The Morning Call from Allentown, Pennsylvania on November 25, 1939 · 7
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The Morning Call from Allentown, Pennsylvania · 7

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Saturday, November 25, 1939
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THE MORNING CALL, SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 25, 1939 DC V C1M Chat About Your Friends Hin T?.iv rinrenre Rahn will officiate. Interment will be made In the church cemetery. Yesterday's birthday list Included:' Mrs.. Eugene Erb, Waldheim; Mrs. George Hawk, 612 N. 10th St.; Mrs. Herman Long, Sherersville; G. E. O. Reinhard, 522 N. 9th St.; William Reiterman Jr., 725 N. 12th St.; Andrew Jacob, 609 Carbon St, Walnut-port; Robert Piehl, 351 N. Bradford St.; Martin Campetto, Steckel's Farm, Mary Bortz, 1139 Green St.; Elaine Yeager, 418 N. 10th St.; Eugene RVi. 831 Walnut St.; Kathryn Tom-ashak, 209 Grant St.; Eleanor Seaman, 165 Pine St.; and Mike Maci-sak, 431 Bellevue St. Gene Shock, 1605 V4 Tilghman St., celebrated his birthday anniversary on Monday. Elizabeth A. Laury, 535 Liberty St., had as her guests Thursday: Esther B. Laury, Leah Sewell, Llane Polrier, teachers in New York City schools and Anna Parker of White Haven, Pa. Ruth Howe, home economics teacher at Cedar Crest College is spending the holidays with relatives In New Windsor, Md. Bobby Seng, 121 N. Lumber St., Is 111 at his home. Benjamin Llpsky, 329 S. 16th St., Is recuperating after a recent illness. Among those who marked their birthday anniversaries Thursday are: Elena Altleri, 645 N. 6th St.; Florence Youngcourt, 829 Tilghman St.; Pauline and Cecelia Day 127 Furnace St. Albert Piovesan, 378 Washington St., celebrated his birthday anniversary yesterday. John Bigatel, 365 Cedar St., visited friends in Bethlehem on Thursday. Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Bauer, 389 Greenleaf St., are entertaining guests from New York. Mr. and Mrs. E. Dyjack, 244 Park View St., are entertaining guests from Trenton, N. J. Mr. and Mrs. Harold W. Merkel and daughter Marlene, 1138 Russell St.. and Mr. and Mrs. Norman O. Merkel and son Kermlt, 1136 Russell St., spent Thanksgiving Day in Wes-oosville at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Peter Merkel where a family dinner was served. Mr. and Mrs. Francis Bauer and daughter Grace, 502 Coal St., Le-hlghton, were the guests of Mr. and Mrs. Fred C. Cordes, 801 S. 10th St., on Thanksgiving. Eleanor Ruth Seaman, 165 Pine St., observed her Uth birthday anniversary. Carolyn Schleicher, R. N., of Philadelphia, left on Thanksgiving Day for Baltimore. Md., where she will enter Johns Hopkins university hospital to take a poet-graduate course In surgery and operating room management. She was accompanied by her parents, Mr. and Mrs. George H. Scnieicner, ana sister Christine and brother Charles, of 1350 Chew St. Mrs. Edward M. Griswold of Ston- ington, Conn., will observe her birthday anniversary on Sunday. Mrs. uriswoia, wno was married recently. is the former Catherine A. Wescoe of 1612 Chew St.. this city. Mr. ana Mrs. Roy Newhard. 1242 Main St., Northampton, celettated their seventh wedding anniversary yesterday. Mr. ana Mrs. Edwin worman of Ai- lentown R. 1, will celebrate their sil ver weding anniversary tomorrow. They were married Nov. 28, 1914, by tne late Rev. J. J. Schlndel at Allen- town. Mr. Worman is an automobile salesman for Rltter and Yost. Obituaries Mrs. M. C.Lutz Dies, Aged 97 Mrs. Mary C. Lutz, of Wanamak-ers. oldest woman in Lynn township, died yesterday morning following ill ness from bronchial pneumonia which she contracted over a week ago. She was aged 97 years and 22 days. The wiaow of Charles H. Lutz, a Civil war veteran who preceded her USED OVER 80 YEARS A COLDS COUGHS CUE TO COLDS ssm - 1 .1 Ireau inside Kicn in tne Essential Vitamins A and D. i - . k 3 ' 1 1- j r - fa V 4 MRS. CHARLES LUTZ In death 42 years ago, she was born in Wanamakers. the daughter of Aaron and Polly, nee Dietrich, Donat. Surviving are two daughters, Deat-ta