The Miami News from Miami, Florida on June 3, 1966 · 10
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The Miami News from Miami, Florida · 10

Miami, Florida
Issue Date:
Friday, June 3, 1966
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101 THE MIAMI NEWS, Friday, June 3, 1966 Cernan Takes Lofty Stroll Tomorrow 5 1 f. iV v. 1 - -:'r a ARTIST'S SKETCH of how Eugene Cernan will "walk" in space for two hours and 25 minutes. In the distance (lower right) is the target vehicle. Astronaut Thomas Stafford will remain in the spacecraft. HEIGHT, WEIGHT, ETC. Astronauts Are Like Two Peas From A Pad CAPE KENNEDY - The two American spacemen now in orbit for spectacular feats in the GT-9 mission are in many ways true "Gemini Twins." Thomas P. Stafford and Eugene A. Cernan are both six feet tall and weigh about 175. Both started out in the Navy. Both have brown hair and blue eyes. Stafford, the command pilot, is a member of the second class of astronauts. Pilot Cernan, who will make only the second space walk in American annals, is a member of the third or "sophomore" class and has no previous space experience. Stafford flew in December with Wally M. Schirra. He is also a veteran of five "scrubs" that occurred after he had actually entered the spacecraft. Born Sept. 17, 1930 in Weather-ford, Okla., he was graduated with a bachelor of science degree from the Naval Academy in 1952, but chose a career with the Air Force. He is a lieutenant colonel. He flew fighter interceptor craft in the U. S. and Germany and attended the USAF Experimental Flight Test School in 1958-59. Before becoming an astronaut, he was a chief experimental test pilot with the USAF Experimental Research Pilot School at Edwards AFB, Calif. GEMIM 10 V' I-' V V. A 1 1 IS Hm EUGENE CERNAN He is author of several manuals for test pilots. Balding, with calm, serene eyes, the laconic command pilot is the first astronaut to make two Gemini flights. His mother, Mrs. Ellen Crab-tree, still lives in Weatherford. Stafford married his boyhood sweetheart, the former Faye La-verne Shoemaker. They have two daughters, Dianne, 12, and Karen, 9. His hobbies are handball, weight-lifting and swimming. He is a member of Toastmasters International. Cernan was born March 14, 1934 in Chicago. His parents, Mr. and Mrs. Andrew G. Cernan, make their home in Bell-wood, 111. In 1936 he was graduated f " i a '4. Y THOMAS STAFFORD from Purdue with a degree in electrical engineering. He also has a master of science in aeronautical engineering from the Naval Post Graduate School at Monterey, Calif. He is a member of Tau Beta Pi, engineering scholarship honorary. Before he became an astronaut, he was a member of several attack squadrons based in California. He is a Navy lieutenant commander. He is married to the former Barbara Jean Atchley, of Corpus Christi, Texas. They have a daughter, Teresa Dawn, born in 1963. His space specialty is spacecraft propulsion. His specialties on earth are sports cars and charcoal-broiling big Texas steaks. Rendezvous Drills Now Crews Clean Up For Are Tricky Ones Next Shot CAPE KENNEDY AP) -The smoke around the launch pad barely cleared today in the wake of Gemini 9 before crews began clearing debris in prep aration for launching Gemini 10, now scheduled to blast off July 18. The Titan 2 rocket that will carry Gemini 10 Astronauts John W. Young and Michael Collins on a three-day rendezvous and space walk mission is due to be erected Tuesday or Wednesday. Navy Cmdr. Young and Air Force Maj. Collins plan to rendezvous with an Agcna target satellite and carry out a lengthy space walk by Collins. The Gemini 10 launch is scheduled in the mid-afternoon of July 18. when Gemini 10 can also be placed in a position to rendezvous with another target satellite already in orbit the Agena launched for the Gemini 6 mission March 16. In order to get to Gemini 8's Agena, the Gemini 10 crew will have to first link up with their own Agena and then start the Agena's main engine while the two satellites are coupled together. Thrust from Gemini 10 Agena could propel the spacemen into a higher orbit, where they would find the other target satellite. SURVIVAL KITS FOR SPACE MEN HOUSTON 'API - Should something force the Gemini 9 astronauts to land in a remote rea, each man has a compact 23-pound survival kit. It includes a one-man life rafter, radio, flashlight, mirror, compass, sewing kit, 14 feet of Ejloa line, whistle, batteries, radio, sunglasses, sunbonnet and chemicals to desalt eight pints of sea water. CAPE KENNEDY (AP) -Gemini 9's astronauts plan an elaborate set of rendezvous exercises during three days in orbit, as well as man's most extensive space walk. Tne complex flight of Air Force Lt. Col. Thomas P. Stafford and Navy Lt. Cmdr. Eugene A. Cernan figures prominently in Project Apollo, America's program to send men to the Moon. Proposed highlights of