The Washington Post from Washington, District of Columbia on March 17, 1912 · Page 4
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The Washington Post from Washington, District of Columbia · Page 4

Washington, District of Columbia
Issue Date:
Sunday, March 17, 1912
Page 4
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7 i - - - lv - - A - Sif Aj - - iS - - VH s 7xJv Vf if t - safe iC - T litest - s - sfcr lis THE WASHINGTON PQst StINDAT MARCH 17 1912 Biggest Forn in the ftorld HHBUlllllH v IB HHHlHi HsBsilllllllllllllllHiV Pb - iy4 - vd H H IT IS SO LARGE THAT NO MAN WILL EVER BE ABLE TO BLOW IT New York World Here is a photograph of the biggest bass horn in the world Its tremendous notes will never be heard for there is not a man in existence with a mouth big enough or lungs of sufficient capacity to blow it But that docs not matter as it was made as an advertisement for a firm of musical instrument manufacturers that has a house in New York familiarly known as the House of the Monster Bass Its height is 9j feet Its bell 3 feet across and its mouthpiece is 3 inches in diameter Other parts are in proportion It would require a man with a mouth like a young hippopotamus and lungs like a whale to play this trumpet and the sound would be like that of the siren of a transatlantic steamer starting dcfwn the bay in a fog low Noise at such close range that his eyes and face are still speckled with i the powder The bullet missed Yellow Nose wounding his horse In the neck Yellow Nose was struck a heavy glancing blow across the forehead with the gunsight blinding him for - the moment and filling his eyes with biood This same man who had fired at him was next seen by Yellow Nose at a small mound on the ridge and on foot with about 30 men gathered round him He w as bareheaded and armed only with a pistol As the Indians bore down upon this group a number of the soldiers apparently lost courage and ran to lower ground close to the base of theinound The officer shouted loudly to the men and drew nearer to them when he found that they did not hear or were unwilling to obey him The appearance of this - man was so striking and gallant tnat Yellow Nose decided that to kill him would be a feat of more than ordhiary prowess Yellow Nose was armed only with an old cavalry saber having lost his gun This saber had belonged to a boyhood friend a Shoshone at whose death j his mother had given the saber to Yellow Nose The battle had gone - against the soldiers so heavily at this point that the officer stood Anally alone With his saber drawn Yellow Nose rode headlong upon his enemy prepared to cut him down at a stroke Already wounded arrd trembling with fright - Yellow Noses pony bolted when the officer fired at close range with a s - mall pistol but missed both man and horse Getting his pony in hand again Yellow Nose charged a secCnd time and again the officer fired and the pony sprang aside and beyond him Determined to get within striking distance Yellow Nose gathered himself for a third onslaught As he drew near the pistol was not fired it wag empty He came squarely upon the officer who bent his knees as if to ward 6ftHhe blow of the uplifted saber Yellow Nose struck him with terrific violence on the back of the head and the man sank to the ground in a heap When questioned closely Yellow Nose gsAid that the man betrayed no fear but that he remembered seeing tears in his eyes He was unable to tell the extent of the wound as he rode onward in pursuit of fugitives Many dead soldiers were heaped around this mound and this fact drew crowds of curious Indians to that point after Custer and all his men had been destroyed Yellow Nose saw the body of his adversary lying in a depression dressed in a buckskin suit in the fringe of which were red bead - like berries which frontiersmen used for that purpose The body was stripped of the coat and trousers The Indians said that this man was Custer It would be impossible to convince many old warriors now living in Oklahoma but who were in the battle of the Little Big Horn that Yellow Nose did not give Custer his mortal blow fytxcHvc Spmef tehtbat Sing MUSICAL MEMBERS OF THE FINNY TRIBE PRODUCE SWEET STRAINS Tid - Bita 99S N NO class ot the animal king - donr are there so many curious examples as that which comprehends- the finny tribes of sea lake - and river Of these there is none more remarkable than the so - called musical fish fc - Jf there is pne - rcpmmon characteristic of all - marine animals more noteworthy than another it is their absolute silence or vqicelessness The only exception to this is the fish that sings Its music Is only heard at night or in the evening after the sun has set and particular places appear to be frequented by the fish for on sailing away from them the sound becomes inaudible and on returning it is heard again In long notes low and clear and perfectly distinct the sounds always seem to come up from the surface of the water At one locality Chilka Lake ah inlet of the sea on the east coast of Ceylon the - musical fish gives forHh sounds like the gentle thrills of a musical chord or the faint vibrations of a wineglass when its rim is rubbed by a wet finger - tip a multitude of tiny sounds each clear and distinct in itself the sweetest treble mingling with the lowest bass The fish appears to abound off the Cingalese Coast and they have been met with out at sea in deep soundings at least a hundred miles from