come from Kurope, Thr role of I his country should consist of friendly aid." When Marshall made his offer, the door was open to all of Kurope, Read Count. 1 ! 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