The Weekly Advertiser from Montgomery, Alabama on January 9, 1890 · 11
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The Weekly Advertiser from Montgomery, Alabama · 11

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Thursday, January 9, 1890
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n V .Ki A ANDERSONVILLE PRISON.. THE TREATMENT OF ERS CONFINED THE PRISON THERE. air. Bavii Shows That all vai IJonrf for Them Possible, and That the Treatment : of lbeiu whs Kind mod Humane, V Jefforson Davis in Belford' Jiaw. s. Soma eminent citizens of the North, who woie iurtheat removed from the class known as "Southern sympathi zers during the war between the States, but who desire to know the whole truth, have .requested me to write an article, to appear in some periodical published la the North, on the suDjeotof'the prison at Andersonville .' Georgia.". The invitation is accented. , both as to the subject and the place ot publication, from a wish to vindicate the conduct of the Confederacy, and because the proposed channel is that which will most assuredly reach those who ihave generally seen but one side of the discussion. Civilization in its progress has miti gated some of the rigors of war among enlightened nations, and most promt nent of these humane manifestations is the introduction of cartels for the exchange and parole t)f prisoners. Early in the war the Confederacy sought andj obtained the adoption of such cartel; by whom, how, and why it was viomiea wui, in tne course or this article, be shown, as a part of the sub ject of the Andersonville prison. When the United States authorities .refused to fulfill their obligation to continue the exchange and parole of prisoners, the number of .Northern captives rapidly accumulated beyond tne capacity ot the prisons at Kich- mond, and also beyond the ability of the commissariat to supply them. In . the absence of any prospect of relief from these embarrassments the remov al of the prisoners became necessary. A large part of the food for our army in Virginia was drawn from the more bout hern and Southwestern States, and the means of transporta- uon was limited --and diminishing. ine place to which the prisoners should be removed had to be chosen and prepared. Andersonville, Georgia was selected, after a careful in vestigation' for the following reasons it was in a high pine woods region, in a prouucuve iarmmg country, had never been devastated by the enemy ' was well watered, and near to Americus, a central depot ror collecting the tax in kind and purchasing provisisions ter our armies. The climate was mild, and. according to the best information, there was in the water and soil of the locality "no recognizable source of -. disease," A stockade was constructed of dimensions adapted to the number of pris-eners who might probably be confined there. It was on a hill overlooking the valley of the Sweet Water, a tributary of which stream flowed through ; the prison enclosure. . For a fall des cription, illustrated by a man. refer- ence is made !to the exhaustive work entitled "The Southern side; or, An- Bouvuie i-rison," ry ft. 4. Stevenson, M. D., Surgeon' of Military Prison Hospital, etc.g ; . Persistance .by the United States in the refusal to observe the cartel caused so large an increase in the number of the captured sent to Andersonville as to exceed the accommodation provided and thus to augment the discomfort and disease consequent on their con- y nnement It has been offensively sH.ou, wny was not tne contingency provided for? to which I answer that a selfish policy, which for an indefinite . time would leave in captivity their countrymen, who, at the call of their Government, had volunteered to fight ' its battles, marked a degree of cold blooded insensibility which we had not anticipated. . . Without entering into details, the difficulties enoountered in the care of the large, and, in the latter part of the war, ever-increasing number of prisoners, may ; be briefly enumerated . thus: . , '. . - '. s. .1. The exceptionally inhuman act of fcthe North, declaring medicines to be contraband, to which there is but one, if indeed there be one, other example in modern war. ; ? 2. The insufficient means of transportation and the more inadequate means of repairing railroads and ma- chinery, so that, as the war continued, the insufficiency became more embarrassing. . , 3. The numerical inferiority' of onr army made it necessary that all avail- . able force should be at the front; therefore the guards for prisoners wene mainly composed of old men and boys, and but a scanty allowance of " these. .- --.- r 4. The medical officers were not more than were required with the troops, and contract physicians disliked the prison service, among other reasons, naturally, because of the impossibility of getting the proper medicines. Our accomplished and diligent Surgeon-General did much to supply this want by substitutes extracted from the plants and trees of the South; but these, though possibly as good, would, like other substitutes, toe less confidence-inspiring. 