at home and Mrs. James Oswald of Slatington; and a granddaughter, Velma Oswald, teacher in the Slat lngton schools. One son preceded her in death. Two brothers of Wanamak ers, James and Lewis Donat also sur Vive. Private funeral services will be held from her late home Tuesday after noon. A public service will follow at Jacksonville Union church of which she was a member of the Reformed faith. The Rev. D. A. Bachman and Henry W. George Was Veteran Allentown, Salesman Aged 71 Year Henry W. George of 232 S. 13th St., Allentown, a salesman in Allentown for the past 29 years, died at the Allentown hospital at 12.35 a. m. yesterday, after an illness of five weeks. He waa In his 71st year. Mr. George had been a salesman for a number of concerns, but since resid ing in this city he had been a sales man for the Allentown Wholesale Grocery Co. Mr. George, a native or Asniana, was a charter member of the P.OJ5. of A. of Aristes, in Columbia county. He was also a member of Zion U. B. church, Allentown, and the Men's Bible class of the church. Besides his wife. Nettie May. there survive three children: Chester E., Allentown; Herbert A., Fairfield, Conn.; Robert G., Philadelphia. Six grandchildren also survive. Rev. Allan Ranck will be in charge of funeral services to be held on Tues day at 1.30 p. m. from the J. S. Burk-holder Funeral home, 1801 Hamilton St. Interment will be made in Fair-view cemetery. Ernest Kreig Allentown Resident Suffered Stroke Tuesday A former cabinet maker who had been living retired for many years, Ernest Kreig, of East Rock Road, Summit Lawn, died at 8.45 o'clock yesterday morning in the Allentown hospital. Mr. Kreig, who was In his 84th vear. had been ailing or a neart con dition for the past four years. On Tuesday he suffered a stroke and was taken to the hospital wnere ne oiea this morning. For ft number of years Mr. Kreig had been employed as a watchman at the Winona silk mill, near Moun- tamville. Born in Saxony, Germany, he came to this country when he was 13 years old, and with the exception of the past 26 years, had lived in Philadelphia most of the time. Since moving to Allentown. he had resided with Mr. and Mrs. Emu 1, Barth, at Summit Lawn. He was member of the Lutheran faith. The only survivors are one son Louis E.. Allentown, and two grand children. His wife, nee Matilda Sherman, died in 1912. Three children and several brothers and sisters preceded mm in fleam. Funeral services will be held on Monday at 10 a. m. at the Rabenold Funeral home, 116 S. 8th St. Inter ment will be made In the German Lu theran cemetery, Philadelphia. Joseph G. Holko Catasauqua Native Succumbs at Sana torium Joseph G. Holko, 27, a native of Catasauqua, died at 9 a. m. yesterday In South Mountain sanitarium, Mount Alto, Pa., following a long illness. Born March 19, 1912 he was the son of the late Stephen and Mary, nee Adams, Holko. He was a member of the St. Andrews Slovak church in Catasauqua. Surviving are four brothers: Andrew and George. Catasauqua. Michael, u S. Army, Ft. Howard, Maryland and John, TJ. S. Army Air corps, Langley Field, VS. The funeral will be held Monaay morning at 9 o'clock from the home of Mr. and Mrs. John Balik, 329 Church St., Catasauqua. High mass will be sung In St. Andrew's Slovak church with interment in the church ceme tery. Henry Hucke Allentown Resident 111 Last Seven Months fienrv Kucke, 278 E. Maple St., died at his home yesterday morning at 6:30 o'clock following seven months' illness. He was in his 64th year. Born in South Bethlehem, he was the son of Frederick and the late Annie, nee Deppen, Hucke. For the past 50 years he lived in Allentown and until his retirement 15 years ago had worked as a laborer in various local business establishments. He was a member of the Reformed faith. He had never married. Besides his father, ft sister, Mrs. Harry Moyer, Bethlehem, survives. Services will be held from the Heckrotte and Spacht Funeral home, 824 Walnut St., Allentown, Tuesday at 2 p. m. Interment at the convenience of the family in St. Mark's cemetery. Viewing Monday 