The Daily News Leader from Staunton, Virginia on June 25, 1961 · 6
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The Daily News Leader from Staunton, Virginia · 6

Staunton, Virginia
Issue Date:
Sunday, June 25, 1961
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f 6 Staunton, Vo., Newi-Leoder, Sunday, June 25, 1961 read Riot in - Richmond. 1863 By V, ILLIAM J. KIMBALL, Ph.D Dr. Kimball is a member of the faculty of Mary Baldwin College and is the author of "Richmond in Time of War." He also has done extensive research on Civil War novels. The following Civil War study was published by the State University of Iowa. Ample record exists that long before April, 1863, many of the inhabitants of Richmond were in dire need of the necessities cf existence, to say nothing of the luxuries which had been commonplace to some before the war. Slightly more than three months after the fall of Fort Sumter the Richmond Daily Whig (July 19, 1861) stated that the "stock of provisions is so nearly exhausted that it is unnecessary to give quotations." This statement, of course, did not speak for all of the citizens; some like the Chesnuts had sent from their country home wine, rice, potatoes, ham, eggs, butter and pickles about once a month, and the Tabb-Rutherford wedding supper served during the waning months of the Confederacy was "doubt it as you may ... a sumptuous repast" Nevertheless in a city whose prewar population of 38,000 had more than doubled before 1865, one which depended for its supplies of all kinds upon long and exposed lines of railway, the grim specter of starvation was an unwelcome resident in many overcrowded homes. General Looting There are adequate reasons for believing that near - starvation prompted many people in the crowd to march on the stores, but it seems to be equally obvious that once the riot was underway, general looting prevailed. To President Jefferson Davis' mind, it was not bread they want ed; the mob was bent on nothing but plunder and wholesale robbery. The causes of the "dis turbance which darkened the annals of Richmond" on that day can never be fully known. Early on April 2, within the gates of Capitol Square, a crowd of several hundred women and boys stood quietly together. One of their number a pale, emaciated girl, not more than eighteen who could no longer stand, took a seat on a nearby bench. As she raised her hand to remove her sunbonnet, her loose calico sleeve slipped up, and revealed a mere skeleton of an arm. Perceiving that the sight of her emaciated limb had 6tartled a woman who 'was sitting on the bench and who was not a member of the crowd, she hastily pulled down the sleeve with a short laugh and exclaimed, "This is all that's left of me; it seems funny don't it?" In answer to a question of whether there was to be some celebration, she answered that there was. They were going to celebrate their right to live. They were starving; and as soon as enough of them got together, they were going to the bakeries and each of them would take a loaf bread. It was little enough for ie government to give them af ter it had taken all their men, she added. Just then a fat old Mammy waddled up the walk to overtake a beautiful child who was running before her. "Come dis a way, honey," she called, "don't go nigh dem people," adding in a lower tone, "I's feared you'll ketch somethin' fum dem po' white folks. I wonder jdey lets 'em into de park." The girl turned and with a wan smile rose to join the long line that was formed and was i I'l'K.X 1 i H .v1SliAV-:TJU;K!SlJAV;i:AM:0itM S.VI-HAM-L' W NEW BOOKS RECEIVED Fiction Gadell, Six Impossible Things, Calmer, All the Summer Days, Caruso, Trail of a Gunfighter (wester n). 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Non - fiction Aiken, Selected Poems, Ap Evans, Falconry for You, Buckler, Wo-He-Lo; the Story of Camp Fire Girls, Burling, Chinese Art, Chapel, The Complete Book of Gun Collecting, Connell, Return of the Tiger, De Cristoforo, Handy Man's Concrete and Masonry Handbook, Hegner, College Zoology, Kennan, Russia and the West under Lenin and Stalin, Krutch, The Forgotten Peninsula, Laidman, How to Make Abstract Paintings, Lederer, A Nation of Sheep, Marinacci, Leading Ladies; a Gallery of Famous Actresses, Mason, Your Garden in the South, Morton, This is the Holy Land, Nash, Everybody Ought to Know, Rouner, The Congregational Way of Life, Side-man, Europe Looks at the Civil War, Slocombe, William, the Conqueror, Taylor, Food Values in Shares and Weights in Common Servings, Walker, Industrial Arts Drafting, Wherry, The Fern Guide. New books for young people- Fiction Breckenfeld, Maggie, Maclnnes, Assignment: Suspense, Medearis, , Big Doc's Girl, Nelson, Mystery at Land's End, Nourse, Tiger by the fail. Non- fiction Chute, Jesus of Israel, Whitehouse, Subs and Submarines, Redefer, Careers in Education, Datebook, Complete Guide to Dating, Wright, The Amazing World of Medicine, Bergere, From Stones to Skyscrapers, Seventeen, The Seventeen Book of Decorating, Hough, Great Auto Races, Yates, Famous Indianapolis Cars and Drivers, Ciardi, How Does a Poem Mean?. o OBSOLETE ENGINEERS CLEVELAND (AP) - Engineers fresh out of the classroom are commanding high salaries because those who graduated a decade ago are obsolete, says Dr. Chester J. Kishel, head of Fenn College's Industrial Engineering Department. "For an engineer to keep up-to-date on developments, he would have to spend 30 per cent of his time studying," Dr. Kishel says. "One of the reasons the Russians are ahead of us is that their taachers are young while, by last-minute standards, half of our professors are obsolescent." moving. She said simply, "Good-by! I'm going to get something to eat!" Marched Silently The mob now rapidly increased, and numbered more than a thou sand women and children. They impressed all the light carts they met, and marched along silent ly and in order. They were led by Mrs. Mary Jackson, a painter's wife, who was a tall, daring Amazonian-looking woman with a white fea ther standing erect from her hat They marched through Cary Street to Main, where they m-countered the Mayor and the Gov ernor, who, even with the state forces under their command, were not able to repress them. Mr. Mumford, the president of the Young Men's Christian Association, quieted them in another street by inviting them to come to the rooms of the Association, where their wants would be supplied. Those who were really in want followed him. Mr. Davis, having been informed of the serious disturbance, proceeded to the scene of trouble. He mounted a dray from which the horses had been taken and it was particularly noticeable to him that, though the mob claimed that they were starving and wanted bread, they had not confined their operations to food supplies, but had passed by, without any effort to attack, several provisions stores and bakeries, while they had completely emptied one jewelry 6tore and had looted some millinery and clothing shops in the vicinity. From the vantage point of the dray, he made a brief address to the formidable crowd, urging them to abstain from their lawless acts. He reminded them of how they had taken jewelry and finery instead of supplying themselves with bread, for the lack of which they claimed they were suffering. He concluded by saying, "You say you are hungry and have no money. Here is all I have; it is not much, but take it." Emptying his pockets, he threw all the money they contained among the mob. He then took out his watch and said, "We do not desire to injure anyone, but this lawlessness must stop. I will give you five minutes to disperse, otherwise you will be fired upon. The order was given to a Cap-tain Gay who commanded a mili tary company comprised of. a number of armorers and artisans who were enrolled by General Josiah Gorcas, chief of the ord nance at the Confederate arsenal in Richmond. Captain- Gay, who knew the women some of whom were the wives, sisters, and daughters of the men in his com' mand, became nervous. Instead of ordering the muskets loaded with a ball and two buckshot, in strict observance of militaVy usage, he told the women that he would order two balls and a buckshot" into them. Began to Disperse Nevertheless, the mob realized that the men might be forced to shoot and at once began to dis perse; before the five minutes had expired the trouble was over. and the famous misnamed bread riot was at an end. However, al though the rioting' and looting were brought to a halt, the re percussions' did not disperse with the crowd. Later that same day, the as sistant adjutant-general in the name of the Secretary of War sent an appeal to the editors and reporters of the Richmond press in which he requested them to avoid all reference .directly or in directly to the affair . . . The reasons for this are so obvious that it is unnecessary to state them." The reasons were not ob vious apparently to the Daily Richmond Examiner, and its edi tor, John Muncure Daniel, the voice of the archenemy of the Confederate government. On Saturday, April 4, readers of the Examiner could find in the report of evidence in the Po lice Court, a "true account of a so-called riot in the streets of Richmond." It made fascinating' reading. According to the paper, "A handful of prostitutes, professional thieves, Irish and Yankee hags, gallow birds from all lands but our own, congregated in Richmond, with a woman huckster at their lead, who buys veal at the toll gate for a 100 and sells the same for 250 in the morning mar ket, (and) undertook the other day to put into private practice the principles of the commissary department. Swearing that they would have goods 'at government prices' they broke open half a dozen shoe stores, hat stores, and tobacco houses, and robbed them of everything but bread, which was just the thing they wanted least. It went on to say that those who followed Mr. Mumford to the YMCA were miscreants who "were seen to dash the rice and flcur into the muddy street, where the traces etill remain, with the remark that "if that was what they were going to give, they might go to h 1." It is greatly to be regretted that this most villanious affair was not punished on the spot. Instead of shooting every wretch engaged at once, the authorities contented themselves with