5. The food was different from that to which most of the prisoners had been accustomed, particularly iri the use of corn meal instead of wheat flour. Of the latter it was not possible, in 1804, to get an adequate supply at Andersonville. " It was not starvation, as has been alleged, but acclimation, unsuitable diet, and despondency which were the potent agents of disease and death. These it was not in our power to remove.. The remedy was with those who, unlike King David, commenced their lamentation after the end had come. The remedy demanded alike by humanity and good faith was the honest execution of the cartel. When it was decided to locate a pris on at Anuersonvuie, lieneral Howell Cobb was in command of the district of Georgia. He was a man of large . capital, invested in planting and farming, of generous and genial temper, so much so that all who knew him will readily believe t hat if the prisoners within his command had been suffering for want of food he would have supplied them gratuitously with such articles as his plantation produced, lhus probably arose the report that he had sent provisions to the prisoners, and it probably got wider circulation as conflrmation.of the starvation theory. Statements from gentlemen of high standing, and who speak disinterestedly of what they know, are submitted as conclusive on the question of quantity of food at Andersonville prison. It is not only requisite that enough of some kind of food should be furnished; It is needful that the power to use and assimilate should exist. Of this I have personal experience. During the first year of my imprisonment at Fortress Monroe I was reduced to little more than a Skeleton under the needless privations inflicted by that heartless vulgarian Brevet General Nelson A. Miles. He was, at the time of my imprisonment, selected to supersede Colonel Joseph Roberts, an educated soldier, whose regimeut had been the garrison of Fortress Monroe in the latter part of the war. Why was tuis omoer deemed competent to com mand the post in war, but not in peace? my acquaintance with both would suggest the answer a gentlemen was not suiteu to the cruel purposes of m. M btanton, then Secretary of War. ' Let us now consider the laws and orders in relation to prisons, and how they were administered. General John H. Winder was graauat-edat the United States Military Academy in ibhu. and with brief interval, served in the United States Army until he resigned in 1801, -. -Dunne the war with Mexico he was distinguished by gallantry in battle, for which he was twice brevetted. His character and his lineage precluded the supposition of cruelty to the defence less. ... ue was ror a time the Provost-Marshal of Richmond, and supervisor of prisons thereabout. His conduct in these positions was in keeping with his reputation, that Of a man neither humble to the haughty nor haughty to the humble. When the great body of the prisoners were sent to Georgia and the L-aroimas, ueneral Winder was order ed there to exercise a general super yisior; he was selected, among other reasons, because of confidence in his kindness to prisoners, as specifically stated by dames a. seddon. then tsecre tary of War, Jefferson Davis; S. Cooper. Adjutant-General, who hadl been a cadet with General Winder, and George w . Brent, un pp, -My-s "Southern His torical Papers," the full test will be round . from which-: ? these exracts were made. , - (The character of General Winder was exactly that described above: a man ui virtue, nonor and numanitv. christian gentleman, Ed. N. & 0.1 Ueneral Winder arrived at Ander- sonville on June 17. 1804. and found gangrene and scurvy existing, and on the 20th of that month recommended that the prisoners should be removed as soon a3 possible to- other posts. He received orders to remove the Drison- ers to Millen and other points suitable 0 1L . . . 1 1 ... ior tneir saiecy and health as soon as the necessary arrangements could be made. The want of transportation and the msumciency of guards produced ooca- sional delays in the removal of prison ers; but on the last of September the number had been reduced from twenty or tuirty moasana to about nve thous and, who were too ill for transportation, Ueneral Winder had m the meantime, recommended tnat agents should be employed to secure vegetables; these anu an otner suggestions ror the com fort of the prisoners were sanction ed by the executive department at Richmond. Much more mieht be added but the foregoing is believed to be enough to retute tne cnarges made against Ueneral Windor of cruelty to prisoners. Let us now consider the conduct of the unhappy victim, Captain Henry Wirz and the proceedings by which he was condemned and executed. From such information as I possess he was native or Switzerland, was a nhvsician. in Western Louisiana in 1831; he entered the Confederate army at the beginning of the war, and in the battle of Manassas his armjwas broken so tnat ne remained a cripple permanently. General Winder, who had opportunities to know him while em ployed at the Libby prison in Richmond, selected him for