Ceylon Their strange mufic has also been heard in the muddy creeks near Bombay and Salsette and at Vizagapatam and along tire rCoromandel Coast It Is audible on a - calm night amongv tn uianas or xne Mergui Archipelago off thelcoast - of Bur - - ma and too in the fresh water of the Sarumoth Kiver in Borneo and the notes havebeen compared to the rising and falling of an Aeolian harp or to music borne on the wind from a dttsant shore Thenatlves along the coast of the Bay otEJfUlon in Ecuador where this extra - orddnaryr phenomenon ofthemarine world is io be heard singing through the night call it the siren or the musico the drowsy music all of - one pitch filling the calm air seductively What manner of fish It is that produces the sounds has as yet not been definitely ascertained American naturalists generally postulate that the nrusjoal fish tof their coasts ami of the West Indies in especial of theBacbs Islands near Trinidad whereit abounds - is a large fish known to Zoologists as the Pagonias chromis growing to five feet in length and swimming about in shoals In the gullet of the fish are three movable plates covered with large teeth and it is suDposedthat it is the action of these that produces the sounds As - of course sound travels a great way under water the slightest note is distinctly heard by any one on the surface The fishermen of the Bay of Pailon say thatjt is a white fish with bluish spots on the back and about 10 inches long wlvieh they catch on the spot while it is singing But as regarls their statement the great difficulty is that the mere hooking of such a fish near the surface is no proof that it is the fish which is a mel - odist for the first might have been swimming near the surface while the second the real performer is feeding quietly at the bottom Anyhow it has been conclusively ascertained that there is a fish which sings Largest Steamer in the WLorid Believes fe Killed Custer OKLAHOMA INDIAN SAYS HE STRUCK FAMOUS GENERAL ON HEAD WITH SABER AT LITTLE BIG HORN BATTLE BIG LOSS BY ILLNESS T W St Louis Post - Dispateh H0 killed General George A Cus ter in the Battle of the Little Big Horn June 25 1876 The belief firmly prevails among the old warriors of the Southern Cheyenne and Arapahoe tribes in Oklahoma that Custer was slain by Yellow Nose a Ute ndlannow living on his allotment on the North Canadian River near the town of Geary Okla The Indians have beUered this for 35 years Yellow Nose who is not a boaster merely says that he killed a man an officer who other Indians said was Custer Yellow Nose had never seen Custer prior to the battle This man whose tribesmen so resolutely declare he took Custers life is now about 65 years old and well preserved save that he has been blind for many years from a blow across the forehead in the Little Big Horn fight which eventually destroyed his eyesight His bodv is Hampton Magazine HE question arises What is the economic value of a man Fortunately upon this point we have not only fairly accurate but very interesting statistics Prof Irving Fisher of Yale President of the Committee of One Hundred on National Health compiled an exhaustive report on the subject of the Conservation Congress His figures interesting in themselves are doubly valuable in connection with the w ork of the hospital social service as showing that these devoted workers are not tilting at windmills but at hard cold facts According to Prof Fisher 3000000 persons in Uncle Sams domain answer the cing Strict orders had been given by the war chiefs forbidding the firing of guns in camp as the near approach of troops was to be made known by two mounted warriors who were to ride at full speed and fire two shots as they passed each village The battle was orS Sunday a warm bright day Farthest down the river was the camp of the Northern Cheyennes where stood the lodge of the great war chief Crazy Horse About noon Crazy were in the river bathing when the firing sick cal1 evV morning This estimate he of guns was heard up the river Reno bases upon the well - known rule of TJr iji mmm j jinn i m - n nu and his men had crossed the Little Big Horn and were charging the upper villages only tobe beaten back in confusion and under such circumstances as came near dishonoring Reno Yellow Nose does not speak nor understand the English language What he said in recounting his experiences was translated by his friend Edward Guer - rlec the old scout Here he plunged into the detail of his narrative Yellow Nose ONE OF THE FUNNELS OF THE IMPERATOR IMPERATOR WILL BE A 50000 - TON MONSTER AND 900 FElET LONG William Farr of England that for each death per year there are two cases of illness In the United States there were in the year 1907 the year upon which Prof Fisher based his figures 1500000 deaths Of these 3000000 invalids abdut 500000 are suffering from tuberculosis a preventable disease One half of these tuber culosis patients are totally incapacitated Land und Meer R was confident that the Sioux would have the remainder about 50 per cent effective destroyed Reno liad they not charged so as workers Every return of a pulmo - quickly and so eagerly in defense of their nary case every case of incipient tuber - scarred with many wounds received in women and children who thereby were culosis nipped in the pleurisy bud every battle He will open his shirt and point to a hardened spot on his chest where a bullet tore through him when McKenzies men - gave battle