Press and Sun-Bulletin from Binghamton, New York on March 1, 1945 · 11
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Press and Sun-Bulletin from Binghamton, New York · 11

Binghamton, New York
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Thursday, March 1, 1945
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11 TEXT OF PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT'S REPORT TO U.S. ON BIG 3 CONFERENCE THE BINGHAMTON TRESS, THURSDAY EVENING, MARCH 1, 1945. World Collaboration By U. S. Is Stressed Washington, March 1 (JP) The text of President Roosevelt's report to Congress on the Yalta conference: It is good to be home. It has been a long journey. I hope you will agree that it was a fruitful one. Speaking in all frankness, the question of whether it Is to be entirely fruitful or not lies to a great exent in your hands. For unless you here in the halls of the American Congress with the support of the American people concur in the decisions reached at Yalta, and give them your active support, the meeting will not have produced lasting results. That is why I come before you at the earliest hour after my return. I want to make a personal report to you and, at the same time, to the people of the country. Many months of earnest work are ahead of us all, and I should like to feel that when the last stone is laid on the structure of international peace, it will be an achievement for which all of us in America have worked steadfastly and unselfishly together. I return from this trip which took me as far as 7.000 miles from the White House refreshed and inspired. The Roosevells are not, as you may suspect, averse to travel. We thrive on it! Constantly in Touch "Far away as I was, I was kept constantly informed of affairs in the United States. The modern miracle of rapid communication has made this world very small; and we must always bear that in mind, when we think or speak of international relations. I received a steady stream of messages from Washington, and except where radio silence was necessary for security purposes, I could continuously send messages any place in the world. And of course, in a grave emergency, we could even have risked breaking the security rule. I come from the Crimean conference, my fellow Americans, with a firm belief that we have made a good start on the road to a world of peace. There were two main purposes at the Crimean conference. The first was to bring defeat to Germany with the greatest possible speed and with the smallest possible loss of Allied men. That purpose is now being carried out in great force. The German Army, and the German people, are feeling the ever-increasing might of our fighting men and of the Allied armies. Every hour gives us added pride in the heroic advance of our troops over German- soil toward a meeting with the gallant Red Army. International Accord The fcccond purpose was to continue to build the foundation for an international accord which would bring order and security after the chaos of war, and which would give some as-curanee of lasting peace among the nations of the world. Toward that goal also, a tremendous stride was made. At Tehran, over a year ago, there were long-range military plans laid by the chiefs of staff of the three most powerful nations. Among the civilian leaders at Tehran, however, there were only exchanges of views and expressions of opinion. No political agreements were made and none was attempted. At the Crimean Conference, however, the time had come for getting down to specific cases in the political field. There was on all sides at this conference an enthusiastic, effort to reach agreement. Since the time of the Tehran Conference, there had developed among all of us a greater facility in negotiating with each other, which augurs well for the future peace of the world. I have never for an Instant wavered in my belief that an agreement to insure peace and security can be reached. The lapse of time between Tehran and Yalja without conferences of civilian representatives of the three major powers has proved to be too long 14 months. During this long period, local problems were per- mitted to become acute in places like Poland and Greece and Italy and Yugoslavia. Decisions at Yalta Therefore we decided at Yalta that, even if circumstances made it impossible for the heads of the three governments to meet more often in the future, we would make sure that there would be more frequent personal contacts for exchange of views. Accordingly, we arranged for periodic meetings of the foreign secretaries of Great Britain, Russia and the United States at intervals of three or four months. I feel very confident that under this arrangement there will be no recurrence of the incidents which this winter disturbed the friends of world-wide collaboration. . When we met at Yalta, in addition to laying our strategic and tactical plans for a final and complete military victory over Germany there were a number of problems of vital political consequence. FIRST, there were the problems of the occupation and control of Germany after victory, the complete destruction of her military power, and the assurance that neither Nazism nor Prussian militarism could again be revived to threaten the peace and civilization of the world. SECOND, there was the