superintendent or the prison at Andersonville. Whether his conduct there .iustifiied tne selection let the testimony of competent, unimpeachable witnesses de termine. The eminent scientist and physician, Dr. Joseph Jones, of New Orleans, was. in Auimst 1804. . ordered to inspect and report on Andersonville prison, in the prosecution of Wirzl garbled extraots were read to crimin ate the officers in charge' Div Jones has published his full report, so as "to place all the facts before the public, who have already had access to certain selected facts." After discussing tne pnysicai and pathological causes of the fatality at Andersonville, he wrote as published, to Gen. B. H. HilL on January 17tb, 1886: -"In accordance with the direction of Dr. Samuel Preston Moore, formerly Surgeon-General, C. S. A.. I instituted during the months of August and September, 1704, a series of investiuatious on ths diseases ef the Federal prisoners confined m Camp Sumter, Anderson ville, Ga. : "In justice to myself, as well as to those most nearly connected with this investigation, I would respectfully call the attention or Uol. Uhipman, Judge- Advocate, U. S. Au to the fact that the matter, which is surrendered in obed ience to the demands of a power from which there is no appeal, was prepared solely for the consideration of theSur- geon-Ueneral, O. S. A, and was designed to promote the cause of humanity, and to advance the interests of the medical profession. "On May 21st, 3861, it was enacted bv the Congress of the Confederate States of America, 'that the rations furnished prisoners of war shall be the same in quantity and quality as those furnished enlistened men in the army of the Confedracy.' . "According to General Orders, No. 159, Adjutant and Inspector General's Office, 'Hospitals for prisoners of war are placed on the same footing as other Confederate States' hospitals, in all respects, and will be managed accordingly.' "The Federal prisoners were removed to Southwestern Georgia in the early part of 1864, not only to secure a place of confinement more remote from Richmond and other large towns, from the operations of the United States forces, but also 'to secure a more abundant and easy supply of food.' "As far as my experience .extends, no person who had been reared on wheat bread, and who was held in ca' livity for any length of time could retain his health and escape either scurvy or diarrhcea.it confined to the Confederate ration (issued to the soldier in the field and hospital) of unbolted corn meal and bacon. The large armies of the Confederacy suffered more than once from scurvy, and, as the war progressed, secondary hemorrhage and hospital gangrene became fearfully prevalent from the deteriorated condition of the systems of the troops, dependent on the prolonged use of salt meat. And but for the extra supplies received from home and from various State benevolent institutions, scurvy and diarrhcea and dysentery would have been still further prevalent. "A similar statement has been made by Dr. Austin Flint, Jr., in his recent work on the 'Physiology of Man.' ; "It was ciearly demonstrated in my report that diarrhoea, dysentery, scurvy and hospital gangrene were the diseases which caused the mortality at Andersonville. And it was still further shown that this mortality was referable in no appreciable degree to either the character of the soil, or waters, or the conditions 01 climate. "The effects of salt maatsl and- fari- naceous food, without vegetables, wero manifest in the great prevalence of scurvy. The scorbutic condition, thus induced, modified the course of every disease, poisoned every wound, however slight, and lay at the foundation" of those obstinate and exhaustive diar rhoea and dysenteries which swept off thousands of those unfortunate men." Geityl. D. Imboden, being for the time incapaciatated for active eeryicS, was, in the autumn of 1864, on ther ri commendation of Gen. R E. Lee, to wnom he was personally known, directed to report for duty to Gen. Winder, whose headquarters were then at Columbia S.C. - In the "Southern Historical Papers," volume on the 'Treatment to Prisoners during the war," p. 187 and following; is tne letter rrom lien, imboden, writ ten in 180, and rrom which the following extracts are offeredt ; ? ; "I now proceed to give you a simple historical narrative of facts, within my personal knowledge, that I believe have never been published, although at the request of Judge Robert Ould, of this city, who was Confederate'Commission- er ror the exchange 01 prisoners, 1 wrote them in 1806, and furnished ihe MS to a reporter of The New York Herald. But the 'statement never ao peared in-that journal, for the reason assigned by the reporter, that the conductors of The Herald deemed the time inopportune for such publication-. My MS. was retained by them, and I have never heard of it since, Colonel , Bondurant's report on the Andersonville prison, taken in oonnec tion with written applications from Captain Wirz, which 1 had received. suggesting measures for the ameliora tion of the condition of the prisoneaS, strongly indorsed and approved ;bv-; CoL Uibbs, an old United States Army otncerj a cultivated, urbane and hu mane gentleman, commanding ? the post made it apparent to my mind that I ought to make a personal examination into its condition. Att;he time of myinspection there was a good deal of sickness among the prisoners, but not a large percentage of mortality.