Gemini 9: A rendezvous with a target vehicle during the third orbit, the quickest rendezvous attempted. Two previous efforts by American spaceships Gemini 6 with Gemini 7, and Gemini 8 with an Agena occurred on the fourth orbit. A 2 hour, 25 minute space walk by Cernan, the third and longest orbital stroll in history. Russian Cosmonaut Alexei Leo-nov took the first walk outside a spaceship 17 minutes on March 18, 1965. Air Force Lt. Col. Edward H. White II followed on June 3, 1965, with a 21-minute walk. Two key re-rendezvous maneuvers with the target. One simulates two men descending in a small module to the lunar surface, then deciding to return to the mothership without landing. The second exercise concerns a rendezvous with a powerless spacecraft. Here is a comparison of the 20 previous manned space flights: By AL VOLKER Miami Nwi Space Writer CAPE KENNEDY - Tomor-row morning a young American astronaut will wave a casual hand at his space buddy and step out the door for a leisurely stroll In the galaxy. Eugene Cernan, a member of the astronaut sophomore class, will be the center of the world's cars, rather than its eyes, for 24 hours tomorrow morning. For an hour of his historic space walk, radio and television listeners have been promised by NASA they will hear him talking with command pilot Tom Stafford. But for the other 114 hours, when the world has him on a string with no hidden wires the tiny transmitter in his back pack will enable him to talk only with Stafford. Ground stations will judge from Stafford's half of the conversation how the mission is going. They will bother Stafford with a minimum of chat- Improved Spaceship Wiring Is 'Best Ever' HOUSTON (AP) - With an inexpensive new switch, plus probably the best wiring ever wound through a space-craft, Gemini 9 officials feel confident they can avoid a near-tragic emergency like one that struck Gemini 8. "The wiring was good before, but we're making it better," said Charles A. Mathews, Gemini program manager, as Gemini 9 was being prepared for launch on a three-day rendezvous, docking and space walk flight. Investigators blamed a maneuvering thruster in Gemini 8's rear section for the tumbling, spinning ride in orbit that forced Neil A. Armstrong and Air Force Lt. Col. David R. Scott to America's first emergency landing from space March 16. The blame was placed on a short circuit somewhere in the spacecraft, falsely commanding the thruster a small rocket to fire. However, the location of the short, or its cause, remains a mystery. Mathews said the short most likely occurred in the wiring or in the solenoids, magnetic switches that control the rocket valves. To avoid another emergency, he added, technicians took corrective actions in all possible trouble areas. The improvement Mathews liked best was in the master switch controlling power to all 16 maneuvering rockets used in space. The new switch, located on the astronauts' control panel, offers double protection against a stray signal reaching the rockets. It activates two circuit breakers to cut off electricity in Gemini 9's maneuvering system. Gemini 8 had only one. Mathews noted that Armstrong had turned the Gemini 8 maneuvering rockets off shortly after docking with an Agena rocket. However, he said, somehow the short allowed electricity to reach the No. 8 rocket anyway. "Now with a 100 per cent degree of confidence," Mathews said of the twin breaker switch, "you can say the power in that system is off when you throw that switch." 0 Busy Time Planned tcr because when Stafford is listening or talking to the ground, he can't be listening or talking with the fast-flying Cernan. Cernan will have plenty of tasks to keep him busy during his walk, encumbered as he will be by a pressurized space suit and with bulky packs on his chest and his back. His great adventure will start at 20 hours and 51 minutes after today's liftoff time. After the cabin has been depressur-ized and both astronauts are living inside their suits, Cernan will open the right hatch, above him. At the beginning of the 14th revolution he will stand in his seat and do two things mount a Maurer movie camera outside to take pictures of his stroll and retrieve a microme-tcoroid package which had been left open during the astronauts' eight-hour sleep period. The package will measure and count the impacts of space particles in the orbital flight and also observe their effects on bacteria, viruses, spores, bacilli, molds, etc. Cernan will hand the package to Stafford. Still on his 25-foot umbilical line, Cernan will evaluate it, the handrail and the sticky handgrips by which he will work his way to the rear of the spacecraft. There, in the hollowed-out base, he will look over the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit and cut away any debris that may still be attached. Just before sunset after his 56-minute "day" in orbit