the ordinary arrest, and hence the appearance of the matter in the police report of the morning." It was impossible to doubt, ac cording to the paper, that the concealed instigators in the riot were emissaries of the federal government. "Plunder, theft, burglary and robbery, were the motives of these gangs; foreigners and Yankees the organizers of them." The writer (if not Dan iel, certainly an ardent emula tor) felt that a "most contemptible notion, that such disturbance is a shame, which must be hidden (as well try to hide the sun!) led them to coax and wheedle the audacious miscreants engaged in it." The editorial ended with this final broadside: "If the officers of the law, with the ample force and .power in their hands, have not enough decision and energy to do more than arrest highway rob bers and disperse a mob of idlers at their heels, whose presence there deserved immediate death quite as well, no words or arguments can furnish them with the pluck they lack." The decision (much to the com plete disgust of the Examiner) was to arrest those who were ap parently leaders or ardent violators rather than shoot them on the spot. By April 13, all the par ties arrested had either been dis charged or 6ent on for trial be fore the higher courts. A reporter for the Examnier was aware of a glaring mcorv gruity which had existed from the beginning of the examination "the large amount of means at the command' of the parties charged with being engaged in a 'bread-not. AH with a solitary exception (Mrs. Jackson, the 01 P3 SWIM 3 TTMC2GI jutv 0 WE WILL REOPEN MONDAY, JULY 10 WE ARE CLOSING IN ORDER TO GIVE OUR EMPLOYEES A WELL-EARNED VACATION AND FOR THE INSTALLA- TION OF NEW EQUIPMENT AT OUR PLANT. PLEASE LET US HAVE YOUR CLOTHES PRIOR TO OUR VACATION JUUU ra)ro)n U U J CASH & CARRY DRY CLEANERS AND SHIRT LAUNDRY leader) have been able to give bail, all with a solitary exception have had counsel employed at enormous fees." , No Bail Set Mary Jackson was confined to jail awaiting a trial for felony. Shb "petitioned for a habeas cor pus that she, being innocent of the charges against her was il legally detained in jail. The judge, "not thinking the suspicion of her guilt light, and not believ ing that her health would be en dangered by confinement," re fused to set bail. Many of the people arrested were found guilty and sentenced in varying degrees; one woman, a Mary Johnson (whose name was often confused with Mary Jackson's) was sentenced to five years in the penitentiary. Al: though there are no periodic ac counts in the police court pro ceedings of Mary Jackson's fate, her case probably came up from time to time, for in the Examm er of October 12 it was stated that she was the "prime instigator and ringleader of the riot, but she was too smart to commit any overt act which might fix a penalty on her. She was very circumspect in her own actions. It being found that no charge of felony could be sustained in her case, she was sent to Judge Meredith's court to be tried for a misdemeanor and it is more than probable that if she is not acquitted altogether, she will get off with some merely nominal punislv ment." And thus, the Examiner, was done with Mary Jackson. The bread riot led to much use of the vitrolic pen and to many continuing court cases, but it ap parently did not result m in creased foodstuffs for the needy. Notwithstanding the fact that the staples may have been thrown in the mud, as the Examiner claim' ed, the number of needy persons was great. Former residents and helpless refugees who, driven from com fortable homes, were compelled to seek relief in the crowded city, insufficiently furnished with the means of living for the resident population and altogether inade quate to the increased number thrown daily into the progress of events, were forced to dispose of all their articles of taste and for mer luxury, and frequently necessary articles of clothing to meet the essential demands of life. In spite of many facts to the contrary it would be ennobling to believe that "these miseries and inconveniences were submitted to in no fault-finding spirit; and although the poverty of the masses increased from day to day, there is no doubt that the sympathies of the people were unfalteringly with the revolution (the war) in all its phases." In ariy event, a bread riot notwithstanding, it would not be difficult to agree that "of all the nil admirai, the people of Richmond must be ac counted the foremost." NTT- .rfH. Will your 77 Mil "V i I w vtriiniTitv u 1 . vacation at your expense? Not if you use our Custody Service. When you're away on vacation or on business trips we'll look out for all investment details where delay or oversight could lose you dollars. Custody is a year-around, low-cost service we perform for investment owners. You're invited to visit us for detailed information or easier still inquire by phone. TRUST DEPARTMENT Augusta National Banlc Established 1875 Staunton, Virginiat Member Fedtrd Deposit Insurance Corpcritle I I : Collection of Old Coins at Bank Staunton and Augusta County residents who haven't had a face-to-face meeting with a "Fugio" cent, the first