-Our medical officers, even with their scanty pharmacopeia, give equal attention to sick friends and enemies, to guard and to prisoners alike. Bad as was the physical condition :of the prisoners, their mental depression was worse, and perhaps more fatal. Thousands or them collected around me in the prison and begged me to. tell them whether there was any hobo of release by an exchange of prisolv ers. Some time before that, President Davis had permitted three of the Andersonville prisoners to go to Washington to try and change the determination of their government and procure a resumption of exchanges. The prisios ners knew of the failure of this mission when I was at Andersonville, and the effect was to plunge the great majority of them into the deepest melancholy. homesickness, and despondency. They believed their confinement would continue until the end of the war. and ma ny of them looked upon that as a period so indefinite and remote that they believed that they would die of their sufferings the day of release came. 1 have already alluded to Can- tain Wirz's recommendation to put up more shelter,. I ordered it, and thereafter, daily, a hundred or more prisoners were paroled and set to work in the neighboring forest. In the course of a fortnight comfortable log houses, with floors and good chimneys for which the prisoners made and burnt the brick were erected for - twelve or fifteen hundred men, and were bceuV : pied by those in feeble health, who were withdrawn from the large; stock ade and separated from the mass of prisoners. This same man (Captain wirz 1. wno was tried and hung as s murderer, warmly urged the establish ment of a tannery and shoemaker's shop, intorming me that there were many men among the prisoners skilled m these trades, and that some of them knew a process of very rapidly convert!? ing hides into tolerably good leather. There were thousands of hides at. r Andersonville from the young cattle butchered during the pre vious - summer and : fall, whilst the country yet, contaiuod such animals. A few weeks latevjmany of the barefooted prisoners; were supplied with rough, but com- fortablo shoes.--- An other suggestion came from the medi cal staff of the post, that I ordered to be at once put into practice: it was to brew corn beer for those suffering from scorbutic taint, The corn meal or even whole corn being scalded In hot water and a mash made of it. a little yeast was added to promote fermenta tion, and m a tew days a sbarpacid beverage was produced, by no means unpalatable, and very wholesome. Cap tain Wirz entered warmly into'this enterprise, I mentioned these jfacts to show that he was not the monster he was afterward represented to" be when his blood was called for by in furiate fanaticism. I would have proved these racts it I had been permitted to testify oh ; his trial, after I was summoned before the court by the United States, - and have substantiated them by the records of . the prison and of my own headquarters. a : My personal acquaintance with Cap tain Wirz was very slight, but the facts have alluded to satisfied me that he was a humane man, and was selected as a victim to the bloody Moloch of 1865 The Federal government re maining deaf to all appeals for exchange ot prisoners, it was manifested that the incarceration of their captured soldiers could no longer be ot any possible ad vantage to us, since to relieve - their sufferings that, government would take no step, if it involved a similar release of our men in their hands. Indeed, it was, manifest that they looked upon it as an advantage to them and an injury to os to have " tneir prisoners m our hands to eat our little remaining sub stance. In view of all these facts and considerations, Generals - Cobb and Pillow and I were of one mind, that the best thing that conld be done was, with our further efforts, to get instruc tions from Ricbmond.to make arrangements to send off all the prisoners we had at Eufaula and Andersonvillo to the nearest accessible Federal post. and having paroled them not to bear arms until regularly exchanged, to deliver them unconditionally, simply taking a receipt on descriptive rolls of the men thus turned over. Finding that the prisoners could be sent from Andersonville by rail to the Chattahoochee, thence down that river to Florida. , near Quiucey, and from Quincy by rail to Jacksonville w thin a day's march of St. Augustinu,it was resolved to open communication with the Federal commander at the latter place. With that view, somewhere about the middle of March, Capt. Rutherford, an intelligent and energetic officer was sent to St. Augustine. A few days after his Jdoparture for Florida he telegraphed from Jacksonville, "Send on the