The Guardian from London, Greater London, England on December 11, 1936 · 8
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The Guardian from London, Greater London, England · 8

London, Greater London, England
Issue Date:
Friday, December 11, 1936
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THE MANCHESTER GUARDIAN. FRIDAY. DECEMBER 11. 1936 Common IRIr. Baldwin's Full Story of the Crisis KING'S DETERMINATION ".Unwavering Intentions : Could Shake ' The House of Commons was crowded to its utmost capacity yesterday 'in anticipation of the official announcement of the King's decision. Membess not only, filled the benches tfnd the' 'Steps of the gangways but they oven, sail on each other's knees. They stood five or six deep behind the bar ' of. -the. House, and members and Ministers -who- -could not find other splice 'vjcVo packed in a solid mass behind the Speaker's, chair. The galleries, upstairs reserved for members were also filled, and the Peers' ;' and' Distinguished Strangers' ijaileries' were . crowded 'as never before. - - There were 51 questions on the order- paper bat none to the Prime Minister, and he did- -not enter the Chamber until exactly-3 35. He was cheered time after time from all parts of the House He sat between Mr. Ramsay MdoDonald and the Government Chief Whip (Captain . Margesson), his face set and, grave. Questions over, there came what "is called a private notice question 'about the'air crash at Purley, and then . the most dramatic moment of all arrived. , It was at 3 43 when Mr. Baldwin formally moved to. Suspend the rule governing the sitting of the'House and then he walked to the bar of the House in. a Chamber so silent that his footsteps could be heard on the carpeted floor. The Speaker in the meantime had risen. "The Prime Minister." he called,, and -Mr. Baldwin, usinc the well-known phraseology, announced. "A message from the King, sir, signed by his Majesty's own hand." With the conventional bows to the Speaker's chair. .Mr, Baldwin walked slowly up the floor once more, holding in his hand the official paper on the top of which were the Royal Anns. Silently lie handed it. to the Speaker and made his way back to his place on the Treasury 'bench and sat there wiping the tears from his eyes while the Speaker; still standing, read the Kink's message announcinghis decision to abdicate. PREMIER'S SPEECH A Repugnant Task , Mr. .Baldwin, who had resumed his seat, .rose Jtgain as soon as the Speaker had finished reading the message and in a' voice shaken with emotion, which as times rendered him almost inaudible,, sajdj " Sir, I have to move that bis Majesty's most gracious message be now considered." " Sir, no more grave message has ever beenreceived by Parliament. No more diflicilt, I may almost say repugnant, task,; has ever been imposed upon a Prinze Minister.'?- - There were low .sympathetic murmurs of "Hear, hear " from aLVparts of the xiouse. mr. Baldwin paused lor a moment, and then in a voice broken wittii'emouon and speaking with slow . i .. i : i. i.: , . . uvuijcruuun no continued : . " I would ask the House, which I know will iot be without sympathy for me in my J position to-day (hear, hear) to remember that in thia Inst, -wool.- T ii,uo had put little time in which to compose a speech for delivery to-day. So -I must ten wnas i liavo to tell truthfully, sincerely, and plainly with no attempt to drea up or to adorn. " L.sholl have little or nnthinc rt cimr in tls way of comment or of -criticism or of praise or of blame. I think my best course to-day and the one the House would desire is to tell them so far 'as I can jof what has passed between his .uujqsiy ana myseit ana which has led til) to the oresent situation. Itwould like to sav at the start that his Majesty a Prince of Wales had honoured me for many years with a friendship which I valued and I know that She would agree with me in saying to you that it was not only a frieudshipbut betwfeen man .and man a friendship of ujiimuu, uiu x n uuiu ii&o io tell tne HouSe when i ' begin -that "when we said powfebye on- Tuesday night at -Fort Belvedere we both oft us knew and felt and saiaiio eacn oiner mat Uiat friendship so far from beinc inroaired hv -tlm rti- eussions of this last week.bound us more cioseiy logetner than ever, and would last for life. (Cheers.) ANXIETY Flood of Letters " The Bouse will want to know how it wasf I had. my first interview with' his Majesty. I mar ssv thnf. )? 'r,1;t-,. li3 rbeen-most'generous in allowing me to tell the House the' pertinent parts of uie ftiscussiqnsithat took place.:with me. As the JIouso is aware, I had been ordered in August and-Septemher a corn-pie rest, wbicb owing '.to the-kindness of my .staff and the consideration of all my colleagues, I was able to enjoy to the full Andkwhen October amejalthough I had heenMirdered to take a rest in that month, JeV- CO"0" not in fairness to my work takea further holiday, and I came, as it weri" on half-time before the middle of October, and for the first time since. the begnjning of August was in a position to loofyinto things. V- ' ' " 1 Letters from America " There were two things that disquieted me t that moment. ' There was' coming intoivmy office a vast volume of correspondence, mainly at: that time from British subjects and' Amer'can