settlement of the few differences w hich remained among us with respect to the international security organization after the Dumbarton Oaks Conference. THIRD, there were the general political and. economic problems common to all of the areas which have been or would be liberated from the Nazi yoke. FOURTH, there were 4he special problems created by Poland and Yugoslavia. Days were spent in discussing these momentous matters and we argued freely and frankly across the table. But at the end, on every point, unanimous agreement was reached. And more important even than the agreement of words, I may say we achieved a unity of thought and a way of getting along together. Hitler Has Failed It was Hitler's hope that we would not agree that some slight crack might appear in the solid wall of allied unity which would give him and his fellow gangsters dne last hope of escaping their just doom. That is the objective for which his propaganda machine' has been working for months. But Hitler has failed. Never before have the major allies been more closely united not only in their war aims but in their peace aims. And they are determined to continue to be united, with each other and with all peace-loving nations so that the ideal of .lasting world peace will become a reality. The Soviet, British and United States chiefs of staff held daily meetings with each other, and conferred frequently with Marshal Stalin, with Prime Minister Churchill and with me, on the problem of coordinating the strategic and tactical efforts of all the Allied- forces. They completed their plans for the final knockout blows to Germany. At the time of the Tehran Conference, the Russian front was so far removed from the American and British fronts that, while certain long-range strategic cooperation was possible, there could be no tactical, day-by-day coordination. But Russian troops have now crossed Poland, and are fighting on the eastern soil of Germany; British and American troops are now on German soil close to the River Rhine in the west. It is a different situation today; a closer tactical liaison - has become possible and. in the Cri- mean Conference, this has been accomplished. Dally News Exchange Provision was made for daily exchange of information between the armies under command, of General Klsenhowcr, those under command of the Soviet marshals on the Eastern Front, and our armies in Italy -without the necessity of going through the chiefs of staff In Washington and London as in the past. You have seen one result of this exchange of information in the recent bombing by American and English aircraft of points which are directly related to the Rusian advance on Berlin. From now on, ..American and British heavy bombers will be used in the day-by-day tactics ' of the war in direct support of the Soviet Armies, as well as in support of our own on the Western Front. They are now engaged in bombing and strafing in order to hamper the movement of German reserves and materials to the Eastern and Western Fronts from other parts of Germany and from Italy. Arrangements were made for the most effective distribution of all available material and transportation to the places where they can best be used in the combined war effort American, British, and Russian. All Military Secrets Details of all these plans and arrangements are military secrets; but they -will hasten the day of the final collapse of Germany. The Nazis are learning about some of them already, to their sorrow. They will learn more about them tomorrow and the next day and every day! There will be no respite for them. We will not desist for one moment until unconditional surrender. The German people, as well as the German soldiers, must realize that the sooner they give up and surrender, by groups or as individuals, the sooner their present agony will be over. They must realize that only with complete surrender can they begin to reestablish themselves as people whom the world might accept as decent neighbors. We made it clear again at Yalta, and I now repeat that unconditional surrender does not mean the destruction or enslavement of the German people. The Nazi leaders have deliberately withheld that part of the Yalta declaration from the German press and radio. They seek to convince the people of Germany that the Yalta declaration does mean slavery and destruction for them for that is how the Nazis hope to save their own skins, and deceive their people into continued useless resistance. What It Means We did, however; make it clear at this conference just what unconditional surrender does mean for Germany. It means the temporary control of Germany by Great Britain, Russia, France, and the United States. Each of these nations will occupy and control a separate zone of Germany and the administration of the four zones will be coordinated in Berlin by a control council Q 300 Psfe 7&Qfejr &4z$? -vf-f ..Moscow IfiSSr -LITHUANIA) "V . STATUTE MILES ENGLAND 7 Smoensk Pb jfnMAwX -WarS8W J RUSSIA London 4hJ vjtKMANY POLAND VBA Vfcjfei:v I -Kiev .Kharkov Atlantic RM3mm ;. $,0V Ocean CC-RQ V;?yFeT3l:.vj. P' A meBULGARi A j J Black SecrffilS PORTUGAMa TL CasablancTP? fM " 7Fefe.9t ,JUNlSIAv. "rS-w - I MK "RAO morocco 5?:..;-i-vi- vP-vA t.te:2 Y '-V7 Al exandn&ljSreaf Bitter Lake A&Mr. ALGERI ''WUAyj. lEkdnFeb. 