prisoners." He had, as he subsequently reportod, ar- j rangod with the Foderal authorities to receive them, At once all were ordered to be sent forward who were able to bear the journey. - Three days cooked rations were prepared, and so beneficial to health was the revival of the spirits of these mon by the prospect of once more being at liberty tuat I believe all but twelve or fifteen reported thomselves able to go and did go. The number sent was over six thousand. Only enough officers and men of the guard went along to keep the prisoners together, preservo order, the facilitate their transportation. To my amazement the officer commanding the escoit telegraphed back from Jacksonville that the Federal commandant at St. Augustino refused to receive and receipt for the prisoners till he could hear from Gen. Grant, who was then in front of Petersburg, Va., and with whom he could only communicate by sea along the coast, and asking my instructions under the circumstances. The real cause of all the protracted sutterings or prisoners, North and South, is directly due to the inhuman retusal 01 the Federal gov ernment to exchange prisoners of war, a policy that we see, from the facts herein stated, was carried so far as to induce a commanding officer at St. Augustine to refuse even to receive and acknowledge that he had received over six thousand men of his own side. tendered to him unconditionally, from that prison in the South which, above all othors, they charged have been the scene or unusual suffering." Confirmatory of this are the follow ing resolutions, adopted at Savannah on September 23rd, 1864, by the prison ers who had been sent from Anderson ville, as elsewhere described. (See "Historical Society Papers," volume on "Treatment of Prisoners during the War," pp 184, ISO) v , "Resolved, That while allowing the Confederate government all due praise ror the attention paid to the prisoners, numbers of our men are consigned to early graves, etc. -. "Resolved, That ten thousand of our brave (comrades have descended into untimely graves, caused by difference in- climate, food, eta , And whereas these difficulties sf ill remain, we would declare our firm belief that unless wo are speedily exchanged we have no other alternative but to share the same lamentable fate of oar comrades. Must this thing still go on? is tnere no noper - "Resolved. We have saff er- ed patiently, and are still willinc to suffer, if by so doing we can benefit the country; but we most respeotfullv bog to say that we are not willing to suffer to further the ends of any party or clique, to the detriment of our fami lies and our country. Signed. "P. cradles. "Chairman of Committee in behalf of Prisoners.'. . Whose shall reject their declarations and insist, despite this and all other competent evidence, that the lamented deaths were the result of Confederate cruelty, must be given over to believe a calumny. in September, 1SU4, the prisoners, except about 5,000, not able to bear transportation, were removed from Andersonville. and it virtually ceased to be-a post f or thejreception of prison ers. . .v NEW THINGS IN: ELECTRCTY. Some of the Latest Improvements tn Elce- tricHl Science, New York Sua. A novel cure was effected by the use of the dynamo recently at Wastgate- on-Sea, Englaud. A Mr. Browne was fitting a false bottom on a grate, while chopping it to make it fit, a very small splinter of iron flew off and struck him in the eye. An electrical engineer who met him shortly after, seeing his plight, took him to a dynamo that was working near by. xsrown plaoed his eye as close as possible to the machine, and the magnetic attraction was sufficiently . intense to withdraw the splinter of iron from the eye, which was instantly relieved and gave no further trouble. The use of electricity in surgery is ex tending dany. it is now largely ehiT ployed in Ungland in gynaecological cases. It has long 'been known to be capable of relieving neuralgic pain', and has now been applied to cases of ovarian neuralgia, the treatment of Which presents peculiar difficulties. Dr. Apostali, in giving the results of his practice, states that he has often had patients whose ovarian region was so painful and tender that they could not bear, the slightest pressure, but who, after a few minutes' application of the inducted current, could submit to nrm pressure without any indication of pain, declaring that both pain and tenderness hud entirely disappeared. The Russian government has become keenly alive to the advantages of elec tricity, and many of the enactments by which its organizations are controlled carry the despotic flavor characteristic at the conntry. We are no sooner told that if a telegrapher in the government service wishes to marry, he or she must cnoose a telegrapher, than the an nouncement comes from St. Petersburg that all foreigners on the government telegraphs must become Kussians be fore, Jan. 1 next, or leave their places. It is also stated that a new- telephone service between Moscow and Kt. Peters burg, a distance of 400 miles, is proposed. It is the intention of the