citizens of British origin in the United States of America, from some , of the Dominions; ! andt '-Tom. this eonnfnr aII Amnucinnl perturbation, and uneasiness at what was theft; appearing -jiiv the American press. "Ipwas aiWre also that there was in theajear furore a divorce case coming -on, tbeisesults of which made me realise that posAiKly-A.difficult situation- might arise latev end I ielt it -was essential that soirieone should see his Majesty and warn hinSof 'the difficult'situation that might arise- later ii occasion. -was given for. " confcmatioh of this kind of gossip end criticism, ana xne danger tnat mignt coutf!.. if 'thajt gossip and that criticism HPHE ABDICATION OF THE KING No One spread from the other side of the Atlantic to this country. " I felt that in the circumstances there was onlv one man who could speak to him and talk the matter over with him, and thBt man wai the Prime Minister. "And I felt doubly bouni by my duty is- I conceived it to the country and my duty to him, not only as counsellor Dut as a menu. FIRST INTERVIEW Strict Privacy " I consulted 1 am ashamed to say it and thoy have forgiven me none of my colleagues. "I happened to be staying in the neigh bourhood of Port Belvedere about tiie middle of October, and I ascertained that his Majesty was leaving his house on Sunday, October 18, to entertain a small shooting party at Sandringham, and was leaving on Sunday afternoon. I telephoned from my friend's house on Sunday morn ink', and found that. h had elt eaTlicr than was expected. In those circumstances I communicated with him through ins secretary 3nd stated that I desired to see him that is the first and only occasion on which I was the one who asked for an interview. that I desired to see him aud that the matter was urgent. i tola Dim what it, was. 1 expressed my willincness to eo to Sandrinzham on Tuesday, October 20, but I said I thought it wiser, if his Majesty thought fit, to see him -at Fort Belvedere, because I was anxious at that time that no one should know of mv visit and that at anv rate our first talk should be in complete privacy. Ihe renlv came to me that Ins Majesty would motor back on Mondav, October 19, to Fort Belvedere and that he would see me on the Tuesday morning. On the Tuesday morning" I saw him. TELLING THE TRUTH Adviser's Duty "Sir, I may say before I proceed to the details of the conversation that an adviser of the Crown can be of no possible service to his. master unless he tells him at all times the truth as he sees it (loud cheers) ,-f-whether that truth be welcome or not. And let me say here, as I may say several times before I finish, when I look back on these talks there is n6thing that' I have told his Majesty of. which 1 felt he should not be aware. Nothing. " But his Majesty's attitude all'tlirough has been let me put it in this way; never has he shown any sign of offence, of being hurt at anything I have said to him, and the whole of our discussions have been carried out, as I said, with an increase if possible of the mutual respect and regard ih which we 6tood:' - "I told his Majesty that I had two great anxieties, one the effect of a continuance of the kind of criticism that at that time was proceeding in the American Bress, the effect it would have m the ominions, and particularly in Canada, where it was widespread, the effect it would have in this country. That was the first thing. " And then I reminded him of what I had often told him and his brothers in years past. That is this. You take the British monarchy a unique institution. The Crown in this countrv through ihe centuries has been deprived of manv of its prerogativesbut to-day, while that is true, it stands for far more than it ever aonein its nistory. (Loud cheers.) The imnnrfAiiM nf -,4a infjumf. beyond all question far greater than it has ever been, being, as it is, not only the last link of Empire that is left but sukb ui tuis country so long as it exists in that intemritv neainot auii that have affected and afflicted other " There 13 no man or woman in this muuiry , ro wnatever party tnev belone, wno would not subscribe to that. (Hear, A WARNING Crown's Prestige " But while this feeling largely depends on toe respect wnicn has crown un in th last three generations for the Monarchy, it might not take so Ions in the face of the kind of criticism to which it is beinc exposed to lose that power far more rapidly than it was built up, and once lost I doubt if anything would restore 4L. Mr. Baldwin paused, on. and then went "That was the basis of mv h!l- ti.nt .isijrti., ana x expressed my anxietv and then m l. .. . I. - - - I , uittti suvix criticism snouid uave cause to go on. In my view, I said, no uoDularitw in tho innr, . would be weighed against the effect ot such criticism. I told his Majesty that -. .iwivcu lurwam io ins reign Denu; a trrpiit. rpii, In t ...... u . nau, lie lias, so manv of thp nimiitioc necessary for this, and that. I honed, we snouid bo able ..." At this point Mr. Baldwin rlmnH voice to a whisper and was inaudible. Alter referring fn n iimvimmii ; f-. him Mr. Baldwin continued: " I told him T Jisirl was his Prime Minister, but that I wanted ?f over wim nim as a friend to See If J COUlrf llPlr, him in tut . .Perhaps I am now saying what I should " maiier i nave not