7-9 p. m. Rev. Rob ert Hucke, Reformed minister in Scranton, will officiate. Wallace Reed Sumneytown Resident Was 60 Years of Age Wallace Reed, of Sumneytown, died early this morning at the Quakertown Community hospital. He had been a patient at the institution since Nov. 1. He was about 60 years of age. Charles Endy Was Allentonian For Last Thirty Years In ill health for the past two years and confined to the Allentown hospital since Monday, Charles Endy, of 838 Union St., Allentown, died at the institution at 3.05 a. m. yesterday. He was 80. Born at Wilkes-Barre, Mr. Endy had lived in Allentown for about the last 30 years. Prior to moving here, he had resided in Tamaqua for several years. Mr. Endy had been a brick foreman, but was retired for many years. He was a member of the Seibert E. C. church and of Its Sunday school. Besides his wife, nee Mary Halman, there survive two children, Raymond and Elmer, both of Allentown; one sister, Mrs. Reuben Shock, Tamaqua; two brothers, Edward Endy of Tamaqua and Samuel Endy of Frack-ville. Three grandchildren also survive. Funeral services will be conducted on Tuesday at 1.30 p. m. from the Rabenold Funeral home, 116 B. 8th St. Rev. Ralph Borneman, assisted by Rev. Robert Belsel. will be in charge of the services. Interment will be made in Grandview cemetery. (Continued on Page Eleven) 8 1 pxlevoCed to lhc,l:ilcraturerLorCs and nistory or Ihe rennsylvama Crerirtansv M j Deaths KOCH In Bethlehem, Thursday Nov. 23. 1939, Mra. Carolina H. Mlnnich Koch. 70, widow of Clinton Koch. Relatives and friends are invited to attend the funeral at 2:30 p. m. Sunday with services at the residence, 929 Wyandotte St., Bethlehem. Burial in rriedensvlllft cemetery. Viewing Saturday evening. Calvin P. Miller. 7 "V, ' ; 'A , " 44 . ' ' 4 r " 1 '1v'444 44jr , s" i.."T.,Se Roaater tlf"" . . com ..let mel foet of Bn.el1 V(1. cupies only - Vny outlet. ' ' 4 4 V 4 4 h X 4 4?4f '4 X " 4 44 4 4, J" '4,t'-',!-4s4- 7' ', ,'., J My :44M "a 4 ' ' f 'r4 4 4r 4 y m V ' ";4 '? t ' 7 P'03 mae -mart mm f . Mism r V 4 H 4 5- o ' A i4 444f- 'A j4C4"44sf V ' V"", 7 y ' ' ' t ; , ' n ' ' " i ' ' ' ' V ? ySt two ,oU two ce.Snd has 7a f ?J A, t A CV 7 y Sy a -cV .IB- " t w w Si &VaV t ' t. 4 4- 44 ' ''4'"4fiVA 4 " , 4 4? '"7 7 'J' "'to? ' I i , '"I- ,"4 T'44 7 44 77 77 i, A7,i 77 7, 7 y, 47 777 W 7 , 7 f 7 ,f 7 7 A 7 f 7 7 77777 77 V " 7 7 Vr I.7' 777 y' 7WA4747V44y 4r7 ,4 ,' 'mil 77 , ,3 7W7fa&?44y 4f7 74 7 ' ' ' A 444.7 77 p J o W:?.7'777V7'77 VW77, 7, ;; . I 4 4 44( 777 fr 7 7, 7 .4 7 7777 ' C 12:1 ' v 1 1fe v iLdL-J r d! 1 The Conesloga Wagon (A Pennsylvania German Product) By H. C. FREY The Conestoga wagon was unquestionably a Pennsylvania German product. Lancaster county gets the credit for its origin. Many claimants say that it was modeled after the old English covered wagon. Might not the old English covered wagon have been modeled after the type of covered wagon that was used centuries ago and is still being used by the peasants in certain parts of the Rhine Valley and other parts of Germany? That, however, is a European problem and I shall not go into any further detail concerning it. The purpose of this article is to show that the covered wagon, that originated in Lancaster County, is" a Pennsylvania German product. Had it origin ated in or near Boston, New England's literary geniuses would have written volumes about this old freight-carrying vehicle, and had it had its home in the South (Old Virginny) its praises would have been eulogteed even beyond the Imagination of a New Englander. In Pennsylvania German communities, where farming, farm exporting and wagoning have been given the greatest amount of attention for generations, folks are prone to sit idly by, or to be so busily engaged in agricultural and industrial pursuits that they have little time to display their civic pride on such an historical subject as the Conestoga Wagon. The name "Conestoga" has been associated with almost everything from a shinplaster to a National Bank, and something should be said about the derivation of the