Alton Evening Telegraph from Alton, Illinois on August 30, 1956 · Page 17
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Alton Evening Telegraph from Alton, Illinois · Page 17

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Alton, Illinois
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Thursday, August 30, 1956
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Page 17
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ALTON EVENING TELEGRAPH Section 2 Pages 17-3-4 Established January 15, 1836 ALTON, ILL., THURSDAY, AUGUST 30, 1936. 5c Per Copy Member of The Associated Preai NOW .. another convenient place to pay your phone bill Now you can pay your phone bill at THE THRIFTY DRUG STORE in the Wllshire Village Shopping Center, East Alton. They're open from 9 a. m. to 9:30 p. m., Monday through Saturday, to 9 p. m. Sunday. There is no charge for this service. Other convenient places to pay your telephone bill: IN ALTON—Telephone Business Office, 212 East 3rd Street; hours 8 a. m. to 5 p. m.. Monday through Friday. IN WOOD RIVER—Telephone Business Office, 146 East Ferguson; hours 8 a. m. to 5 p. m., Monday through Friday. IN COTTAGE HILLS—See Mrs. Margaret Newcomb at Brownies Market; hours 8 a. m. to 5 p. m., Monday through Friday, 8 a. m. to 12 noon Saturday. Of course, if you prefer, you may still mail your payments to the Telephone Business Office or drop in to see us at any time. If you have any questions we can answer by phone, in Alton call your Service Representative on 5-9981. J. L. Black, Manager Illinois Bell Telephone Co. •Use Classifieds' To BUT, Rent, Sell, Noliiy- UA US CLOSEST TO EARTH I \ 26 YEARS By -TAMES Science Service Aslrnnomy Writer lip long-awaited visit of Mare to tho earth is now here. This red planet now shines brilliantly in the southeastern evening sky. At midnight on Sept. 6, EST, ils distance will bo only 35.120,000 miles — closer than it has come since 1924. Not until 1971 will it come even nearly as close. Such an approach of Mars occurs when the plant is at opposition, i.e., when it is in a part of the sky directly opposite the sun. Consequently, in September, it will be rising in the east as the sun is settling in the west, and thus will remain vis-; ible throughout the night; Mars is now in the constellation of Aquarius, the water carrier, and its position is shown on (he accompanying maps. These depict the sky as it appeal's j about 10:00 p. m., your own kind of standard time, at the first of September, an hour earlier at the middle of the month, and two I hours earlier at 1he end. (Add! one hoir for daylight saving i lime). The magnitude of Mars on the scale used by the astronomer, is minus 2.6, far brighter than any other object seen in the evening, with the exception of the moon. This, and its red color, make it easy to identify. Earlier in the evening, however, another planet, can be seen. This is Saturn, which is in the constellation of Libra, the scales, a group that sets before the times for which the maps are drawn. Just as soon as darkness has fallen, Saturn can be seen in the southwestern sky — of magnitude 0.8. This is equal to a first magnitude star, but is only about a twenty-fifth as bright as Mars. Saturn and Mars are the only planets visible in the September evening skies. The other bodies shown are stars which, like the sun, shine with their own light. The planets, on the other hand, are visible because of the sunlight they reflect to us. Also the planets are much closer. They THE BIG 3 FEATURES • Are in Both Kinds of FOR FRANKFURTERS HAMBURGERS WONDER BUNS Are Ready-Sliced And Packaged In Cellephane Te Keep Fresh! For hamburgen, frankfurters, sandwiches or "hurry-up" meals—nothing can compare with these amazing Wonder Bunt. Because Wonder Bunt have the Big 3 Featuret that make perfect bunt: !• Wonder Bunt are super-shortened for better flavor. You know what shortening does. 2» Wonder Bunt contain de-fatted milk for better flavor and for better health. You know what milk doet. 3« Wonder Buns contain pure sugar for better toasting. You know what pure sugar does. The result is—when you use Wonder Buns—your sandwiches, lunches and parties are * bigger success. There's nothing quite so good ... So get Wonder Bun* with the Big 3 Features today. At your grocer's— ready-sliced—fresh in cellophane. CfenMnmt taf Ming Cemjwn>» /««• loktd ly Tilt Mm Of Famous WONDER BREAD Get WONDER BUNS with the BIG 3 FEATURES TODAY! l/o///'/# /'/'• ///</// /t/y Av/•,,// /o/ h>> fit i ' .tfKji^K i lf -.. /v //,. t { u f ,t l( ,-.. AV//V/ p.-jttn^ . are members of our own family o! orbs which revolve around the sun. The brightest star now visible is Vega, in Lyra, the lyre, high in the west, and nearly twice as bright as Saturn. Below it, to the left, is Aquila, the eagle, in which Altair shines. And practically overhead is Cygnus, the swan, of which Deneb is the brightest star. Three other stars shown are of the firs' magnitude, but all are quite low, so their brightness is dimmed on account of the greater 'thickness of the earth's atmosphere through which their light has to pass in reaching us. One is Capella, in Auriga, the charioteer, which is near the northeastern horizon. During winter months this star climbs high overhead. Low in the south is Piscis Au- strinus, the southern fish, with the star called Fomalhaut. This is a group in the far southern part of the sky, now almost as high as it ever rises for us. And low in the northwest we find Arcturus, in Bootes, the bear- driver, which shone high in the south in evenings of May and June, but is y now about to disappear for a while. The planet Venus, so brilliant; in the evening a few months' ago, is now prominent in the east for several hours before sunrise. It is even brighter, than i Mars. Of the other naked-eye I planets," both Mercury and Jup-' iter are now nearly in line with the sun, and above the horizon only during daylight hours, when they cannot be seen. Even though Mars is now making the closest approach in 32 years and is being observed with some of the world's greatest j telescopes, it is still not possible to see it as well as we can view the moon through a good pair of binoculars. But despite this