he will settle into position on hand and foot bars, dimly lighted for the "night" pass. He will test the various systems, hook the 25-foot umbilical to the 125-foot tether and then back into the back-pack. He will see A Far Out Club NAME DATE ORBITS ALTITUDE FLIGHT TIME (MILES) Gagarin Apr 12, '61 1 110-187 1 Hr, 48 Min. Shepard May 5. '61 Suborbit 116 lS.Min. Grissom Juiy 21, '61 Suborbit 118 16 Min. Titov Aug 6, ,!61 17 100-159 25 Hrs, 18 Min. Glenn Feb 20, '62 3 100-162 4 Hrs, 56 Min. Carpenter May 24, '62 3 99-167 4 Hrs, 56 Min. Nikolayev Aug 11, '62 64 114-156 94 Hrs, 35 Min. Popovich Aug 12. '62 43 112-153 70 Hrs, 57 Min. Schirra Oct 3, '62 6 100-176 9 Hrs, 13 Min. Cooper May 15, '63 22 100-166 34 Hrs, 20 Min. Bykovsky June 14, '63 81 107-146 119 Hrs, 6 Min. Tereshkova June 16, '63 48 113-144 70 Hrs, 50 Min. Komarov. Yegorov Oct 16, '64 16 110-255 24 Hrs. 17 Min. and Feoktistov Beljayev-Leonov Mar 18, '65 17 107-308 27 Hrs. 2 Min. Grissom-Young Mar 23, "65 3 100-139 4 Hrs, 53 Min. McDivitt-White June 3, "65 62 100-174 97 Hrs. 56 Min. Cooper-Conrad Aug 21, '65 120 100-216 190 Hrs, 56 Min. Borman-Lovell Dec 4, '65 206 100-205 330 Hrs, 33 Min. Schirra-Stafford Dec 15, 65 17 100-185 25 Hrs, 5 Min. Armstrong-Scott Mar 16, '66 6!4 100-185 W Hrs, 42 Min. A " i SY ' y- JglM. ; "k:: Via 7 I ' o 2V2 Hours 'Outside' how he is doing by referring to a mirror clamped on his fore-arm. Just before the second "day" dawns, Stafford will uncouple the Gemini from the target ve-hide and drop 120 feet behind it. He will then fire the squibs which will cut the AMU loose now buckled on Cernan. From that point on Cernan will be independent of the spacecraft, although he will be attached by his lifeline. He will carry his own air, heat, power, propulsion, etc. After moving about 40 feet from the aircraft he will test his thrusters the 12 which move him forward and back and up and down and the attitude controls which allow him to pitch (end over end) or yaw (turn to the right or left). He will do this with and without the automatic stabilizing controls provided. The command pilot will then maneuver gingerly toward him, simulating the rescue of an astronaut forced out of a disabled craft. After extensive maneuv-ering'near the docking adapter, Cernan will move back to the spacecraft, reconnect directly to the 25-foot umbilical and jettison the 125-foot tether and the AMU. He will reopen the hatch A SPACE RESCUE serv ice is under discussion, but still at least a couple of years away, to prevent an astronaut from orbiting to death if he could not save himself. The difficulties are numerous and the cost of solving problems is in the $1 billion range. Here a Gemini rescue capsule (right) goes to the aid of an injured spaceman in another Gemini in an artist's concept. It was drawn by an artist for the Martin Co., one of whose engineers has proposed an international space rescue service under United Nations auspices. Gemini 9 Has Tragic Chapter CAPE KENNEDY (AP) -The story of Gemini 9 has a tragic chapter. Two young astronauts originally chosen to fly the mission died Feb. 23 in a flaming jet crash only a few feet from their spacecraft. Air Force Lt. Col. Thomas P. Stafford and Navy Lt. Cmdr. Eugene A. Cernan stepped up to prime pilots' jobs under a long-standing space agency policy of having two trained crews for each space mission. They had trained side-by-side with Elliot M. See Jr., a civilian, and Air Force Maj. Charles A. Bassett II, two rookie spacemen who looked forward to Bassett had been scheduled to make the space walk. Cernan now will take the walk, a 2 hour, 25 minutes jaunt using a sophisticated back pack with 12 small rockets to maneuver him. Bassett, 34, and See, 38, died on a low-overcast morning when approaching a St. Louis airport adjacent to the McDonnell Aircraft Corp., builder of Gemini spacecraft. The jet, piloted by See, crashed into a building that housed Gemini 9, which was undergoing final inspection before being shipped to Cape Kennedy. Findings of the investigators who which which had been almost closed. He will not reenter the ship until after the beginning of the second orbital "night." After sunset he will take dimlight photos with a Widelux camera handed to him by Stafford. His Milky Way and air glow layer photography will take S to 10 minutes. He will climb in and close his hatch so the cabin can be re-pressured after two hours and 25 minutes outside, Cernan's space walk is scheduled to last much longer than the two one American and one Russian that have preceded him. Only one other such space walk is planned in the Gemini series the 12th and last. If events work out right, the spacewalker in the last mission may saunter over to the GT-8 Agena which was launched last spring and will still be orbiting to pick up the micro meteoroid packages aboard it. But if there are schedule changes, an earlier Gemini