asKcd nun it T mieht i it it because I do not. thint- a and I think it illustrates the basis oa "n ur huss nave Deen neid. He said tO me not nnpp firH-. m,ni. itmaz, n these many, many -hours we have had luseiner, ano especially towards the end, You and X Tnust At7 hia together. I. will not have anyone inter fering."' i "I then .pointed .out the danger of given in that 'case which left h ma- in suspense for -some time, that period of suspense might be dangerous: because then everyone would be trdfciw - n when once the nress hppnn at some time begin, in this country then . - nuuiu .ailac lor him and for me, and there might be a danger which both, he' and I have seen all through this and I ' shall come to this later, and one of the reasons why ha wanted to take this action quickly was that there might be sides taken and factions -grow, up in -(his country, where no factions ought to exist. (Cheers.) " It 'was oh'that aspect of the question," said Mr. Baldwin, "that we talked for an hour, and I went away glad that the ice had been broken, because I knew that it had to be broken. My conscience at that moment was clear, and for some little time we had no further meeting. I begged of his Majesty to consider all that I had said. I said that 1 pressed him for no kind of answer, but would he consider everything I had said? NEXT INTERVIEW "Impracticable" Proposal "The next time I saw him was-on November 1G. That was at; Buckingham Palace. At that date a decree nisi had been pronounced in the divorce case, and I felt it my duty on that occasion his Majesty had sent for me on that occasion ; I had meant to see him later in ihp vppk- but he sent for me first; I felt it my duty to begin conversations, and I spoke to him for a quarter of an hour or twenty minutes on the question of marriage. " Again we must remember the Cabinet had not been in this at alL I reported to about tour of my senior colleagues the conversation at Fort ueivedere. " I saw him on Mondav. November IB. and I began by giving him my iview on a possible marriage, and I told him that I did not think that a particular marriage was one that would receive the approbation of the country (cheers), that marriage involved the lady becoming Queen. I did tell his Majestv once that I might be a lemnant o"f the old Victorians, but my worst enemy would not say this of me, that I did not know what the reactions of the English people would be in a particular course of action, and I told him that so far as tliev ivfnt L was certain that that would be impracticable. ' I cannot go, however, into details, but that was the substance. I pointed out to him that the position of the King's wife was different from the position of the wife of any other citizen :'n the country. It was part of the price that a King has to pay. His wife becomes yueen, the yueen becomes Queen of the country, and therefore in the choice of a Queen the voice of the people must oe ueara. iLoua cneers. "It' is the truth which was expressed in those lines which may come to all of your minds . . . His will is not his own; ' For he himself is subject to his birth ; He may not, as unvalu'd persons do, Carve for himself; for on his choice depends The safety and the health of the whole State. KING'S REPLY Prepared to Go " Then his Majesty said to me and I have his permission to tell you this that he wanted to tell me something that he long wanted to tell me. He said, 'I am going to many Mrs. Simpson and I am prepared to go.' I said, Sir, that is most grievous news. It is" impossible for ine to make any comment on that to-day.' "Ho told the Queen that night, he told the Duke of York and the Duke of Gloucester next day, and the Duke of Kent, who was away, on Wednesday or Thursday,, and for the reBt of the week, so far as I know, he, was considering that point. . ; , " ' ' - "He sent .for me again on"Wednesday, November 25. 'In, the, meantime -the suggestion had been -made to me 1 that a possible compromise might be arranged to avoid these possibilities that had been seen first at a distance and then approaching nearer and nearer. The compromise was that the King should marry,'- that 'Parliament should- pass' an Act enabling the lady to be the King's wife without the position of Queen, and when I sav his Majesty on Wednesday, November 25, he asked me if that proposition: had been put to me. I said ' Yes,' and he asked me what I thought of it. "I told him that I had not considered it. I. could give him no considered opinion. If fie asked me my first reaction informally, my first reaction was that Parliament would never pass it. (Loud cheers.) " I said if he so desired I would examine it formally. He paid ho riiri m desire. Then I said it would mean putting it formally before the whole Cabinet and communicating with the Prime Ministers of all the Dominions. Was that his wish ? He told me that it was. I said I would do it. " On December 2 he asked me to see him. Again I had intended asking for on audience later that week because such inquiries, as I thought it proper to make x nao not completed, ine inquiries had gone far enouch to show that neither in the Dominions .nor here would there be any prospect of such legislation being accepted. " His Majesty asked me if I could answer his question. I gave him that reply, that I was