72 ARABIA- ROUTE OF F. D. R. TRIP TO YALTA The route of President Roosevelt's trip to the Yalta conference, beginning and ending with passage through the Strait of Gibraltar, mapped with dates. composed of representatives of the four nations. Unconditional surrender also means the end of Nazism, and of the Nazi party and all of its barbaric laws and institutions. It means the termination of all militaristic influence in the public, private and cultural life of Germany. It means for the Nazi war criminals a punishment that is speedy and just and severe. It means the complete disarmament of Germany; the destruction of its militarism and its military equipment; the end of its production of armament; the dispersal of all of its armed forces; the' permanent dismemberment of the German general staff which has so often shattered the peace of the world. It means that Germany will have to make reparations in, kind for the damage which itx-has done to the innocent . victims of its aggression. By compelling reparations In kind in plants, and machinery and rolling stock and raw materials we shall avoid the mistake made after the last war of demanding reparations in the .form of money which .Germany could never pay. Peace for Future We do not want the German people to starve, or to become a burden on the rest of the world. Our obiectlve In handling Germany is simple it is to secure the peace of the future world. Too much experience has shown that that objective is Impossible If Germany in allowed to retain any ability to wage aggressive war. That objective will not harm the German people. On the contrary, it will protect them from a repetition of the fate which the general staff and kaiserism imposed on them before, and which Hitlerism is now imposing upon them again a hundredfold. It will be removing a cancer from the German body, which for generations has produced only misery and pain for the whole world. During my stay at Yalta, I saw the kind of reckless, senseless fury and destruction which comes out of German militarism. Yalta . had no military significance of any kind, and no defenses. Before the last war, It had been a resort for the Czars and for the aristocracy of Russia. Afterward, however, and until the attack upon the Soviet Union by Hitler, the palaces and villas of Yalta had been used as a rest and recreation center by the Russian people. Destruction by Nazis The Nazi officers took them over for their own use, and when the Red Army forced the Nazis out of the Crimea, these villas were looted by the Nazis, and then nearly all were destroyed. And even the humblest of homes were not spared. There was little left in Yalta but ruin and desolation. Sevastopol was also a scene of utter destruction with less than a dozen buildings left intact in the whole city. I had read about Warsaw and Lidice and Rotterdam and Coventry but I saw Sevastopol and Yalta! And I know that there -is not enough room on earth for both German militarism and Christian decency. Of equal importance with the military arrangements at the Crimean conference were the agreements reached with respect to a general international organization for lasting world peace. The foundations were laid at Dumbarton Oaks. There was one point, however, on which agreement was not reached at Dumbarton Oaks. It involved the procedure of voting in the Security Council. At the Crimean Conference, the Americans made a proposal on this subject which, after full discussion, was unanimously Churchill Wins 413-0 Vote Of Confidence, Yalta O. K.'d London, March 1 (U.R) Prime Minister Churchill won a 413 to 0 vote of confidence in Commons today when the voting membership approved the decisions of the Crimea conference. Mr. Churchill overrode a rebellion in the Conservative ranks against the Big 3's agreement on Poland in scoring .his smashing triumph. The vote came after three days of debate on foreign affairs. Confident of the outcome, Mr. Church adopted by the other two nations. Agreement Still Secret It is not yet possible to announce the terms of that agreement publicly, but it will be in a very short time. Wrhen the conclusions reached at the Crimean conference with respect to voting in the Security Council are made known, I believe you will find them a fair solution of this complicated and difficult problem. They are founded in justice, and will go far to assure international cooperation in the maintenance of peace. ( A conference of all the United ' Nations of the world will meet in San Francisco on April 25, 1945. There, we all hope, and confidently expect, to execute a definite charter of organization under which the peace of the world will be preserved and the forces of aggression permanently outlawed. This time we shall not make the mistake of waiting until the end of the war to set up the machinery of peace. This time, as we fight together to get the war over quickly, we work together to keep it from happening again. Up to Senate I am well aware of the Constitutional fact as are all the United Nations that this charter must be approved by two-thirds of the Senate of the United Spates as will some of the other arrangements made at Yalta. The , Senate of the United State, through Its appropriate representatives, has been kept continuously advised of the program of this government in the