word. Just exactly how this word came into use is a question and would furnish an interesting problem for the student of etymology. One of the earliest references to a world similarly pronounced is the name "Onestega" given to a stream on a map by August Herman dated 1665. The name of the tribe of Indians, the stream and the manor of Conestoga in Lancaster County, is another study, but we do know that all three of these were named long before the Conestoga wagon or the Conestoga horse existed. It is also believed that both the horse and the wagon were namea from the section of Lancaster County from which they originated. Whether the wagon was named from the Conestoga breed of horse or the horse from the wagon is another conjecture of little concern. Quotations from early writers indicate that the Conestoga Wagon in all its forms was a Pennsylvania German product: Probably one of the earliest printed references to the Conestoga wagon is that in the following advertisement in the Pennsylvania Gazette, Philadelphia, under date of February 5, 1750: "Just imported and to be sold very cheap for ready money by Thomas White at his house in Market Street, between 4th and 5th, almost opposite the sign of the Conestoga Wagon, etc." Just one week later the same advertiser uses the term "Dutch Wagon" in a similar advertisement. In those very early days the expressions "Dutch Wagon" and "Conestoga Wagon" must have been synonymous terms. In 1754 Governor Pownall Visited Lancaster, and in his journal says the place then contained "five hundred houses and two thousand inhabitants; that it was a growing town and making money, having then a manufactory of saddles and pack-saddles.'! (1) This would indicate that at that time pack horses instead of wagons were used as the principal mode of long-distance freight carrying. However, in the following year, Benjamin Franklin (2) advertised in Lancaster for one hundred and fifty wagons, with four horses to each wagon, and fifteen hundred saddle or pack horses, and secured all of these to aid General Braddock in his expedition against Fort Duquesne. Again in 1758 Lancaster assumed a military aspect by fitting out General Forbes' celebrated expedition against Fort Duquesne. A remnant of the type of wagon reputed to be used In Braddock and Forbes' expeditions conveyed Abraham Weber, family, and household goods in the year 1807 from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, (now Kitchener) to Berlin. Ontario, Canada. This old wagon is still preserved in the museum of the Waterloo Historical Society. An examination of the registry of names of members of this society today would show that nearly all are of Pennsylvania German heritage. In "An Account of the European Settlements in America," published in London In 1757, yie writer, Edmund Burke, in speaking of Philadelphia, says: "Besides the quantity of all kinds of produce which is brought down the rivers of this province the Delaware and Schuylkill the Dutch employ between eight and nine thousand wagons, drawn each by four horses, in bringing the produce of their farms to this market," In a diary (3) kept by Captain Wlederholdt, a British officer, who was taken as a prisoner at the called "Dutch Wagon") was conceived and created by the Pennsylvania Dutch in the Conestoga Valley at a time when the first necessity arose there for the use of such a wagon. Dr. Rush, writing in 1789, says: "A large, strong wagon, "the ship of inland commerce," covered with a linen cloth, is an essential part of the furniture of a German farm. In this wagon, drawn by four or five horses of a peculiar breed, they convey to market, over the roughst roads, 2,000 and 3,000 pounds weight of the produce of their farms. In the months of September and October it Is no uncommon thing, to meet in one day fifty or one hundred of these wagons on their way to Philadelphia." In the translations recently made from the "Neue Unpartheyische Lancaster Zeitung und Anzeige Nachrichten" (New Unpartisan Lancaster Gazette and Advertising News) some interesting