afraid it was impracticable for those reasons. But I do want the House to realise this. His Majesty Said that he was not surprised at that answer, ne toos my answer with no question and he never recurred to it again. "I want you to nut vourselvna in his Majesty's place and to realise what his feelings were and how glad he would have been had this been possible. But ne said no more about it. He behaved as a great gentleman. He said the matter was closed, and I had -no wo7d again from him. That decision, of course, was a formal decision, and that was the only formal decision of anv kind taken hr tho Government until I come to. the history . " But when we finished that conversation I pointed out the possible alternatives and that it had really brought him into a situation when he would be placed in a grievous situation between two con- nictinj? lovaltips in hi nmm honrt ATth complete abandonment of a project on wnicp ms Heart was set and remaining as King or doing what he intimated to me he was.nrpnarpri tn An in 4i. ,n. which I have -reported, of going and later cuuiracung mat marriage if it were possible. THE LAST DAYS King's Wishes Now. sir,- with record to thn lost days from that date until now. That has been the straggle in which'his Majesty has been engaged. We had' many talks, but always on various aspects " of this limited problem. io.w "The House must remember and it is difficult to realise that his .Majesty is not a boy; He looks verjr.''youne. We have' all'. thamrhtnf Mm Knunu But a .mature man with wide and greati experience., of life ancTaiihe world. And he always had before him "three no four things that he repeated in the course of this conversation at all honrs agaui.wia-aKaia.suBe wascKm if he went he' would' eo with dimitir - ito would not allow, a situation to arise in He wished to go in' circumstances fhmt would make the succession of his brother as -little difficult for Ida tn-ntluvr possible. " . I nav sav that anv idea. -to him nf what might be called a King's party 'was aouurrenL. nc sisyea down at r ort Belvedere because he -said he was not going to come to London during the which he could thaW-He .wantedfthe jmeaiVr r , Tr? tfial to go - with .little word -aunisierB ana to nis veozue as nossiJAv I - disnute because nf tha ohwrinE crowds. I honour and respect him for the way iu wmcn ne nenavea at mat time. PENCILLED NOTE King and Brother "I have something here that 1 think will touch the hearts of all." As he said this with a tremor in his voice Mr. Baldwin produced a single -sheet of note-paper. Then he went on : "I have here a pencilled note sent to me by his Majesty this morning, and I have his authority for reading it. It is just scribbled in pencil. It says : The Duke of York. He and the King have an ways boen on the best of terms as brothers, aud the King is confident, that the Duke uilL deserve and will receie the support ot the whole .Empire. Loud cuecring wept over the crowded House as Mr. ilaldwin said this. Then he continued : j " would say a word or two on. the King's position. The King cannot speak for himself. The King has told us that he cannot carry, and does not see his way to carrying, those almost intolerable burdens of kingship without a woman at hU side. And we know that this crisis, if I may use the word, has arisen now rather than later from that very frankness of his Majesty's character wnicn is one ot nis many attractions. " It would have been perfectly possible for his Majesty not to hove told me of this at the date when he did and not to have told-me for some months to come. But he realised the damase that micrht be done in the interval by gossip and rumours ana taiK ana ne made mat declaration to me when he did on purpose to avoid what he felt misht be dangerous not only here but throughout the Empire to that very moral force of ,i i . i . . - -. i iuw uiuwu which we are an determined to sustain. "WE FAILED" King's Determination " He told me of his intentions and he has never wavered from them. I want the House to understand that. He told me ho felt it his duty to take into his anxious consideration all representations that his advisers might give him, and not until he had fully considered them did he make public his decision. " There has. been no sign of conflict in this matter. Mv offorta during thpsa last days have been directed, as have the efforts of those most closely round him. lu iryujg to neip nun to maxe tne cnoice which he has not made. "And we have failed. And th Kin has made his decision to take this moment to send this gracious message of his confident- hope that by that he will preserve "the unitv of this eonntrv and the whole Empire and avoid those iacuous ainerences wnicn mignt so easily have arisen. "And, sir, it is impossible, unfortunately to avoid talking to some extent to-day about oneself. But these last days have been days of great strain. (Cheers.) It was a (treat comfort to me. and I hope it will be to the House, when l was assured netore I left him on Tuesday night by that intimate circle that was with him at the fort that evening that I had lett nothing undone that I could have done to move him from the decision at which he had arrived. While there is not a soul amone ns who will not regret this from the bottom of. his heart, there is not a soul here to-day tnat wants to judo. We are not iuatie3. ' (Cheers.)