Russian government to spend 106,000 rdubles this autumn in fitting up all the vessels of the Black Sea and the Baltic fleets with electric lights. ' It has now become a well-established fact that waste water power can be converted into electric energy, conveyed from ten to one hundred miles on a copper wire in amounts from ten to five hundred horse power, at a cost not to exceed 6,500 per mile for the greater distance and the larger power. t , . ; What is said to be the largest organ in the world is building at the Roose-yelt organ works in this city, for the Auditorium building, Chicago. It will be operated by electricity. . Electric motors are now used for pumping the organs in eight churches in JNew fork city at a cost of glO per month per horse power. The water mitor consumed too much water and the gas en gine was too noisy. An mcandescent licht company at Ottowa is working a circuit torty-fivo miles in length. This is believed to be the longest incandescent circuit in the world, and it is questionable whether it is approached by any are circuit. It is certainly a romarkable instance of flexibility of system and of the delivery of the electrical current at an extremely remote point.. " The applications ol electricity are be coming bewildering in their number and variety. A recent affair of some local importance in a Western town developed the fact, that a young woman had purchased a four-light chandelier specially designe d to contain detective camera,- arranged to be operated by the closiua; of un electric circuit, i concealed pushes or circuit closers being planed at convenient points, while a miniature reflector directed a portion of the rays of light from ono gas jet directly on tho place. mi.. 1 1 1 on the fourth evening that the victim, I a wealthy old gentleman, callod on the - young woman. HISTORY OF IA GRIPPE AN exhaustive description its Past ravages. OF The influenza no New Thing After al! . Its i'ieeuco wag Felt Four Hundred Yeiri Before Christ and ha rutin an Ap pearand! at Irregular Interval gln& - tli at Tim in all Quarter of the Globe. From to) New York WorW. ' According to the best authorities the disease has . been known by various names catharrhal fevor, contagious catarrhal fever, dandy fever, coquette. la grippe and others, Among the Eng lish, as the disease suggested nothing it was called an epidemic cold. The Germans, who always find fancied re semblance among differeut diseases, and there being a disease epizootic in cnaracter attectlng sheep, have con ferred the name of schaffhusten and schaffkrankheit upon it. In addition to these names the cough which accompanies the attack, due . to the disturbance of the respiratory organs, resembles the crowing of a cock, in consequence of which it was named huhnerweh (chicken's disease, whoop ing cougn; and ziep, and is the same disease among chickens which known in this country as pip. La grippe -is saiu to oe oerivearrom the fonsb word "grypko," It is more likely, however, that its origin is from the word "agrip- per, to seize. HOW THE TEEM INFLUENZA AROSE, Influenza is a term which originated witn tne Italians, tneir belief being tnat tne disease was due to the" influ ence of the stars or from a significa tion or tne word indicating something transient or ophemeral, the name was considered fashionable among them. nippocraces 13 said to have referred to it, but gives no exact discription of the disease in his writings. Diodorus Siculus recorded an outbreaK in the Atheniau army in Sicily , during the year 415 B. C, which is supposed from its description to be influenza. .During the ninth century several epidemics of catarrnai rever were recorded. In 827 a cough spread very rapidly, affecting a great many, which was sun-posed to have been the affection in question. In Itally, in tho year 870, there occurred an epidemic similar In character which spread over all Europe with ;great rapidity. During this epidemic it is claimed that dogs ana oiras suuered with an affection having symptoms not unlike those oc curring in man. A fever, of which the cnior symptoms was cough, occurred as a general epidemic t throughout ueruiauy and rauce in the year 97G. Until the year 1173 no further epidemic is noted, then a widespread affection, of which the symptoms were principally catarrhal, raged throughout the entire European continent. Minor epidemics are reborded as having occurred from 123G to 1299, also during tho fourteenth century. In the writing of Aitken it is found that so very fatal was the prevalence of the disease in France that from the year 1311 to 1403 the mortality was so great it necessitated the closing of the Courts of law in Paris in consequence of tho deaths which occurred. k GEIPPE IN IRELAND. In the "Annals of the Four Masters" influenza is mentioned as having prevailed in Ireland duringthe fourteenth century. A similar disease is referred to in the early Gaelic inanuserirjts un der the name of creatan (creat, the chest). The first epidemic that occurred in Great Britain of which we have any very accurate description is the one of the year