advertisements have been found, establishing the fact that in the town of Lancaster and Lancaster County taverns had adopted the name "Conestoga Wagon" at early dates. In the issue of October 28 1789, there is an announcement that John and William Michael have moved into "that old famous tavern 'Sign of the Conestoga Wagon' in the borough of Lancaster, formerly occupied by Mr. Christopher Graffert." Johan Schoepf, writing in 1784, said: "There were probably seven or eight thousand Dutch Wagons with four horses each, that from Time to Time bring their Produce and Traffick to Philadelphia, from 10 to 100 miles distance. Sometimes there were as manv as eight horses to a wagon. Each wagon had its feed trough suspended at the rear and the tar can swinging unaerneatn. Tne proces sion on busy days must have been startling." Josiah Quincy described the first part of a trip he made from Philadelphia to Washington as fol lows: "At three o'clock this morning (February io, 1826) the light of a candle under the door, and a rousing knock, told me that it was time to depart and shortly after I left Philadelphia by the Lan caster stage, otherwise a vast illimitable wagon. with seats without backs, capable of holding some sixteen passengers with decent comfort to themselves, and actually encumbered wtih some dozen more. After riding till eight o'clock, we reached the Breakfast House, where we partook of a good meal. We then proceeded through a most beautiful tract of country, where good fences and huge stone barns proved the excellence of the farming. The road seemed actually lined with Conestoga wagons, each drawn by six stalwart horses, and ladened with farm produce." (6) The "vast illimitable wagon" referred to was generally known as a stage wagon. A better kind of passenger conveyance was the elegant, comfortable and brilliantly-painted stage coach. As a poet, Mr. Quincy spoke of the Conestoga wagons thus: " Many a fleet of them In one long upward winding row. It ever was a noble sight As from -the distant mountain heigth Or quiet valley far below, Their snow-white covers looked like sail." (7) H. L. Fisher, a poet of half a centflry later wrote a noem of thirty-one stanzas entitled "Wagoning" (8) The fifth stanza is almost identical with the one written by Josiah Quincy. Only the first stanza of Mr. Fisher s poem is here given: There were two classes of these men, Men of renown, not well agreed; "Militia-men" drove narrow treads. Four horses and plain red Dutch beds And always carried "grub" and feed; Because they carried feed and "grub" They bore the brunt of many a "rub." An old wagoner from Western Pennsylvania, shortly after the Civil War period had this to say about Lancaster County teamsters: (9) "Two brothers, Abner and David Peirt, natives of Lan caster County, at one time left their home county and came to the western part of the state where they secured Jobs as teamsters on the National Pike, among wagoners of all kinds, including a few colored men. The easterners were called the 'Penn sylvania Dutch' teamsters and were admired for their steadiness, straight-forwardness and honesty. Their teams were frequently commented upon as being of the genuine Conestoga strain." This is only one example to show that of all the teams and teamsters on all the roads in Eastern united states, the Pennsylvania Dutch teamster with his Con estoga breed of horses, from Lancaster County ranked second to none. In the gubernatorial campaign of 1835 Joseph Ritner, often called "The Wagon Boy of the Alleghenies," because he had been a wagoner in his early days, was the teamsters' choice for the highest office in the state. At taverns, and other places where the teamsters gathered and often while driv- 1 i . Conestoga Wagon and Complete Outfit Owned by H. C. Frey, Harrisburg, Pa. Battle of Trenton, he says that he and other Hessian prisoners were taken on December 31. 