creation of the international security organization. The Senate and the House of Representatives will both be represented at the San Francisco Conference. The congressional delegates to the San Francisco Conference will consist of an equal number of Republican and Democratic members. The American delegation is in every sense of the word bipartisan. World peace is not a party question any more than is military victory. When our republic was threatened, first by the Nazi clutch for world conquest in 1940, and then by the Japanese treachery of 1941, partisanship and politics were laid aside by nearly every American; and every resource was dedicated to our common safety. The same consecration to the cause of peace will be expected by every patriotic American and by every human soul overseas. Peace for AH World The structure of world peace cannot be the work of one man, or one party, or one nation. It cannot be an American peace, or a British, a Russian, a French, or a Chinese peace. It cannot be a peace of large nations or of small nations. It must be a peace which rests on the cooperative effort of the whole" world. It cannot be a structure of complete perfection at first. But it can be a peace and it will be a peace based on the sound and just principles" of the Atlantic Charter on the conception of the dignity of the human being on the guarantees of tolerance and freedom of religious worship. As the Allied armies have marched to military victory, they have liberated peoples , whose liberties had been crushed by the Nazis for four years, and whose economy had been reduced to ruin by Nazi despoil-ers. There have been instances of political confusion and unrest in these liberated areas as in Greece and Poland and Yugoslavia and other places. Worse than that, there actually began to grow up in some of them vaguely defined ideas of "spheres of influence", which were incompatible with the basic principles ill cancelled a speech he had expected to make at the closing session and left that chore to Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden. The vote was on a government motion "that the House approves the declaration of joint policy agreed to by the three great powers at the Crimea Conference, and in particular welcomes the determination to maintain unity of action, not only in achieving the final defeat of the common enemy but thereafter in peace, as in war." of international collaboration. If allowed to go unchecked, these developments might have had tragic results. It is fruitless to try to place the blame for this situation on one particular nation or another. It is the kind of development which is almost inevitable unless the major powers of the world continue .without interruption to work together and to assume joint responsibility for the solution of problems which may arise to endanger the peace of the world. We met in the Crimea, determined to settle this matter of liberated areas. I am happy to confirm to the Congress that we did arrive at a settlement a unanimous settlement. Joint Responsibility The three most powerful nations have agreed that the political and economic problems of any area liberated from the Nazi conquest, or of any former Axis satellite, are a joint responsibility of all three governments. They will join together, during the temporary period of instability after hostilities, to help the people of any liberated area, or of any former satellite state, to solve their own problems through firmly established democratic processes. They will endeavor to see to it that interim governing authorities are as representative as possible of all democratic elements in the population, and that free elections are held as soon Nis possible. Responsibility for political conditions thousands of miles overseas can no longer be avoided by this groat nation. As I have said, it is a smaller world. The United States now exerts a vast influence in the cause of peace throughout all the world. It will continue to exert that influence, only if it is willing to continue to share in the responsibility for keeping the peace. It would be our own tragic loss were we to shirk that responsibility. Final decisions in these areas are going to be made jointly; m and therefore they will often be "a result of give-and-take compromise. The United States will not always have its way 100 per cent nor will Russia or Great Britain. We shall not always have ideal solutions to complicated international problems, even though we are determined, continuously to strive toward the ideal. But I am sure that under the agreements reached at Yalta there will be a more stable political Europe than ever before. When Responsibility Ends Of course, once there has been a free expression of the peoples' will in any country, our immediate responsibility ends with the exception only of such action as may be agreed upon in the international security organization. The United Nations must also soon begin to help these liber- ' ated areas adequately, to reconstruct their economy so that they are ready to resume their places in the world. The Nazi war machine has stripped them of raw materials and machine tools and trucks and locomotives. . They have left their industry stagnant and much of their agriculture unproductive. To start the wheels running again is not