handicap, intensive studies made j| over the years have revealed many facts about it. This year, i with newer instruments and improved techniques, some of the! remaining puzzles may be solved. Chief feature of the planet, seen through a good-sized telescope, is the white areas around its poles. At present the south pole of Mars is turned to our view and. it is the southern hemisphere which we can observe best. Spring began there j on May 4 (by our calendar) and j summer comes on Sept. 27. Dur-, ing this time the southern polar cap has been receding, but it seldom disappears completely. The one around the north Martian pole, which we can see at! other times, never disappears. While these caps are undoubtedly frozen water, they are not deep fields of snow and ice, like those around the poles of the earth. Rather do they seem to be very thin deposits of frost. They do not actually melt, but evaporate. Even solid ice can I pass directly into the vapor phase ' without first turning to water, and wet clothes (on earth) will dry on the line even in winter, with the temperature continually below freezing. Something like three-quarters of the surface of Mars is covered with areas that are reddish or yellowish in color. These are thought to be mainly deserts. The red areas may be of a mineral like some of those known on earth, consisting largely of iron oxide — that is, iron "rust". But about t fifth of the surface is dark, and these areas change color wit!' the advancing Martian seasons. Since they show greenish hues it is believed that these are artas of vegetation — however, they could hardly be forests like those on earth, or even grassy plains, because of the rigorous conditions that exist there. With an instrument called a j termocouple, attached to a large j telescope, temperatures have been measured on the surface • of Mars. Although determine- ; tions made by different observers vary somewhat, it has been estimated, by W. \V. Coblentz, for example, that it may get above 86 degrees Fahrenheit at noon, when closest the sun and that on the dark side it may drop as low as 150 below zero. The mean temperature would be in the neighborhood of 10 degrees as compared with about 60 on the earth. Mars has an atmosphere, although at the surface it is only about an eleventh as dense as the earth's at sea level, that is, about the same density as ours would be at tin altitude of 11 miles. It contains littlu if any oxygen, certainly less than one per cent of the proportion that we enjoy. There is about twice as much carbnn dioxide as we, have, and perhaps nitrogen as j well. Clouds sometimes appear | in the Martian air. They are of several kinds: white clouds, probably similar to cirrus clouds on earth, which consist of ice crystals; a peculiar bluish cloud, be^ lieved to consist of much finer ice crystals: and others that are yellow in color — perhaps sand or dust storms. One kind of vegetation known i on earth might be able to exist under Martian conditions, namely the lichens. Actually there are two different plants — algae and fungi living together, in "symbiosis", the biologist calls it. They share the labor; the fungus protects from cold and holds moisture, while the algae build up organic substances and supply oxygen to the system. On Ih WEST o » o . SYMBOLS FOR STARS IN ORDER OF BRIGHTNESS our planet they grow where no other plant can survive, on rocks in the Himalayas as high as 16,000 feet, for example. So it might be that lichens, or some comparable form of vegetation, make up the greenish areas on Mars, flight*r "life; especially~arrima 1 lite, seems very unlikely. The chief evidence for any such, in the past, was the so-called canals. These were discovered, when Mars made a close approach in 1877, by an Italian astronomer named Schiaparelli. He saw what seemed to be a network of straight lines crossing the planet and called them "canali", which is Italian for "channels". However, the word was translated into English as "canals", and that is what they are now generally called. Doubtless this mistranslation has had a lot to do with the idea that they are some sort of artificial structure, since ''canal", unlike "channel," con notes a waterway made by man. But a famous astronomer, Percival Lowell, who founded the Lowell Observatory at Flagstaff, Ariz., where some of the most important studies of Mars have been made, did propose a theory that they form a complicated network of actual canals, dug by intelligent beings to carry water supplies around an arid planet Very few authorities hold to this theory now, and the nature of the canals is still a puzzle that has not been solved! Some think that they are merely illu sions, for under some conditions when not seen very clearly, irreg ular chance markings may lool as if they formed straight lines Othefs believe that something s there, although they do not mow what. Perhaps, as one as- ronomer. Dr. Robert S. Richardson of the Mt. Wilson Observa- ory has suggested, when we find out some day just what, they ac- ually are we will be disappointed. They may turn out to b« something of which we already iave some general knowledge, and we will wonder why nobody ever thought of that. A full explanation may not come until interplanetary explorw ation has made it possible to go 1o Mars and see what the canals really are. CKLESTIAL TIME TABLE September, 1956 SEPT. EST 1 7:29 a.m. 2 11:00 p.m. 4 11:00 a.m. 1:57 p.m. 6 12:00 midnight 10 2:01 a.m. 5:00 p m 11 7:13 p.m. 14 12:00 p.m. 10 9:02 a.m. 10:19 p. m. 23 3:36 p.m. 26 8:00 a.m. 27 30 6:25 a.m. 8:51 p.m. 9:00 p.m. Subtract one hours for MST, Moon passes Vemii Moon nearest, 224,300 miles dlitant Jupiter on opposite side of sun New moon Mars nearest, dli> t a n c c 35,120,000 Miles Moon passes Saturn Earth between Mars and sun Moon In first quarter Moon farthest, di»- tance 251,700 miles Moon passes Mars Full moon (Harvest Moon — for several nights about this dat« rises at nearly same hour) Sun directly over equator, beginning of autumn Mercury between sun and earth Moon In la*t quarter Moon passes Venus Moon nearest, dliv tance 227,000 miles hour for CST, tw» and three for PST. 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