authorized U. S. coin, or a Jackson "Hard Times" coin will have a chance to get acquainted with them here through July 1 at the Augusta National Bank, according to W. R. Hudson, assistant vice president. An exhibit, containing a repre sentative collection of old coins which date back to 1722, has been obtained from the Federal Re serve Bank of Richmond. The first panel of the display includes types of coins which cir culated in the American Colonies and early days of independence 76 in all, from the 1722 Wood's Coinage farthing and halfpenny through the Civil War tokens of 1864. Panel one also features Spanish reals which were legal tender in the United States until 1857, as well as two Virginia- halfpennies minted in 1773, Mr. Hudson said. The first U. S. pattern coin, the "Nova Constellatio," is shown in this panel, along with the "Fugio," whose legend was by Benjamin Franklin. The "Fugio" was the first authorized U. S. coin. Additional coins in this panel are the Continental period cents which were minted Dy various states, and types of tokens which have circulated as monev in dif ferent periods of American his tory. The second panel features regu lar issues of U. S. coins from the laree cent pieces of 1794 to the dimes of 1952. One outstand ing coin in this panel is the 1865 AN ACTIONT CHATTANOOGA (AP) -People are wondering if the Chattanooga Chamber of Commerce reallv did take action on the city's urban renewal pro gram. On recommendation of (1) the Urban Renewal Civic Center subcommittee, (2) the chamber's Public Affairs Committee ap proved a move to send a (3) committee to Mayor P. R. loigiati to discuss a plan to form (4) a "Citizens Action Committee." whose actions would be subject to approval of the (5) chamber board of directors. two cent piece which was the first coin to carry the motto In God We Trust." "Probably the most unusual coin in panel three of the exhibit is the Trade Dollar," Mr. Hudson said. Originally issued for circulation in the Orient to compete with the Mexican peso, the Trade Dollar was demonetized by Con gress in 1887. However, many of them still circulate in the Orient. In panel four can be found various types of American coins, gold issues, as well as regular and commemorative issues. The familiar "double eagles" are in eluded in this panel. The last panel in the collection shows U. S. silver commemorative issues, beginning with the Columbian Exposition half dollar of 1892 and continuing through 49 other commemorative half dollar issues ending with the Washing' ton Carver Memorial of 1954, Mr. Hudson added. The coins are being exhibited by the Augusta National Bank 'o present to the people of Staunton and Augusta County a compact representative collection of U.' S. coins of historical significance, Mr. Hudson said. Spring Hill Minister Attends Service SPRING HILL. June 24-The Rev. and Mrs. J. T. Hayter Jr. and John III were weekend guests of Mrs. Hayter's parents, Mr. and Mrs. J. S. Scott of Roanoke. On Sunday, the Hayters attended the homecoming services at the Fin-castle Presbyterian Church. Mr. Hayter was pastor at the Fin-castle church for sue years prior to coming to the Spring HilJ Church. Guest minister at the Sunday- morning worship servide at the Spring Hill Presbyterian Church was the Rev. Howard C. Cobb, superintendent of the Sunnyside Home at Massanetta Springs. Relatives here from a distance to attend the funeral of Mrs. Ada Dahmer recently were Mr. and Mrs. Carl C. Huffman, Mr. and Mrs. Clarence W. Berry and daughter, Mrs. Earl Leiby; Mr. and Mrs. L. Carl Berry, Carl Jr. and JoAnn: Mr. and Mrs. John Walker Sr. and John Jr.; Mrs. Pauline Melvin, Harry Dignee, Harold C. Berry, Mrs. Mabel Cumminas. Mrs. Grace Nelson. all of Middletown, N.Y.; and Mr. and Mrs. W. R. Grimes of Lees- burg. Mr. and Mrs. U. Scott Hamrick Jr., Jimmie, Judy and Rita of 427 Cedar Drive, Hampton, were weekend guests of Mr. and Mrs. U. Scott Hamrick Sr. at "Valley View Farm. Mrs. J. L. Berry has returned home after spending two months visiting in the homes of her sons- in-law and daughters, Mr. ana Mrs. Karl McCormick and family of Arlington and Mr. and Mrs. Myron Wright and family of Northeast, Maryland. Mrs Stella Hildebrand. accom panied by Mrs. F. M. Weade of Newport News, motored to New York Citv for a week's visit with the former's niece, Mrs. Helen McManus. N ROMANTIC DEADLOCK CHATTANOOGA (AP) - Romance got' a tie in Hamilton County during the first two months of 1961. There were 94 marriages and 94 divorces. , , - , ' ; rV r i r n ll-wi its W h t- it '..U..V... J $ J I r.- s-s t ' ' . l" f 111 4 Stop looking, start cooking electrically at a saving of I J . '. Switch by August 1 to the pure switchcraft of cool, automatic Electric Cooking vepco will pay $20 on installation if you replace a non-electric range, or make a new, non-replacement installation. Whether you live in a house, or separately metered apartment, your nearby Authorized Live Better Electrically Appliance Dealer will pass on that $20 saving to you. Call vepco today for his name. on installation VIRGINIA ELECTRIC and POWER COMPANY - v

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