a mere matter of relief. It is to the national interest of all of us to see them productive so that they do not need continued relief from us. One outstanding example of joint action by the three major allies in the liberated areas was the solution reached on Poland. The whole Polish question was a potential source of trouble in post-war Europe, and we came to the conference determined to find a common ground for its solution. We did. Up to Polisii People Our objective was to help create a strong, independent, and prosperous nation, with a government ultimately to be selected by the Polish people themselves. To achieve this objective,' it was necessary to provide for the formation of a new government much more representative than had been possible while Poland was enslaved. Accordingly, steps were taken at Yalta to reorganize the existing provisional government in Poland on a broader democratic basis, so as to include democratic leaders now in Poland and those abroad. This new, reorganized government will be recognized by all of us as the temporary government of Poland. However, the new Polish pro visional government of national unity will be pledged to holding a free election as soon as possible on the basis of universal suffrage and a secret ballot. Throughout history, Poland has been the corridor through which attacks on Russia have been made. Twice in this generation, Germany has struck at Russia through this corridor. To insure European security and world peace, a strong and independent Poland is necessary. The decision with respect to the boundaries of Poland was a compromise, under which, however, the Poles will receive compensation in territory in the north and westin exchange for what they lose by the Curzon Line. The limits of the western boundary will be permanently fixed in the final peace conference. It was agreed that a large coast line should be included. It is well known that the people east of the Curzon Line are predominantly White Russian and Ukrainian; and that the people west of the line are predominantly Polish. As far back as 1919, the representatives of the Allies agreed that the Curzon Line represented a fair boundary between the two peoples. 4 Best for Poland I am convinced that the agreement on Poland, under the circumstances, is the most hopeful agreement possible for a free, independent and prosperous Polish state. The Crimean Conference was a meeting of the three major military powers on whose shoulders rest the chief responsibility and burden of the war. Although, for this reason, France was not a participant in the conference, no one should detract from the recognition there accorded of her role in the future of Europe and the world. France has been Invited to accept a zone of control in Germany, and to participate as a fourth member of the Allied control council of Germany. She has been invited to join as a sponsor of the international conference at San Francisco. She will be a permanent member of the international security council together with the other four major powers. And, finally, we have asked that France be associated with us in our joint responsibility over the liberated areas of Europe. Agreement was also reached on Yugoslavia, as announced in the communique; and is in process of fulfillment. Quite naturally, the Crimean Conference concerned itself only with the European war and with the political problems of Europe and not with the Pacific war. Attack on Japan At Malta, however, our combined British and American staffs made their plans to increase the attack anainst Japan. The Japanese war lords know that they are not being overlooked. They have felt the force of our B-29's, and our carrier planes; they have felt the naval might of the United States, and do not appear very anxious to come out and try it again. The Japs know what it means to hear "the United States Marines have landed." And we can add, having Iwo Jima in mind: "The situation is well in hand." They also know what is in store for the homeland of Japan now that General MacArthur has completed his magnificent march back to Manila, and Admiral Nimitz is establishing his air bases right in the back yard of Japan itself in Iwo Jima. Long Road to Tokyo It is still a tough, long road to Tokyo. The defeat of Germany will not mean the end of the war against Japan. On the contrary, America must be prepared for a long and costly struggle in the Pacific. But the unconditional surrender of Japan is as essential as the defeat of Germany if our plans for world peace are to succeed. For Japanese militarists must be wiped out as thoroughly as German militarism. On the way home from the Crimea, I made arrangements to meet personally King Farouk of Egypt, Ilaile Selassie, emperor of Ethiopia, and King lbn Saud of Saudi Arabia. Our conversations had to do with matters of common interest. They will be of great mutual advantage because they gave us an opportunity of meeting and talking face to face, and of exchanging views in personal conversation instead of formal correspondence. On my voyage, I had the benefit of seeing our army and navy and air force at work. All Americans would feel as proud of our armed forces as I am, if they could see and hear what it did. Against the most efficient professional soldiers and sailors and airmen