1776, to Philadelphia in wagons covered with ducking. These were undoubtedly Conestoga wagons, but were not mentioned as such on his diary entry. Twenty-five years after the earliest reference to the term "Conestoga Wagon," under date of May 17, 1775, the following entry appears in Washington's diaries: "dln'd at Mr. Saml. Griffiins. After wch. Attended a Commee at the Conestoga Wagon." (4) The Conestoga Wagon Inn mentioned by Washington wa located on Market Street, Philadelphia, above Fourth Street, and was the same tavern mentioned as "The Sign of the Dutch Wagon" in the Pennsylvania Gazette early in 1750. Again in 1783 we have a record of "Major General Lee (6) dying in a small, dirty room in the Philadelphia tavern called the Canastoe Wagon, designed chiefly for the entertainment and accommodation of common countrymen," which shows that this hotel was undoubtedly used as a stopping place for Pennsylvania German farmers. While the date of its origin la not definitely known, would it not be logical to assume that, following the primitive sled and cart, the very beginning of wagoning in the Conestoga section of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, either on the farms or on the roads, was also the true origin of the Conestoga Wagon and its name as we know it today, and that it did not come about through any Jong consecutive evolutionary process? Let us assume another proposition, that the Conestoga Wagon (synonymously and formerly ing in strings, along the pike, wagoners were heard singing the following verse in support of their candidate for Governor: Wote nunner der Irlsher Der Josef Ritner is der Mann Der unser Staat regieren kann. Ritner was elected. "The Pennsylvania German migrating from the Rhenish Palatinate in large numbers between 1685 and 1710 had no lack of master artisans of the anvil. They brought with them many centuries of experience in iron working and found here an abundance of ore together with the necessary fuel for their forges. During the eighteenth century there was hardly a village or crossroad so small that it couldn't boast of a skilled iron worker and blacksmith, whose shop stood where the garage now holds forth. And make no mistake he wasn't viewed as an ordinary laborer but was considered a highly respected citizen, often a leader, a glamour of romance surrounded his work and the blacksmith shop was the forum and country club combined. The halcyon dream of the country lad was to grow up and rule the forge and when an apprentice was needed the 6mlth usually had the pick Of the surrounding countryside." (10) Some of the ironing on the Conestoga wagon was very ornate, especially the tool box. This part of the wagon afforded an opportunity for the blacksmith to show his artistry. Much might be written about the ironing of the lid of the tool box. There was an early use and Altzeit Fuhrmans Lied Noch Baltimore geht unaer Fulir Mit dem gedeckte Wage; Der Turnpike zeigt una die Geschpur, Die Geil sin gut bechlage; En guter Schuck, Click zU der Reis, Der Wiskey schteigt, Flaur fallt Im Preiaa So bloae die Poiauner Hott! Schimmel, hott, ei Braunerl Mer fahre bis sum Blaue Ball, En deutacher Wirth, en guter Schtall Hott! Schimmel, hott, ei Brauner! Do ichteht en Berg, dort ligt 'n Dhal, En Zollhaus gegeniewer Es singt e Lerch, e peift en Schtar "Die Freibeit iscb uns Hewer" Hott! Schimmel, hott, ei Brauner! Es regert, un' der Belz wert nass, Mer schteige in der Wage Un' ziege aus 'm erschte Fass Was gut isch for der Mage, Un' macht das wider frischer geht, Sunscht bleiwe mer dahinne; Denn, wer des fahre recht ferschteht, Loszt sich net lodiach finne Hott! Schimmel, hott, ei Braunerl Wan Flaur un Wiskey sin ferkauft Un's Gelt isch in de Tasche, So, wan mer wider z'rick sin, braf, Dhun mir's in Kischt un' Kaschtel En guter Schluck, Click zu der Reis, Der Whiskey schteigt, Flaur fallt im Preisz-So blose die Poiauner Hott! Schimmel, hott, ei Braunerl Jetz hen mer, ah en gute Lod Fon allerlee e' Ware. Do fahre mer mit heemzus grad, Um Zeit un' Gelt zu schpare. Der Fuhloh zahlt des Zehrgelt z'rick Mir sin ke' schalka Jauner En guter Schluck, zu allem Glick! Hott! Schimmel, hott, ei, Braunerl I i 3 -if mmm "Loui" Miller 17961882 Th ericinal