in Powder River Canyon Yellow Nose was peering over an embankment not suspecting that danger was near at hand when he was shot from ambush When Yellow Nose was 4 years old he was captured from his people by the Northern Cheyennes one of whose women he married He was a scout under Gen - given time to scramble onto ponies flee on foot and escape westward Had the Sioux held back and let Reno come further down the river they could have surrounded him and cut him off from the hills in which he afterward found refuge Yellow Xose and his companions were delayed in rallying to the alarm owing to the absence of their ponies which had been driven away to graze By the time they got their mounts they discovered another body of troops eastward across the river The Cheyennes divided some going to resist Reno while others includ - lellow Xose crossed the Little Big patient saved from the hospitals for chronic invalids by the social service arm is a step toward the reduction of that awful total According to Prof Fisher all lives are useful when judged by the hard and fast rule of average which takes account of every individual from the vagrant up to the railroad President The actual value expressed in dollars and cents he puts at 2900 and the average value of the 630000 dying every year from preventable diseases at 1700 The latter figure is lower than the general average in order to equalize the higher average of the dying These 630000 preventable deaths meral Lawton at Ft Robinson and later Horn where a small stream or gulch de - therefore represent an economic loss to was given similar employment at Ft Reno In the plains country he met the French - Cheyenne scout Edward Guerrier and their friendship brought Yellow Nose to Oklahoma in the early seventies There was a constant passing to and fro of the Northern and Southern Indians in those days Yellow Nose tells a circumstantial story which old warriors in Oklahoma support with their own testimony as evidence that he was the man that killed Custer A number of Southern Cheyennes from Oklahoma were visiting the Northern Cheyennes at the time of the battle and took part in the engagement They brought numerous relics from the battlefields to Oklahoma In the neighborhood of Cantonment Okla may still be found guns taken from the dead troopers of the bouched from the east Climbing to a promontory formed by this gulch and the river the Indians saw troops advancing toward them along the orest of the divide that ran back from the Little Big Horn Yellow Nose was mounted on a fleet wiry pony in advance of his - companions whom the soldiers evidently thought were few in numbers as the crossing was difficult at that point The mistake of the soldiers the country every year of over 1000000 000 in potential earnings The loss from illness not resulting in death is even greater Of the 3000000 sick folks 1000000 are in the working period about three fourths of these actually workers These workers must lose from day laborer to railroad President an average of 700 in wages per year making the total loss from illness 500000000 Adding to this another 500 - oecame quicKty apparent when Indians 000000 expended in medicines special were seen literally springing from the foods c we find Uncle Sams total ground The galloping cavalrymen pulled doctor bill every year to amount to ECORDS for size in the ocean steamship world are not held long nowadays We find a new Goliath of the Ocean of Ger man construction The new ship now building for the Hamburg - American Line is to be called the Imperator and will be launched on the Elbe Mr Kerns tells us in a few months such a vessel he says as hitherto mans eye has not beheld The Imperator will have a gross tonnage of 50000 outdoing the Olympic and Titanic 45324 and 45000 The length of the Imperator over all will be about 900 feet Says Mr Kerns in uart It would be an impossibility for a man at the bow of the Imperator to recognize with the naked eye another standing in the stern If we think of the Imperator set up on end beside the cathedral of Cologne the heaven - reaching tower would come only to the second funnel of the steamship To get a still better idea of the size of the vessel it may be compared with one of the largest warehouses in the world the new store of Tietz on the Alexanderplatz in Berlin which although 40 houses were demolished to make room for it could be placed entirely inside the Imperator The steamship when complete and fully laden will displace 50000 tons The following figures show how much larger she is than the vessels which once held the worlds record for size The DeutcWand - once the largest hip of the Hamburg - American Line w - hich at the time she was built and for 10 years after was one of the wonders of the world displaced 16500 tons the Kalserin Auguste Victoria of the same line 24600 tons and the giant of English ocean liners the Mauretanla 32000 Each of the funnels of the Imperator will be so large that a steamer like those which ply on the river Spree could sail through it lengthwise The term floating hotel often applied to such ships when it is desired to emphasize their bulk would convey in the - case of the Imperator an impression far short of the truth For where in all the world is there a hotel that can hold 5 WO persons at once None exists of anwhera near such capacity It is the population of a small city One of the features of the Imperator is entirely new and unprecedented