- His Maiestv has : announced his decision. He has told I us what he, wants us to do and I think we must close our ranks and do it. And at a later stage this evening I shall ask leave to bring in the necessary bill so that it may be read a first time, printed, and made available to members. -It will bo available in the Vote Office ns soon us the House has ordered the hill to be printed. " The House will meet to-morrow at the U3ual time eleven o'clock, when we shall take the second reading and 'the remaining stages of the bill. It is very important that it should be passed into law to-morrow. I shall put- on the Order Paper for to-morrow a motion to take private members' time and to suspend the four o'clock rule. LAST APPEAL And the Answer " I have only two other things to say. The House will forgive me for saying now something I should have said a few minutes ago. I have told every circumstance and you have received the state ment generously and sympathetically. Yesterday morning when the Cabinet received the King's final and definite answer officially they passed a minute and in accordance with it I sent a message to his Majesty which he has been good enough to allow me to read." To a deadly silent House Mr. Baldwin read his message to the King. It was as follows: Mr. Baldwin with his humble duty to the King. This morning Mr. Baldwin reported to the Cabinet his interview with your Majesty yesterday and informed his colleagues that vour Maiestv then municated to him informally your firm and definite intention to renounce the Throne. The Cabinet received this statement of your Majesty's intention with profound regret and wished Mr. Baldwin to convey w .-vui .jidjcsbj immediately tne unanimous feeling of your Majesty's servants. Ministers are reluctant to believe that -nmjraiys xeaoive is irrevocable and still venture to hope that before your uaiestv nranauncM ,n, m,i t rr your Majesty may be pleased to reconsider yonr intention which most so deenlr duiress and so vitally - affect all your Mjiesty'a subjects. J iu ' T"1. '? at once communicating with the Dominion Prime Ministers for MmiESPT 01 IettmB the? kno hat year iifiSSt has.- nJ! n,de to him the Enn ,ntt"n of Jour Majesty's Then Mr. Baldwin An ... . n- Majesty's reply was received last night": w- e. i-lD? ha received the Prime Minister's ietter of December 9 isSl There VAS r repair ir f tt. u - PHn?.8!.- Iwt .deckon: ihe Then he continued In .hlS: I... t 1 "e"' mm Buoject are faflrf nh woed, A' 'her I have laiiea no one eonlri PP. Pne could , have succeeded iwiiu sun DiDionmMf iHaovb tti - - Kh& .w, wu". w wans. - . t ls a tnearre, which is being watched bv fho hn?. S? .0?1-110 ?nnelves with -that SSs5r?-Jn Mfity Jiimselfcis showing in this hour of his trial. Whatever L"L zet at, .contents of the V''"W " us unx nis wianea to do MLS!9 p let no' word be Broken tht minm p to any. soul, and let us not forget to-day the revered and beloved figure of Queen Mary.'.' . - Another outburst of cheering erected this mention by the Prime Minister of Queen Mary's name. Then Mr. Baldwin went'on "Think what all this time has meant to her, and think of her when we have to speak, if speak we must, during this debate. We have after all as guardians of democracy in thia little island tn see that -we do our work to maintain the integrity of the Monarchy, that monarchy which, es I said at the beginning of my speech, is now the sole luik of our whole Empire and the cuardian of our freedom. THE NEW KING Premier's Appeal Let us 'look forward and remember (our country and the trust reposed by our -country in this the House of Commons, end let us rally behind tlie new King. (Loud cheers.) Stand behind him and help him. (Renewed cheering.) Whatever the country may have suffered by what we are passing through it may soon be repaired, and we shall take what steps toc can in trying to make this country a better country for all people in it." There was an outburst of cheerinc as ASr. Baldwin sat down. . MR. ATTLEE A Severe Shock Me. ATTLEE (Leader of the Opposition) immediately rose and was received with, cheers from all sides of the Chamber. He said : " Mr. Speaker : In view of tlie grave and important message which has been received from his Majesty, I would ask you -Rdiether it would not be desirable to suspend the sitting of this House (Heart, hear) until six o'clock in order that members may give it due consideration." (Cheers.) The SPEAKER : If that is the wish of the House, I am prepared to suspend the sitting until six o'clock and resume it at that hour. The sitting was accordingly suspended at 4 35 until six o'clock. When the House resumed at six o'clock the Chamber was again crowded and both front benches were fully occupied. Mr. ATTLEE immediately T0SO and said: "This occasion does not, in my view, call for long and eloquent speeches. My words will be few end simple. "We have all heard with profound concern the message of his Majesty the King. Tbe Prime Minister has related to us the course of events which has led up to tiiis gmomentous action. The King has deciddd that lie can no longer continue on tthe throne. His subjects in these islands and throughout the British Dominions beyond the eeas will feel a sense of pegsonal loss. (Cheers.) "I em cortain that throughout these anxious days he has had the evmnathy of all in the tragic dilemma with which ne nas Deen raced. mat sympatny is due not only to the nature of the issue. involving, as it does, the strongest human emotion, bufcihe personal affection which he has inspired in his people. " X7 ?