lolO. The disease travelled from Malta and infested first Sicily, then Italy, Spain and Portugal, when it crossed the Alps into Hungary and Germany, reaching as far as the ttaitic feea and extending thence westward into France' and the British Isles. . ,v . . Its tract extended ovnr fint.im Europe from the southeast to the northwest, and it is claimed that not a single family escaped its ravages. Its symptoms were similar to those witnessed to-day, viz, great pain in the head, difficult breathing, stupor, los9 I of streugth and appetite, nervousness and retchings from a violent tearing cougn. uunng tms epidemic none died except children. - In 1557 there occurred an epidemic which started westward irom Asia and spread . over entire Europe: it then crossed the At lantio Ocean and appeared in America, the affection occurring in England after an unusually rainy season. The attack was characterized, by catarrhal affections of the pulmonary and ab dominal mucous membrances, sne ezing and .coughing, dimcuity or breathing, with fever, ana pains which were usually reserved to the sides. The entire population of Nismes fell ill of it on the same day. - A FATAL EPIDESflC. This epidemic was an exceedinclv iatai one. in tne small town or Mon- tau Carpentaria, which is near Madrid, the disease broke out in the middle of August, and 2,000 persons, who wore bled and purged the prevailing treat ment at that time all died. In 1558.- in Delft, the disease carried off 5.000 of the poor. A very great epidemic of influenza occurred in 1530. From Constantinople and Venice it overran Hungary and Germany, and reached the farthest regions of Norway, Sweden and Russia. It extended into England and pre vailed during August and September there, about the same time in Italy, and the entire summer in Spain. Its average duration elsewhere was about six weeks. Dr. Short, a writer of that period. states that "few died except those that wore let blood or or had unsound vis- eere." Two thousand died of it m Rome, according to Dr. Short, but we are informed by Zuelzer that not less than nine thousand perished, and he also states that Madrid was almost en tirely depopulated. The great mortal ity cited above was undoubtedly duo to the prevalent mode of treatment, viz: "Blood letting." Several years inter- ened before another general outbreak. which took place in 159L extending as epidemio through Germany, Holland and France, appearing in Italy three years later. It prevailed throughout urope in 1010; and ulso in Italy and France in 1020 and 1G27, with another appearance in Holland in 1G12 and 1643. ITS FIRST APPEARANCE IN AMERICA. In Spain and in the colonies of the Western World it prevailed in 1647, which, according to Webstor, is the first well-anthenticated appearance of this disease in American anuals. It appeared in North Amerioa in 1G55. nnd also in Austria, Germany and England from 1008 to 1G75. Willis, a writer of this period, states that "about the end of April, 1G5S, suddonly a distemper arose as if sent by some blast of the stars, which laid hold on very many togotner; m some towns in a space of a week above a thousand peo- plo fell sick together." Epidemios also occurred throughout lGbi), 1GU3, 17U9 and 1712. In 1729 and 1730 it spread from Denmark to Italy. la Vienna during this epidemio over sixty thousand people were affected. During the epidemic of 1732, which swept over all Europe and the Americas, the disease was described as occurring in Scotland in three forms, Viz, the ceph-lic, (the head) the thoracic (he chest) and the abdominal. .'. LATER APrEARANCEL. This affection also appeared in 1742, , 1757 and during 17GJL., In the latter year it was said that nearly nine-tenths of the population of Germany suffered from its effects. In 1782, which was the most widespread epidemio recorded, it started in the East and travelled from Asia to Russia. From St. Petersburg it spread during the winter and spring over Sweden, Germany, Holland and France, and then during ,tho following autumn it made its appearance in Italy, Spain and Portugal. Crews of vessels belonging to both the English and Dutch wore affected with ifc far out in the high seas, thus showing its wide prevalence. In the city of j Vienna nearly three-fourths of the ' population were affected with it, and so suddenly did it seize them that for the first time it received the name of "Blitz-Katarrh" (liehtniner catarrh.Y chief features of the affection were paint, refereble to the back, breast and that andv.haracterized by extremo feebleness. Frequent attacks occurred the previous ones conferring no immunity; pneumonia, pleurisy and catarrhal inflammation of the bowels were extremely frequent. As a rule, child ren were exempt, the mortality was very slight, chiefly occurring among tho aged and those suffering from chronic diseases. A GREAT TERRIBORt AFFECTED. Again, in 1839. was its widespread in fluence felt, when there occurred a series of epidemics, whioh were remarkable for the breadth of territory thev covered and the rapid succession with which one followed the other. It be