The first - cabin passengers on this ship will have the use of a roomy swimming - pool in a beautiful Pompeian hall Near by is a suit of rooms for gymnastics It will have a promenade - deck nearly a quarter of a mile long a great entertainment hall two stories high holding 700 guests a conversation room a smoking room a ladies hall a winter garden and a Ritz - Carlton restaurant serving a la carte It goes almost without saying that the Imperator will be driven by turbines What will be the next step on the part of the designers of steamship leviathans Will the English outbid their German cousins once more and if this keeps on how soon shall we reach the sea - monster of 100000 tons ephone Company 53 Ore HS2f3ald the Court By the adoption of the initiative and referendum into our constitution the legislative department of the state Is divided into two separate and distinct lawmaking - bodies There remains however as formerly but one legislative department of the state It operates it Is true differently than before one method hy the enactment of laws directly through that source of all legislative power the people and the other as formerly by their Representatives but the change thus wrought neither gives to nor takes from the LegislatIveAssembly the power to enact or repeal any law except in such manner and to such extent as may therein be expressly stated The powers thus reserved to the people merely took from the Legislature the exclusive right to enact laws at the same time leaving it a co - ordinate legislative body with them Thi3 dual system of making and unmaking laws has become the settled policy of the state and so recognized by decisions upon the subject South Dakota was the first state to adopt the initiative and referendum and Its Jaws on the subject are regarded as models of the kind The South Dakota Constitution originally provided that the legislative power shall be vested in a Legislature which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives - This was amended by adding a provision that the people expressly reserve to themselves the right to propose measures which measures the Legislature shall enact and submit to a vote of the electors of the state and also the right to require that any laws which the Legislature may have enacted shall - be submitted to a vote of the electors of the state before going into effect except such la - ws as may be necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace health or safety support of the state government and its existing public institutions provided that not more than 5 per centum of the qualified electors of the state shall be required to invoke either the initiative or the referendum Whe the 5 per cent or meye of the voters wish to use the referendum on any law passed by the Legislature in that state they file a petition with the Secretary of State within 90 days after the adjournment of the Legislature The law must then be submitted to the people As will be seen from the quotation just given from the constitution this 3 per cent can also propose legislation through the inftiative which they do through a petition to the Legislature That body has no choice it must submit to a referendum the law thus proposed through the initiative If the result of the referendum is favorable to the proposed law it goes into effect at once Besides this state - - wide referendum local laws and ordinances in the cities and towns of South Dakota are submitted to the vote of the eommunjties effected by them I San Francisco the initiative and referendum are in force but it takes 13 per cent of the voters to invoke the initiative It is generally assumed that the adoption of the initiative and referendum would lead to more radical legislation However Dr Edwin E Slosson writing to the Independent from Switzerland where he has been a spectator at a referendum election expressed the opinion based on what he has observed that the electorate was more likely to err in the direction of conservatism than of radicalism He wrote after seeing the referendum wipe an old - age pension law off the statute books three months after it had been enacted The recall had its American beginnings in Los Angeles where it was inserted in the city charter in 1903 The clause providing for it announces The holder of any elective office may be removed at any time by the electors qualified to vote for a successor of that incumbent If 23 per cent of the voters petition for the removal of such an officer the petition is filed with the City Clerk It must contain a statement of the reasipns for which the officials removaHa sbughfTf The City Clerk has 10 days in which to ascertain If the petition contains the requisite number of signatures and upon his certificate to that effect the city Council must order an election within from 30 to 40 days Unless the accused official requests otherwise in writing his name must be put upon the ballot as a candidate to succeed - himself The candidate receiving the highest number of votes whether it is he or another takes the office The other cities that have followed Los Angeless lead have modeled their recall laws after hers as a rule though some of thm require as high a percentage of voters as 30 or 40 to make the demand Oregon in 1808 adopted a constitutional amendment making every elective officer in the state from Constable to Governor and of course including Judges subject to the recall In that state the