drawinc from which the above likenea has been engraved was made by Lewis Miller himself when lie was in his eishty-first year. The above "Waggoner's Song" is attributed to Lewis Miller, better known to the citizens of York, Pa., of two generations ago as "Loui." He was born of German parents in 1796 in the town of York, where he followed the carpenter's trade for more than forty years. He had enjoyed good schooling under his father's tutelage in the German Lutheran Parochial School. Though untrained, he was an artist of no mean attainments, and through his long life with pen and brush chronicled the life and history of early York and of the young nation. Some 1500 such sketches are now the prized possession of the Historical Society of York County. They are unique in the annals of early American Art. Lewis Miller died in 1882. The Pennsylvania German dialect poet Henry Lee Fischer, a contemporary and friend of Lewis Miller, writes of him in an article prepared for John Gibson's History of York County, 1886, as follows: As a rustic poet and writer of popular Pennsylvania German songs, Loui Miller had few superiors. Following is the "Waggoner's Song" of the olden time, when all surplus farm products, no small part of which was whiskey, apple jack, and peach brandy, since almost every big farmer had his little distillery where these popular and necessary beverages were made, and which together with flour, clover, timothy and flaxseed, were from this and some other southeastern counties conveyed to the Baltimore market in Conestoga wagons drawn by four or five stalwart horses driven by a Jolly teamster, usually the farmer himself, his oldest son or hireling. The back-loading consisted of dry goods, groceries, etc., for the village or country stores, and oysters and sweet potatoes for private use." We have printed Lewis Miller's "Waggoner's Song" as Henry Lee Fischer published it in his book "Kurzweil un' Zeitfertreib." It has the swing of a real folkballad, and we can only regret that no other of Miller's 6ongs have come down to us. It must be looked upon as one of the earliest songs of Pennsylvania German origin. Ann Hark in her recent book "Hex Marks the Spot" includes a slightly different version, that found in Dr. Harry H. Reichard's "Pennsylvania German Dialect Writ- . ings and Their Writers." knowledge of Iron In the Province of Pennsylvania. The smith shaped the traditions of the old uorld and the lore of the Black Forest in what he made, and his decorations of these old boxes are an unfailing delight. Some are almost all covered with ornate iron work, symmetrical, uniform and strongly riveted. The staples of the hinges were driven through the top rail and clinched. The hasp fitted over a staple and could be fastened by a hooic or a padlock. Many different designs were used on the tool box' lid. The hinges looked like snake heads, flowers, and other decorative objects. There was also a pleasing variation of axe sockets. Few sockets are decorated but they take many shapes and sometimes there is a latch to keep the axe from jumping out on a rough road. There are in existence some axe sockets, the face of which took the form of a fish and which were highly decorated, the fish eye and the fish scales being intricately worked out by the dexterous hands of the smith. The designs in this ornamental iron work were cut out with chisels and not filed. Many of the hooks and ends or fastenings were elaborate and many of the nuts had curled thumb pieces. The ingenious hook and link on the chains that kept the wagon bed from spreading deserved to be patented. (To be continued) 1 Win. Sipe: The Pennsylvania Railroad. 2. Franklin's Autobiography. 3. Diary of Captain Wiederholdt (Ed. by Learned and Orosse. w,hin8ton', Diar! E r John C. "Fitzpatrlck) Thorton: An American Glossary. 6. Jacob Dossier: An Old Turnpike Road. AUo Morse Earle: Stagecoach and Tavern Dan. 8. H. L. Fisher: Ye Olden Times. 9 T. B. Beariaht: The Old Pike. 10. The Antiquarian (March, 1925).

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