gan in China, Iu September it reached the Indian Archipelago. From there it swept into Russia and invaded Moscow in November; it raged in St. Petersburg in January 1831; by March ifc had reached Warsaw; Eastern Prussia and Silesia succumbed in April; the inhabitants of Denmark suffered during May, together with Finland and a great part of Germany; the same months witnessed its arrival in Paris, and by June it had invaded Eniriand and Sweden, and in July held posses-, sion of middle Europe. With the ap-proach of the early winter months its swept southward into Italy and westward across the Atlantic to North, America, until in the month of February, 1832, it was ragiug in certain parts of the United States. In the East it continued, spreading to Java f further India and tho Indian Archi. f polago, and was found existing in Hin- dustan after it had coased in Europe. In 1833 it revisited Russia, and thence- overran all Europe, which it succeed in doing by November of the sama I year. THE FIRST DAY OF THE YEAR. Bow it H Observed la Varlens Countries : - Au Interesting Sketoh, Ghr. 0'No9 in Kate Field's Washington The New Year of the Gregorian Cal ender falls very opportunely just after Christmas. It sets a convenient limit of seven days to the festivities in honor of the chimney-saint, which, might other wise stretch on until they died a natural death. It marks a definite time for sending the children back to school and opening the yearly bills, and lets us down easily from the high holiday atmosphere into. -the lev a of ordinary days. ' The Jews have no such comfortable arrangement, but'besin their New Year about the middle of September, that is the first day of the Jewish month TishrL The dav is observed as a solemn feast, since the rabbis teach that God then opens the books containing the names of all mankind, and settles their fate for the coming year. Tishri,;howover, is not the first month 111 the Jewish calendar, but the seventh and its first day is observed as New 1 Year's because at that time the har- I vest is over and the natural year 1 reaches maturity. : 1 The Japanese celebrate Jan L as we do, but add to it as- many days as they think necessary for beginning another year in proper stylo. Thoy are greater callers then even the Gothamito of twenty years ago, for, iustend of stopping when midnight ushers Jan. 2, they must keep on until they have paid each person of their social circle 1 a New York's visit. Intimate friends I are received with great ceremony and elaboratoly entertained, while more acquaintances simply exchango curds. The Chinnese keep New Year's on Jan, 30. It is ithoir chief holiday and they celebrate wilh flowers and teast;-ing. Weeks before tho old year is out they begin forcing their lilies decoration, and making ready the quoerdish-esof their holidaymenu. These preparations afford a striking instance of the .incongruities of the Celestial's taste, for he dresses his home not only with tho fragrant lilies, but with tawdry artificial flowers, and put those last in the most sacrod place of all before the shrine of his household foes. How the impecunious heathen manages to enjoy his Now Year's at all ia hard to understand, since at that time he must pay all his debts and start with a clean soore. When all other ways of getting money fail, he goes to the lottery, aud the joss house is crowded ton New Year's Eve with devotees praying for a lucky drawing. The Persians observe several IN ew Year days. This statement is simpli fied by the additional fact that the ce- lebratious are In honor ot the diltera foreign religious elements in the pTv ulation of Teheran, including, Jews,1 Armenians, Greeks, Roman Catholics, Protestants and Mohammedans. The Persians are among the most polite of nations.- On each of these holidays the Shah sends a high official to pay a visit to the legations which observe the day,. The Persiaus' own national New Year falls in March, and coinoides very happily with the natural Spring. Fes tivities last for ten days and include some curious ceremonies with an origin as ancient as 1,500 years before the the birth of Mohammed. ' Where does the year begin? By com mon consent among civilized people, the meridian just opposite that of Greenwich Is chosen for the honor. The only land through which it passes is Chatham Island, which lies off the West of New Zealand, in the South Pacific. ' The fortunate inhabitant of this bit of earth gots his day brand tnw, and has the satisfaction of drawing u4 his New Fear's resolutions at least a few hours in advance of the rest of the world. Advtoa to Mothort Stun WiWfflLow s OooTiriHflr Staff, for tftfl drn trwi-iing, ie th prescription of ono of thft hunt leniaie noree and phioiun in the Uuiti b tales, and has been usod ior forty years wit h, beTor-fauittft Bucoem by imiuona ox moUir lor its vuiua in incaieulubta. It rpUovea tiia chii Irom pain, cures dy&eutvry nnd dmrrhua, g rip'a in the bowels, and vind-colio. Uy airing hftuus lo Uie obiid u rtt & mutW. Prico i X EED THROUGH TORN PaSpL

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