reasons for the recall of the official must be stated within 300 words and he is allowed the same space in which to defend himself A very curious case came up in Oregon last year in which a Circuit Judge named Coke was made the subject of a recall petition because of - his conduct of a murder trial The defendant was acquitted because of the Judges charge and the petition for Cokes recall charged him with giving unfair and erroneous instructions as to the law Thus the laymen of Douglas County Ore - were actually asked to pass upon a Judges knowledge and interpretation of the law not of the facts Gar protector deed in JS W gM8S8 VzhtMWxg till wftMtk fal lvAS f Avxstfrwjsw i S - ftVV Y - Svl1SMvX JP om riifw Sfeflfi44Kf T a vSiT - - k i 3t s N JRTT f v fr t s V A a I kTtwfcwrfe iiHlM im r - - - - - znTT tfti NOVEL LITTLE DEVICE SAVES DRUMS FROM SHOCKoF GUN FIRE Scientific American A daring photographer on board a battle ship recently tried to take a photograph of a salvo of 12 - inch guns while standing on the forward bridge The impact of the air waves produced by the discharge threw him on his back and wrecked his camera but the photograph was saved Many of our readers may have wondered how the men on deck can standVthe awful shock produced by the discharge of heavy artillery Of course the gunners within the turret are not af - fected much because the gun discharges outside To save the ear drums from destruction ear - protectors are employed such as shown In the accompanying photograph The protector consists - of a celluloid iJlece shaped somewhat like an anchor with a ball at one end which fits in the ear opening The device Is formed with a bore which turns at an angle at the ball and it is through this bore that sound wayes are permitted to travel to the ear The ordinary vibrations produced in speech are so small that they pass unhampered through the bore but the large - sound waves produced by the firing of big guns are impeded Doubk - Crosacd By Vlemor BANK ROBBERS PLAN FOR AN EASY LIFE CAME TO NAUGHT WHEN HE FORGOT THE ASSUMED NAME New York Telegraph R uown to a trot The Indians grew intensely excited and set up their war whoops The Cheyennes were not so well armed as the Sioux who carried quantities of ammunition fastened around their waists chests and arms ine soldiers fired first from their 1000000000 preventable about half of which is Seventh Cavalry For a number of years horses dismounting onlv after thev siw mixed Diooa cneyenne George Bent who lives at Colony Okla owned Custers pocket compass given to Bent by Bull Hand a Southern Cheyenne Bent sold the compass in 1879 to George Reynolds of the Indian trading firm of Lee fc Reynolds then at Camp Supply Okla As the story runs among Oklahoma Indians Custer and his men were first decoyed to the locality broken by ravines by Long Sioux and a companion Long Sioux lives near Cantonment When the grass began greening on the 4 DOG BITE SAVES MANS LIFE Estacada Ore Cor St Louis Globe - Democrat With his hands and feet frozen as a result of five days and nights exposure in mat tne Indians were not intimirlatprt The regimental band began playing to the tle mountain wilds during which his astonisiiment of the Indians but the musicians threw aside their instruments for guns The soldiers changed from a stand to a retreat as they were crowded upon by increasing and overwhelming numocrs Yellow Nose said that they made three stands It was the purpose of the Indians to get in the rear of the troops and gain the cover ofthe east slope of the ridge This the soldiers brkvelv rpsictod plains in the spring of 1S7G Yellow Nose and in their fury to dislodge the trooDS started with his wife to visit her rela - the Indians precipitately exposed them - tlves in the North Throughout the selves to a galling fire in the open It was Sioux and Northern Cheyenne country not until the close of the fight that the there was great unrest among the In - soldiers were driven to the west slope of dians and it was apparent that war was the ridge at hand Yellow Nose lingered until it was unsafe for him to attempt the journey home as small bands of Indians were in as great danger of losing their lives as were white men t caught traveling through the country - About the aniddle of June war parties began bring - At first the soldiers knelt and took deliberate aim each fourth man holding the horses Some stood up and shot like this said Yellow Nose leaning far forward and clutching an imaginary gun As the confusion perhaps despair in creased after the retreat from the first l An - - 4K nnnonn nP nni KtflllH aar - U oj - JIiax - - - rtArJ - A i - l - jjij5 in icpui us ur wic cbciiuc ut n uua w - ix mici iuuiv puacssiuii jl n in the Tongue River country and Yellow wn horse possible to be better able to Nose went several times with scouting escape if the battle went against them parties to observe the soldiers Finally Yellow Nose declared that this merely the Indians gave battle on the Rosebud hastened the disaster that followed The and then retired in the direction of the hed horses grew wild with fright and Little Big Horn Yellow Nose moving tneir rearing and plunging made it impos - withthem silIe for Ue soldiers to shoot with stead - A report spread among the Indians that iness and accuracy many pulling the troops were advaStclng with Shoshone trigger while their guns pointed straight scouts and inasmuch as General Crook above them Riderless