of all history, our men stood and fought and won. This is our chance to see to it that the sons and grandsons of these gallant fighting men do not have to do it all over again in a few years. The conference in the Crimea was a turning point in American history. There will soon be presented to the Senate of the United States and to the American people a great decision which will determine the fate of the United" States and of the world for generations to come. There can be no middle ground here. We shall have to take the responsibility for world collaboration, or we shall have to bear the responsibility for another world conflict. I know that the word "planning" is not looked upon with favor in some quarters. In domestic affairs, tragic mistakes have been made by reason of lack of planning; and, on the other hand, many great improvements in living, and many benefits to the human race, have been accomplished as a result of ade quate, intelligent planning reclamations of desert areas, developments of whole river valleys, provision for adequate housing. The same will be true in relations between nations. For a second time, this generation is face to face with the objective of preventing wars. To meet the objective, the nations of the world will either have a plan or they will not. The groundwork of a plan has now been furnished, and has been submitted to humanity for discussion and decision. No plan is perfect. Whatever is adopted at San Francisco will doubtless have to be amended time and again over the years, just as our own Constitution has been. No one can say exactly how long -any plan will last. Peace can endure only so long as humanity really insists upon it, and is willing to work for it and sacrifice for it. Twenty-five years ago, American fighting men looked to the statesmen of the world to finish the work of peace for which they fought and suffered. We failed them then. We cannot fail them again, and expect the world again to survive. The Crimean conference was a successful effort by the three leading nations to find a common ground for peace. It spells the end of the system of unilateral action and exclusive alliances and spheres of influence and balances of power and all the other expedients which have been tried for centuries and have failed. We propose to substitute for all these, a universal organization in which all peace-loving nations will finally have a chance to join. I am confident that the Congress and the American people will accept the results of this conference as the beginnings of a permanent structure of peace upon which we can begin to build, under God, that better world in which our children and grandchildren yours and mine, the children and grandchildren of the whole world must live. BISHOP OF SYDNEY DIES Dublin, March 1 (JP) The Most Rev. Michael Shcchan, archbishop coadjutor of Sydney from 1922 to 1937, died today in Dublin at the age of 75. World Collaboration by U. S. Essential, F. D. R. TellsNation (Continued be wiped out as thoroughly as German militarism. The Chief Executive described the Big 3 meeting at Yalta as a successful effort, to find a common ground for peace. "It spells the end of thejiy-stcm of unilateral action and exclusive alliances and spheres of influence and balances of power and all the other expedients which have been tried for centuries and have failed," he said. "We propose to substitute for all of these a universal organization , in which all peace-loving nations will finally have a chance to join. Will Build Better World "I am confident that the Congress and the American people will accept the results of this conference, as the beginnings of a permanent structure of peace upon which we can begin to build, under God, that better world in which our children and grandchildren yours and mine, the children and grandchildren of the whole world must live." The President, whose speech was broadcast, reminded the senators sitting before him that they will soon have an opportunity to make a creat decision which will de termine the fate of the United States and of the world for generations to come. He apparently referred to the projected world security organi.a lion, American participation In which will be passed on by the Senate some time in the future. . He expressed a hope that Con gress would decide his journey was "a fruitful one." Mr. Roosevelt asserted that the Senate and House both would be represented at the San Francisco United Nations Conference begin ning April 25, with both major parties having equal representa tion. "World peace," he said, "is not a party question any more than is .military victory. . . . The struc ture of world peace cannot be the work of one man, or one party, or one nation. ... It cannot be a structure of complete perfection at first." Discussing at length the Big 3 agreement for united action in the political and economic field in liberated areas, the President men tioned the specific agreement re garding Poland s future boundaries as an outstanding example of such joint action. Upholds Curzon Line Asserting the whole Polish question was a potential source of trouble in post-war Europe and the Yalta participants were determined to find a common ground for its solution, the President said: "We did." The decision to partition Poland he described