crew may be searching for the lonely Agcna, so a timer will turn on the Agena 8's lights sometime in July. Hopefully, there will be no failures or planning changes and the Gemini flights which are giving flight and ground crews valuable experience for the dash to the Moon will become obsolete on schedule. probed the crash have not been released. There has been no official mention of dedicating the flight of Gemini 9 to the memory of its original crew. However, Stafford and Cernan planned to take mementos from the Bassett and See families on their space trip. What the mementos are has not been disclosed. An alternate pilot has taken over only once before Gemini 9. Navy Cmdr. M. Scott Carpenter flew the nation's fourth Mercury flight after doctors detected a slight heart condition in Donald K. Slayton, the original prime pilot. Cernan said he had "no real big catching up to do" after finding himself the prime pilot beside Stafford, the command pilot. Parts Galore HOUSTON (AP) - A lot of nuts and bolts as well as complex "space age" instruments went into the Gemini 9 spacecraft. Officials say it has 1,367,059 parts built by more than 4,000 contractors in 42 states. The Titan II rocket used for launch consists of 10,000 parts from 1,500 companies. Doctors Jittery - No Check On Heart In Walk CAPE KENNEDY (AP) - For the first time, an American astronout will not be equipped to beam his heartbeats from space when Gemini 9 pilot Eugene Cernan takes the most exotic part of his 2-hour space walk. Doctors, accustomed to a great outpouring of medical data from the nation's orbiting spacemen, harbor some apprehension about the prospect of not knowing Cernan's heart and respiration rates at all times during his walk tomorrow. They had hoped that before Gemini 9's space stroll they would have more information than they do on how man reacts to excursions outside a spacecraft. But, Gemini 8 left time." Officials had banked heavily on what Air Force Lt. Col. David R. Scott would learn during a 2'4-hour walk during Gemini 8, which was brought to an emergency landing March 16 before Scott got a chance to take it. He was to be monitored constantly. Then, it was too late to change the monitoring design for a rocket-powered back pack Cernan plans to use to propel himself through space. The pack does not include equipment to send his heart and respiration rates to earth. "I'd be lying if I told you I didn't have some apprehension," said Dr. Charles A. Berry, Gemini medical director. "But we've looked at this thing with every possible safety precaution in mind and feel everything will be okay." During the first hour and a half of his stroll, Cernan will be connected to the spacecraft's oxygen and communication equipment through a 15-foot umbilical. Tracking stations during this period can monitor how his body adapts to its new environment. However, once Cernan begins using the back pack, only the Gemini 9 tape recorder will receive the vital body rates and that only for playback after the flight. He disconnects the umbilical. All Cernan's oxygen for the last hour will come from the pack. A 125-foot tether line is only a nylon rope containing no lines for communications or oxygen. He will converse with his command pilot, Air Force Lt. Col. Thomas P. Stafford, by radio. Some uneasiness from doctors centers around the experiences of Air Force Lt. Col. Edward H. White during his brief 21-minute stroll around Gemini 4. White's heart rate climbed rapidly to 180 beats a minute and showed no signs of slowing down. "That's really ticking it off," Berry said. "We wouldn't want a man's heart to stay that high for a long period of time." "So, supposing his (Cernan's) heart rate is up to 180 when you see him over a tracking station," Berry explained. "What we're going to do is tell him to slow up, and see if the rate goes down." "If it does," he said, "We'll be willing to go ahead and commit him to this (the back pack experiment)." If it doesn't drop? "If we have some idea that he's overextending himself, well, we can try and get Tom and Gene to come to that conclusion themselves," Berry noted. He said that the crew's own judgment will figure into any decision. However, Berry feels Cernan will have no trouble. "He's in a very fine physical state," the doctor said. "He has trained himself to a very high level of fitness." SOVIU RUSSIA f Affonfic Oceon L K B ... CANADA ll Pacific Octan . a i i v iijii rwsJ I AUS1RAUA 9 This Is The Way Gemini 9 Will Make lis Orbits Here are the patterns for orbits of Gemini 9, which overcame weeks of delays and this morning took off from Cape Kennedy, riding the powerful Titan 2 rocket The launch, after a 17-day delay, sent Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford and Eugene A. Cernan on their three-day rendezvous and spacewalk mission. 1 ,

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