-..:. 1. t i. nA ... ..n . u jjiiuou uiuuqluu jma uccu au ncii known to his subjects, to the people not only in this country but throughout the Commonwealth and the Empire. . For many years Prince of Wales he served his country. He shared the joys and sorrows in the dark days of the war and in times of &eace. It seems only the other dav he -was called on tn taka thn great responsibility of . being Sovereign over a quarter of the people, of .the world. "We all know his courage, his ready svmnathv withi sufferine (cheers). and we on these benches can sever forget how he lett for the., miners in their time ot trouble, how he showed his deep human interest in thei unemployed and the people of the distressed areas. Now he has to make a difficult choice. Powerful personal and hupnan considerations have conflicted with .the obligations of his high calling. " I am sure all, of us have been tryine for ,some way by which this conflict could he resolved. ' e nealised the grave objection to every couiise. We hoped it would not come to abdication, but the King has made his decision ; he is Tesolved to abide by it, and wy: can dp no other than ui:i:t;pb lb. "The wish of all his people will be rnaiv ne mey nave p long ana nappy lite, (Cheers.) " We can all aionreciate thn strain which these events have placed on the Prime Minister. (Cheers.) He ib entitled to our sympathy. The country has received a seveni shock. It will take time to recover. " The position of anyone who in these days of present proiblems at home and abroad is called on. to succeed to the Throne in these unprecedented circum stances is obviously- one of very great difficulty. It will Tie the endeavour of an ot ua to do what we may to lighten his burden. (Cheers) " I would like to eatpress on behalf of myself and my colTtagues our deepest Bj-mpaiuy witn. vueen jnary antl ine otner memDers ot tne lioysy umauy. SIR A. SINCLAIR Tribute to Premier Sir ARCHIBALD SINCLAIR (Leader of the Liberal Opposition) said: "Both the country and the Empire have been passing through days .-of distress. The climax to which events Slave now emerged must have aroused in," all of us a deep feeling of grief end prostration. We are bound to our King not only by formal ties, by our oaths of aPDegiance, by our recognition of the Cremi as the one remaining link which unites all the peoples ot the Junpire, but also, by a closer and more intimate link which the Leader of the Opposition has so "simply and so eloquently described (clteers) which the King himself has forged between himself end his people, people at all creeds, of all classes, of all races In. every part of his dominions during neqrly a quarter of a century of royal servicis. "The rupture of these, duties is profoundly painful to ns alt. It must be most painful to those rigfat hon. gentlemen who during the briei rnontria of his reign have been his Ministers spd confidential advisers. Above all, the Prime Minister, his closest and most intimate adviser, deserves, our "sympathy and today also our gnmnrie-(ciem)-rfbr the grave hot clear and movijag statement which, it was his melancholy .duty to make to ns this afternoon. .- - "I ?s lso gratefully Wnd respect-, fully- acclaim thj noKtiral dkA. his Majesty baa shown in diaemmteniinn. y uoiiptTO oiTiae t&B country on give rise. It is m large mennre doe to his. wise and strong restraint! sad to iris resignation, to the iBpremacy1 of Parliament and the co&strtatiaaal msponsibility of his Ministers that tteroarn his not involved in our political controversy but remains above andjaloof from g of &g59:ss& this Conflict mnM TSt. PrMmister referred to. tSoe possi-JSSP?5 ""O? I think iULSS "tJ0 3h have -Kuxdu ju uie monarcnicai principle itself that the lady whom the. King marries most become Queen find, share with him before the whole people the august burden of sovereignty. Such a bill under the Statute of Westminster would have had to pass through rail the. Parliaments of the Dominions before Jt sould become valid, and the attempt to do eo would have involved the Throne in prolonged controversy. In my judgment, therefore, the Government had no., option but to reject the proposal. "'" " I think no man deserves more, cenerous sympathy and support from.tbe; British people at this time than the-devoted brother and loyal subject of the present King whose duty it wiH be to succeed him on the throne. He has-enjoved some but not all of the opportunities which the present King enjoyed of becoming known to the people. "Thousands of young people who have' shared with him the unconventional' delight of camp life can testify to his good, comradeship and democratic instincts,! and none can doubt his sincerity' and high sense of public duty. All will welcome to the Throne that gracious ladv hi wife (Cheers! who was born a. ! commoner but has won the hearts of the British people by showing a cieac ana just conception of royal duty and opportunity in a democratic country. (Cheers.). " G"rief