as a compromise under which the Poles will receive compensation in territory in the north and west in exchange for what they lose east of the Curzon Line. The limits of the western boundary, he said, wiL be permanently fixed in the final peace conference. "It is well known." he con tinued, '"that the people east of the Curzon Line are predominantly White Russian and Ukrainian and the people west s of the line are predominately Polish. As far back as 1919 the representatives of the Allies agreed that the Curzoa Line represented a fair boundary be tween the two peoples." Mr. Roosevelt said he was con-j United Nations Membership Is Still Open to 3 Word Awaited From Syria, Iceland and Lebanon on Joining Washington, March 1 (JP) The State Department, which has done a rushing business in United Nations memberships the last few days, is holding its books open for three more: Iceland, Syria and Lebanon. The only information here about Iceland is that its government once headed by the King of Den-mark, has been considering whether to declare war on the Axis and thereby gain the right to become a United Nation. There is not much more time for consideration, however. The Big Three at Yalta fixed March I as the deadline, and that is interpreted here to mean midnight tonight. Syria and Lebanon, former French mandates whose independence has been recognized by the United States, have declared war, but up to last night were reported to have made no formal request for United Nations' membership. On the actions of those three countries depends the number to be invited to the World Security Conference at San Francisco beginning April 25. Two latecomers, Egypt and Turkey, signed up yesterday. That raised the United Nations' total to 44, considerably more than half the. total of independent countries in' the world. That total is 74, if such political units as Andorra, Sao. Marino and Nepal are included. On the outside looking in, under the rules laid down by the Big 3. are all the countries which have preserved strict neutrality, such as Sweden, Switzerland and Eire. Also those neutrals which have been ac cused of following pro-Axis policies, notably Spain and Argentina. Invitations to the San Francisco gathering are expected to go out sometime this month. ' From Page One) vinced that the agreement on Poland, under the circumstances, if "the most hopeful agreement possible for a free. Independent and prosperous Polish state." Says Unity Will Continue The President emphasized -th unity of the major Allies and said they are determined to continue to be united so that "the Ideal of lasting, world peace will become a reality." Referring to some agreements reached at Yalta as "military secrets" he said the Nazis are learning about some of them already "to their sorrow," and they will learn "more about them tomorrow and the next day and every day." On the way back from the Mediterranean, Mr. Roosevelt told reporters the Yalta conferences had produced some secret understandings necessarily secret, he called them which would become apparent in time. In his speech to Congress the President said the Big 3 had agreed on voting procedure in the proposed World Security Council a point not settled at Dumbarton Oaks, and added: "It is not yet possible to announce the terms of that agreement publicly, but it will be in a very short time." American Plan Adopted The basis for the agreement, he said, was jxn American proposal "which after full discussion, was unanimously adopted by the other two nations." Although France was not represented at the conference, the President said "no one should detract from the recognition there accorded of her role in the future of Europe and the world." He pointed out that France has been invited to accept a zone of control in Germany, to join as a sponsor of the United Nations Conference, that she will have a permanent member on the International Security Council with, the other four major powers, and she will be associated in the joint responsibility over liberated areas. One result of the agreement to exchange daily information between the Allied armies under General Eisenhower and Premier Stalin, and those in Italy, without the necessity of going through the chiefs of staff in Washington and London as in the past, he said, was the recent bombing by American and English aircraft "of points wnich are directly related to the Russian advance on Berlin." 'Not Adverse to Travel' The President began his address in a light vein. After asserting he came back refreshed and inspired despite the long journey, he added: The Roosevclts are not, as you may suspect, adverse to travel. We thrive on it!" He said there were two main purposes at the conference, the first to defeat Germany with greatest possible speed and the smallest possible loss of Allied lives, and the second to corf- tinue to build for lasting peace. As to the first purpose, he said that is now being carried out in great force. As to the second "a tremendous stride was made." The President emphasized once again that unconditional surrender does not mean the destruction or enslavement of the German people. He said Nazi leaders have "deliberately withheld that part of the Yalta declaration from the German press and radio."

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