horses stampeded had retired to the southward the Indians every direction leaving their dead be - expected the advance from that direction only food was raw cougar meat and art - er he had been saved from death by the bite of a fox terrier pup William La - morie of Portland a hunter and trapper arrived at Estacada in a pitiable condition and is now at the home of his brother David Lamoiie Physicians are working to save the frozen members from amputation La - morie and two companions had spent tne winter trapping and hunting in the mountains Their provisions gave out The other two men started for Detroit 14 miles away but Lamorie decided to come to Estacada alone In the deep snow he lost his bearings the scanty store of food which he carried gave out and he starved After three days of hunger he shot a cougar and existed on its raw flesh two days Then he fell into the snow in a stupor He was aroused after a time by his dog which bit his leg sharply and Lamorie began staggering again finally found his way to Estacada fclbat I and R and Recall Hrc MEASURES IN OPERATION IN SWITZERLAND AND ADOPTED BY SOME STATES IN THIS COUNTRY New York Times and To their Htter surnrlse the troons came taKen across the river from the east under the command of Yellow Nose had never seen Custer He Custer There was much bitterness against twice encountered the man whose body Ouster among the Indians because of his was found after the battle and - identified alleged massacre of the Black Kettle vii - by the Indians as that of Custer Yellow lage of Southern Cheyennes on the Nose had shot a trooper and in accord - Washita River in Indian Territory now anee with Indian custom was running Oklahoma rorwara to strike the body with a stick The villages of the different FEATS OF A REPORTER Kansas City Star The Clay Center Times points with pride to one of its reporters who has broken the record He not only wrote a wedding notice without mentioning the names of either the bride or bridegroom hind and were caught by the Indians and but he reported a basket - ball game with out mentioning the score or even so much as told which team won the game HAD TROD THE PATH BEFORE IJudje Miller Just as Millet and the widow started up the aisle to the altar every tribes which in the Cheyenne language is called light in the church went out stretched for several miles along the west koos The soldier called for help when Mumford YV hat side of the valley of the Little Big Horn he saw his enemy bearing down upon him theh Yellow Nose went from village tJ village and several mounted comrades rushed to Miller Kept on on the night of June 24 to see the dan - his rescue One of these men fired at Yel - knew the way did the couple do going The widow TTAT pro tho JnlHaHio tlia fr U I endum and the recall iney are woras in everynoay s mouths just now but a pretty fair proportion of those who talk about them have a vague Idea of what they mean Summing them up they may be said to be three instruments whereby the representative system of government so long in use in this country will be considerably enfeebled and the people will obtain a more direct control and management of the Government than they have ever had State after state is adopting one or all of these new measures when the nineteenth century closed only one state had the initiative and referendum now many states have it The recall did not come into existence in America until 1905 but now the country - is dotted with communitles - where it is in force and is actively used All these three propositions are importations from Switzerland where the initiative arid referendum have been in force for half a century the recall not so long The states and cities that have adopted these Swiss innovations have varied and altered them to suit theN local taste so that a definititon of the referendum as it exists in one state does not always describe the same law in another Butthe fundamental principles are usually the same and piay be summed up as follows 1 THE INltlATIYE - If a certain percentage of voters wish a certain law adopted they can submit it to the Legis lature which must in turn submit it to a referendum 2 THE REFERENDUM - If a certain number of voters demand an opportunity to vote upon a bill the Legislature muse submit it to them and the people decide by vote whether ft shall or shall not become law Just as In New York State they vote upon an amendment to the state constitution The referendunvcan be demanded not only on bills previously proposed by the Initiative but upon bills which have their origin in the Legislature itself 3 THE RECALL If a certain percentage of voters demand theright to decide whether a public official shall continue to hold - office or - must retire to private life the question r must be submitted to the people at an election - If they vote agalnst him he must give - up his office whether theterm for which he was elected is anywhere near its end or is just beginning The Initiative said Henry James Ford of Princeton University in an address before the Economic Club of Boston means simply this that sections of the people themselves shall have the right to initiate legislation and to solicit for it the approyal of their fellow - citizenscitizens The referendum mans that if the Legislature passes ameasure that measure shall be referred to the people before It becomes a law And in Oregon the Governor has no veto power or measures enacted by the