stricken as we are to-day it is our duty to face the future with a clear eve and firm, resolve. Any prolongation of the crisis would be fraught with peril. I doubt whether under any system of Government a crisis of this gravity oould be solved with a3 little hurt to the body politic as under our system of constitutional Monarchy. It is certain that the Srompt action which the King himself; as enjoined upon us will best serve Uie dignity of the Throne, the reputation of our Parliamentary institutions and Ihe happiness -and prosperity and peace of the British people. (Cheers.) MR. CHURCHILL No Controversy Mr. CHURCHILL (C Epping) said, that nothing was more certain or more obvious than that recriminations or con troversy at this time would not only be useless but harmful and wrong. (Hear, hear.) What was done was done. What had been done or left undone belonged to history, and to history so far as he wes concerned, it would be left. It was clear from what they had been told that afternoon that there was at no time any constitutional issue between the King and his Ministers or between the King end Parliament. The supremacy of Parliament over the Crown, the duty of the Sovereign to act iu accordance with the advice of his Ministers neither of these things was ever at any moment in question. (Cheers.) No Sovereign had ever conformed more strictly or more faithfully to tlie letter and spirit of the: Constitution than his present Majesty. In fact he had voluntarily made .a. sac rifice for the peace and strength of his realm which went far beyond the bounds required by the law and the Constitution. He (Mr. Churchill) had throughout pleaded for time. Anyone could see how grave would have been the evils of pro tracted controversy. On tlie other hand, it was in his. view their duty to endure these evils even at serious inconvenience if there was any hope that time would bring a solution. Whether there was any hope or not was a mystery which- at the present time it was impossible to resolve. Time-. was also. important from another point of view. It was essential that there snouid oe no room lor asserting altflr,,the event that the King had been hurried in his decision. He believed that if tin's decision .had been taken -last week it could not have been declared that it was an unhurried decision so far. as the King himself was concerned. But now he (Mr. Churchill) accepted whole-heartedly what uie riuut jxLiuisier xiaa proved namely, that the decision taken this week had been taken by his Majesty '. freely, voluntarily, and spontaneously . in his own time and in his own way. (Cheers.! I have been looking at this matter." continued Mr. Churchill, "as is well known, from an angle different from most non. uiemoers. j. nave thought it my duty to place this fact also upon record. That is all I have to say on the disputable part of this matter. " It was iny duty," Mr. Churchill went on, . as Home Secretary more than a nuurier ni a century ago to stand by his preient Majesty and proclaim his style andj titles at his Investiture as Prince of Wales amid the sunlit battlements of Caernarvon Castlo iw n i. - , - .... 1, naB honoured me here and. also in-war-' " personal Kindness and I mav nrtn ...... ,-1.? v . - Z ' v.,, iucuuump, x.Bnouio nave been ashamed if in mv inAam,w,Aw nnofficial position I had not cast about araui, every lawful means, even most forlorn, to keep him on the Throne of his father to which he had only iusf. Rnnaiutiii4 il -i ... - ---.ww uuu iik nopes and prayers o aU. ' In "this Prin 'tli crA ' J- .... . . uikcuku qualities - of courage, of simplicity, of sympathy, and, above all. of sinceritr rare and precious, which might bare made his reign glorious in the annals , of our ancient monarchy. It is theicmerof tragedy, that this very virtue BhonLr S ..u vjiier conclusion No Looking Back "Although our bones , withered, still I would assert that hi personality will not go down uneherfaherl to future ages. It will be particnJar:: ..mrani iu uie nomes of his poorest subjects (cheers), and they will era Uriah frrnn h. ' . CVEF o wiwui i weir nearts for hia nnvate kmiu nj i. -.- V- the pease and happiness of those -who are dear to him. I 0uld say this especially; to those here and outoW and do not underrate nnZ. Jr"' RTf nuut nmn,.,il riT.r WHO nYrf r""' "1ucreo y 'hat has ?Y5.c?nnot ?S,we"haVno"rit; iuub. uaca. we must look- fonVara -.-S. must obev th JsSViHf?", Minister to looff bratng ! the advocate of lmimttcbial jprlnciS ' now ywtm to give to 'Ids Majesty's .ccessor'furk strength which can only lcnTfJS love of . "',:'w"c. W- (Cheers.)-. . . . and .Empiny MR. MAXTON . Republic AdTOcated. ; Mr. MAXTOJT hxiigow) said be, realised that he a.Z,Z':i2?Z oiise:iii.;whieh the. hvrh t. nortion of tha ,-3i.:-c "tzz: , .- - --wm. -was coder- cenCWaoD.da-tid same uusum imnwfM .i.t-XT?-.-r task which tt.ir4jvtezme& y ma iniuum ni before. ;-But i: the yi monarchiel inetituti. i ,veyerv.sBi -J rT basis ' CirettnurtanMi r i!-C?L ?aarJ oasis cuenmstances of "tMa Vin4 rKry if"""?" wok at this senucnlar pohtical problem forced "upouSS atlenthm to-day .as a practical problem which intelligent men in the twentieth century must face, and were they pro-cared to recognise tjbat our problems today could sot be.aplved with the idea-and institBtionfl wHich bad come down to us from early larnefc? We were livina in new kind ol ?Arld with new kind-of problems and the institutions Unit dated hack centuries were not necessarily the institutions ths conld cope wiiii the xa-oblems .of jaaodem times. Tho lesson of the jst few days was that monarchial institutions had outlivpil their usefulness. (Cities of " No, no.") The happenings of the last few day indicated the grave perils that confronted the country that had as its centralisinpr. unifying figare heiMiditary personality, who t any 'time migut break under th. force of circumstanoee that gathered about him. He wished! the House to faro the situation with the- idea that for the future Great Britain.esd its allied countries across the sea shouttd become, amon: other advanced' countzfes of the world, fme of the republican-, nations. MR. WEDC&VOOD i " Across the, Water " Mr. WEDGWOOD (JLab. Newoastl.'-bnder-Lyme) said that fter- tho speech lof thel.Prime Mirusf';he realised th.ii the motion bt hall 'on,'-the paper a-doad. "" I eould' have wflslied," he added fith emotion, '"lhat thfe King had been allowed to" live' here," mairied, happy, and King. But be wished it therwise." A thousand years hence we might perhaps be. liberal enough-'; to' allow such ,i thing. Tlie Pnme Minister had made it clear that there were but two (alternatives ii the. King, " to -cOntitnle) lonely, disappointed, bitter, rulimr the Empire, it else to do what lie bad done, throw up royalty but remain a mail. AU would commend him for his choice, for nothiu:: could have been more bojtoeless than .1 kingdom ruled ry ji man.; with a griov -ance and collecting roHpd liifti fal-o friends, tliose who' would iise tlie Kiiie'-feeliags againe,.the Mihisttry and'again-i the, Constitution, To-moiroW they would take a new oath. There would be n non-jurors this time because it was h the King's wish. .(Cheers.)' Bui thrmiflimit. the countrv tlldre "would 1- millions of people with aching heart-. '"They will carry on," lie concluded with -emotion, "and if they . sometimes rai.-c their glasses to the King' across the wat r-i .who shall blame them?", (Cries ot "Oh.") MR. GALLAGHER Mrs. Simpson's f'Set" .Mr. GALLACHER. (Co'm.-ir'West Fif.-i said it was -obvious - that forces were operating advising and' encouraging what was going on. It was a year since :he heard about Mrs. Shrijpson, but -nobody paid much attention to her until more "and more difficult problems arose in Europe, and then there -was a move for a decree nisi. This was , not something decided by the King ..And -'Mrs. Simpson. This was not an issue between King and Parliament, for Parliament had never been consulted from .beginning to end. There was not a' member of Parliament .who believed that the crisis was finished or that the forces in "operation behind it would now stop.' Mrs. Simpsoa," he declared. ' " Has n. feoefal -Rp-h- -nri 'vai-t- .membcr'.of the CaMhe'i'kfcowi':thaVet is closely identified ifh' V certain 'TOrergn fjove'rnment and lhat the Ambaasador of irxiau tuieigu wjveriimenii . ... -iries of dissent and .general interrnpUon.) The Labour party, be" added,' ' ehouhl adopt an mdependent policy,' openly accepi the proposals of UrMutOn'and Unite, their forces against the terrible dangers that ..were "botmd .la'cemfrnnt them in the near fiirure.' " ' ' Mr. JJUCHAMAS (I.L.P, Glasgow), In an impassioned .speech, id: , j iavb listened' to more cant and humbug td-day than ever in my. life: ' (Cries of daisent.') -Yes, frankly, I have heard ptaiee of. hi-Majesty the King which I felt and fei l' now was not field, sincerely''. in "anv quarter, .of the . , House.", '(Beiiewod dissent.) Who, in .that House had not, heard tittle-tattle and. gossip about tlie "ff? V he hd nojijrtepped rffom tin: J.nrone volilnunlv- mtn..WMr iiiQt Uiose people who paid bp.nrioe--irould iwutn out scorn . ana aouse, , . some roontftft - nm jhiimmii 41... Ciyii List," he continqed. '"!Xoaaaov we wiu use ua same line. ,- Yon will gu Onv no -doubt. Iisinff,ti nmr Vino you have praised, fins one... If he. were uiie-uau or one-aui as good- as yoa.say he is, why not .iceep him? , , he was s.weakseaiuxe. ...Ton now want ."f 5 ;oi;wun ry taxing this step he Meat iBunuhr nt;L im 41,., zz ,. ordinary workinj'. nun yc, 41.1. ? e!yb p,g House would have Lg?4 01 J3- - X mld have refused libn benefit andolMreated him. L S1- - T Ing out.) Yes, ?5LL-3Imttff of fSSaat aieering-5rapiismh ?ut here the whole ilw Conrts.are.aet at defiance for tin's man. A nivorce easA fa kn v 4 vour hearts it was breaking the law ?h" le.m ie,vea bis mother to get Seven sliilKnar. "l. - T . . , ftwrnbi of a miserable ' v iff01?-,. of.diesent.) aiiilSjie every j.t6 nest- set wil be nampered! too." -.-ow be 8io,-he.,wonld take tiie ttPtritJe-, this. T;.' -tt5-FPS-supported said, tihat. S 'i.Sl'i- oapacitv but an ajj.tLatiSb iUJXJ.? ? iiad,3dst not grone Who hadworked. fo?Jem for rio grpnp had 5Sx fcVSh3rtime. v j: , . .-r-tusB ' uiouon uiat tne piCAlitiati nspnGof th'e biHiowi t ta-a Che.Lord bChjahcellor x -it.- rr -j--, nau, --uie oar -to -'tlie bar cSieered as ViS3g?2;He -was SMS,of tte niacei he ,5 f? , jwPertlJdrmally read Uie stoeartiff60 adinS.:other the bill will e taSi to?y. The-Hosse msa alum :J .

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