people themselves The operation and purpose of the initiative and referendum were explained in a clear and lucid manner by the highest Court in Oregon in a case known as Oregon vs Pacific States Telegraph and Tel - THE PIPE AND THE MAN Answers Pipes and tobacco play no small part in the caste of the worlds drama In fact you can tell the character of a nation by its smoking materials and the longer the pipe the more Indolent the race Take the German for instance He is naturally slow heavy labored everything he does Is performed with great deliberation He smokes through a short squat pipe the bowl of which is of vast proportions On the other hand the quick nervy restless Frenchman takes a pinch or two of tobacco and rolls it into a minute cigarette which he puffs for a few moments and then discards As we Britishers have become quicker and swifter in our thoughts and way so have our pipes become shorter Our grandfathers delighted in the Churchwarden pipe it was called an alderman and was half a yard long Then came a much shorter pipe known as a London straw and now the majority of pipe - smokers in this country are to be found sucking a stumpy bulldog brial CHIMNEY TREASURES Anwers The recent discovery of more than 40 worth of Jewelry in the chimney of a Bloomsbury dwelling is a reminder of the frequent use made of Chimneys to conceal treasure When the famous miser Daniel Dancer died at the close of the eighteenth century a sum of 200 buried in nineteen different holes and covered with soot was found in his chimney Again a chimneychimney - sweep was operating on the chimney of an old house at Blackbeath only a few years ago when toe dislodged some bricks and down came a perfect stream of jewelry candlesticks watches coins etc all discoloured as they had lain In their quaint hiding - places for years And in 1905 a case was reported of a sweep in the city of London who brought down from the chimney of an old house a faded leather valise containing 20000 francs1 as well as several precious stones It was supposed ithat these had been hidden away by a Frenchman who died some time previously in the house CHARACTERISTIC Judge That old financiers last words were characteristic of him What were they He died at the age of 80 and said he hated to go at so far below par AVENOT collector in the same bank for 10 years was a model employee Never had he given occasion for the slightest criti cism and never had an error been discovered in his accounts He lived alone carefully avoided new acquaintances was temperate in all his tastes and seemed happy and contented When perchance some one would say to him It must be tempting to handle such large sums of money he would merely reply Why Money that does not belong to me Is not money So when he did not appear at the bank at the usual hour one day the Idea of any wrongdoing on his part never entered the minds of those who knew him Even the hypothesis of a crime seemed Impossible The police easily traced every movement of the evening be - forex He had cashed his last checks near the Montrouge gate His receipts amounted to nearly 200000 francs After that no sign of him could be found Search was made in every direction but without success Foul play was feared As a mere matter of form telegrams were sent out to all the frontier stations But in the opinion of the bank directors there was not the slightest doubt of the fact that thieves had robbed him and thrown him into the Seine One man alone shrugged his shoulders as he read all this in the daily papers that man was Ravenot himself At the very moment when the expert detectives lost trace of him he was making his way to the Seine over outlying boulevards Under an arch of the bridge he changed his uniform for a suit of civilians clothes which he had hidden there the evening before put the 200000 francs Into his pockets made a bundle of his discarded outfit weighted it with a stone and tossed it into the river He then returned to the city and slept peacefully all nlghf aUa hotel Thus In the space of a few hours he had become transformed Into a thief emeritus By taking advantage of his start in time he could easily have boarded a train and got out of the country but he was too shrewd to think that a few miles of space would protect him from the police He certainly would be caught and this fact decided him as to his future course He put the stolen money into a large envelope sealed it with five seals and repaired to a notarys office Monsieur he said addressing the lawyer permit me to state my business In this envelope ae some funds which I wish to put in a safe place as I am about to start on a long journey and do not know when I Shall return There is nothing to prevent my leaving It in your keeping is there Nothing at all I will give you a receipt for It A receipt Ravenot had not thought of - that Where could he put a receipt To whom could be intrust it If he kept it on his person he would lose all the benefits of his act He hesitated to the face of this unforeseen obstacle then - replied I am quite alone in the world and the trip I am about to take Is very hazardous A receipt might be lost or de - str6yed Because of the uncertainty of things couldnt you keep the paper in your possession Then when I return It would merely be necessary for me to mention my name either to you or to your successor You can make a note on the envelope that It can be reclaimed under such a condition If there is any risk you can easily see that - 1 alone run it Very well Your name please Henri Duverger replied Ravenot promptly When once more in the street he drew a long sigh of relief The first part of his program had been successfully carried out No matter if he was taken now tThe fruit of his theft was out of harms way He had coolly reasoned in this way At the end of my - term of imprisonment I can claim my deposit No one will dispute the ownership with me So after a few uncomfortable years I shall be rich That will be much better than drudging all the rest of my life I shall go to the coiintryto live as M Duverger pass my time in doing good and go down to a peaceful old age untroubled by remorse He waited another 24 hours then gave himself up to the authorities Another in his place might have invented a story He preferred telling the truth for what was the use of losing any time He did fcffesSS tSMWi 4s fi4t Q - not tell what disposal he had made of the funds He merely said I dont know where the money is I dropped asleep on a bench and I was robbed in my turn Because of his hitherto Irreproachable reputation he was given only a five years sentence This he received without a quiver of the eyelids He was now 33 years old At 40 he would be free and rich He considered the imprisonment as an Insignificant necessary sacrifice He was a model convict just as he had beea a model bank employee He noted the passing of the days without impatience or ennui taking the best of care of his health At last the day of his liberation arrived He accepted the amall sum allowed him at Jeaving with indifference His consuming desire was to go to the notarys and claim his deposit How often he had rehearsed the scene about to be enacted He would go Into the of flee - would the official recognize him Probably not as he haa certainly grown much older But that would make the scene only the more interesting The man would ask his business and he would reply I have come to reclaim a deposit made here five years ago In whose name In thename of Monsieur Here he paused abruptly in his rehearsal and exclaimed Ha I cant remember the name He - thought and thought Nothing came of it He sank down on a bench a faintness Stealing over him He said to himself Keep cool and think Monsieur - - Mbn - sieur - it began with what letter For an hour he sounded the depths of his memory trying to find some clew some thread that would lead up to the missing name It was all in vain The word seemed to dance before himarounct him He was about to seize it when it would elude him At Ursi this was only annoying it speedily became torturing painful Waves of heat swept over - his body Hfs muscles contracted He bit his feverish lips and was torn by a desire to cry out or to fight The harder he tried to concentrate his thoughts the further the name seemed to flee from him lie rose up impatiently thinking Whats the use of trying to Tecall It If I dont think of it at all It wilt proba - 6ly come to me The hauntiner idea could tint h Viah Ished however No matter how muclihej tried to nveMiis attention on the passefs by or to listen to the noise of the streoi under it an ran the refrain Monsieur Monsieur Night came on and the sidewalks deserted Tortured and - wearv h to a hotel took a room and threw Ml Onito the bed wltftnnt nnrtroaefno - tlj not fall asleen until fTavhrnalr n1 late and his momentarv RatisfarUnt fl banished by the haunting thought of 1 avi giLieu name - What could It he A new fedirie rmvr took nnasoQclnTr nl him Fear What if he never rmil ri member the name He left the hotel and1 walked for hours at random l keapingIn the neighborhood of the Notarys oSceF Night came a second time He was on the verge of distraction He fairly flur his nails Into his head muttering 1 shall eertalnlygo mhd He had 200000 francs in bank bills 200 000 francs - rbadly acauired It - is true bufc still his own and he could notget pds - - session of them He had endured a prison for this - - money and now It was going io slip away from him It was within his reach if he could only recall a ilhgle word Oh the torture of it 1 - He beat hi head with his fists ran against lampposts and jostled passers - by A frenzy possessed his whole being He felt cer tain that the word hadjhe forever It seemed ttf him that yoices sneered in his ears and that fingerswere poinfedlhim He began to rnir6tf alght aheadi jAfter a time he saw the dark waters of the Seine reflecting the starlight Mechanically he wept down some steps leading to the bank andr lyingflat on hjs - face he stretched himself out ttfwatd the - stream to bathe his face and handsi Ho Si reached out fartheriUna farther untitKeV water came over his eyes and ears H6f felt himself slipping downward but lie made no attempt to iclthg to the bank Finally his whole body was coy ered Then the chill of the waterseemed to arouse him to action lie sjuggled stretched out his arms - i - ralsed Tils head went down rose agato therVuddenly with a last despairing effortlhe shouted - Ive found It DjivergerliHelpS Helpi Duverger Duw But the Dlace was deserted trA nn heard his yrles The black water lapped mocrniuuy against tne piles Of the bridge The dark arches flung back the name In derision The waves lazily rose arid fell reflecting the red and green liehtki - Oner - wave hicher - thnn tvi - at - seemed to - rise to lick - theshore - then all wasstnif i - fcL2jyi

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