The Guardian from London, Greater London, England on October 18, 1937 · 16
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The Guardian from London, Greater London, England · 16

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Monday, October 18, 1937
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16 THE MANCHESTER GUARDIAN, MONDAY, OCTOBER r 18, 1937 THE REFORMER U'tne. near Bombay, representative of the great majority of India's 700,000 villages, is a speck on the bleak expanses ,qf greyish ooze. Men, women, children, cows, goats, buffaloes, and mongrel dogs make up between them in U'tne a population of a few hundred living beings. U'tne first heard of Mahatma Gandhi m 1920. The tidal wave of Non-Co-operation in that vear swent over U'tne, it is true. But it swept notnmg away and left little behind. U'tne had been particularly attached to its great annual fair at Kalyan and to its smaller weekly or fortnightly fairs. Here the men found refreshment in cheap and fiery liquors; here they bought for their wives and daughters brightly coloured glass beads and bangles, and neat, new-smelling bundles of saris from Lancashire. (For what wife could stand her lord and master returning drunk if there were no bundles under his arm for herself and the children ?) Many earnest young men from the cities had come since 1920 to U'tne and preached long-windedly against opium and liquor, against buying of foreign cloth, even against bidi-smoking and tea-drinking. U'tne folk had suffered them patiently. And because certain civilities are due to guests, however boring the guests might be, the U'tne elders had agreed to put a stop to these evils in the village : agreed, in principle, with much nodding of wise heads. The Mahatma's envoys were to go back and tell their master not to worry ; U'tne was all out for reform. The homespun-clothed Congressmen had then gone back to their cities to report U'tne's transformation, and U'tne had resumed its customary tenor of work and excitement ; drinks for the men, gauds for the women and children, the debts ever mounting. But there was one thing which the 1920 Non-Co-operation did leave behind. This was the " charkha," or the spinning-wheel, seen then in U'tne for the first time. It was a ,oiiiv. Brahmin who brought it there lii st. A very quiet young man, he aid not wait on ceremony : he merely took up a corner in the open " office " nf the Patel's and. as it occurred to no one to question his right to be there, he remained there for a year or so spinning out cotton yarn miles and miles of white cotton thread which he teased out with one hand frcm the point of the spindle while with the other hand he turned a wheel. The villagers at once gathered aiound him to watch: they squatted all over the Patel's open " office " and watched fascinated, in a silence broken only by the expressive spitting of one or other of the spectators, as if to mark his solemn appreciation. The young Brahmin served his Mahatma by concentrating on precept end cutting out the preaching. At the end of a year or so of this devotion he perceived that even the power of precept was no longer needed, and he took many sacks full of his cotton yarn with him and left U'tne. But after a week or so he came back. The Pandit disclosed to the village that our young Brahmin had earned a high reward : it was a letter from the Mahatma in which the Mahatma had said : " I am indeed proud of U'tne this little village has, for its small population, given me the highest yield of yarn. I shall remember U'tne when we have won our independence." This time the young Brahmin was ready to talk. The great annual fair had come, and the village was brimming over with good cheer. This was the time he chose to break his silence : " Learn wisdom from your bondage ! Swaraj can be yours to-morrow if you would learn this wisdom and act upon it! But you are children you are deluded by toys ! They are the Devil's toys these foreign fireworks, these Lancashire cloth-lengths which you wrap round your wives and daughters, these liquors with which you sear your stomachs and fatten the revenue of a foreign Government. Boycott these tyrants and to-morrow you can be free ! " U'tne folk were delighted to have this added entertainment "As soon as the fair is well over." said one of the wiseheads, "we must consider these matters in council." The young preacher pulled him up sharp : " You can't afford to wait. What you have to do you must do now. The best celebration you could have uould be a bonfire of these bundles of satanic foreign cloth. Get them out vnd see for yourselves what a blaze they can make ! " Perhaps a hint of Savonarola in our 3i ahmin. and for that very reason he "a as at that instant marked out a failure. The novelty of his point of view was childish. Thev were in an excellent mood to be tickled, but who would be amused by a bad joke? Such an error in taste ? They left him alone. How the little school had come into being is not very much to the point here, but our Brahmin was now the Rehoalma'Stpir Amnrni iVio oVinlnx, " - mi. there were Balu. the Patel's own son : Vicu, the carpenter's son ; Ganpat, the coppersmith's son; Yashvant. the carter's son, and -horror of horrors Pira. the untouchable, the cobbler's son. The Brahmin decided that it was imperative to establish direct touch with an untouchable. When therefore the next time Pira, the cobblers son, stood before him in the classroom the teacher did not wait for the untouchable to put his writing-slate down on the floor at the teacher's feet. He just put his hand out and took the slate from the boy. The boy gave a cry and stood for a minute, uncertain, trembling as if he had seen a ghost Then suddenly he turned and fled, screaming that it had not been his fault ! Had the dumbfounded villagers been able to catch Pira they would have cracked a stick on the wretch's skulL But really the time had now come to call the " Mahatma-man " to order. His act had ' been one of open defiance ; deliberately he had extended his hand to take the slate from the boy in full view of the onlookers, for in a village there are always onlookers. The class had not waited to be dismissed. .. Something momentous had happened and the class bad dismissed itseff, The social boycott was equally spontaneous. Of course, like a good Gandhi-ite, the teacher promptly went on hunger-strike. But he knew from the start that the -village had won. Food is not so indispensable to a Gandhi-ite, life itself is not strictly necessary. But water, water to bathe LETTERS TO THE EDITOR SLUM-CLEARANCE IN CORNWALL The Threat to Two Famous Villages To the Editor ot the Manchester Guardian Sir, In every quarter of our Empire and in the great cities of the United States people of widely different tastes and pursuits will learn with a shock of incredulous dismay that the famous Cornish fishing villages of Newlyn and Mousehole are to be destroyed. Newlyn, by an astonishing order of the Penzance Town Council under the Slum Clear ance Act, is to be swept away. Her cobbled streets, where Perkin Warbeck strode in his glory, her ancient manors and moulded ceilings, her secret lifts and smugglers' passages are all to go. Mousehole, a trading port of the Phoenicians and a Mecca for artist and antiquary, is awaiting her turn. Both villages are of unique beauty and rich in the treasures of antiquity. And both are the birthplace of a host of hardy men who have gone forth to all corners of the globe to show what Cornishmen can do. Now the land on which their people have dwelt since days beyond memory is to be taken away, and the stout little homes, representing in most cases not only the means of livelihood but all that their owners possess on earth, are doomed, and a community of self-supporting, self-respecting people is staring at ruin. The conditions in these villages are unusual. Many of the houses are owned by the inhabitants, who are of a fine and independent spirit, scorning outside help if they can possibly help themselves, and facing hardship with dumb and gallant courage. The majority of them fall into the following groups : Men with families, whose earnings just keep the wolf from the door ; widows with children, who supplement their pensions as best they may ; unmarried women, who support themselves by sewing, domestic labour, or keeDinc a tinv shop; old folk living peacefully on their pensions. If the proposed scheme goes through, what are these people to do ? Their savings will have gone with their freehold homes. Their livelihood, in many instances, will have gone also or will be hopelessly crippled. They cannot afford to pay rent for the concrete council houses which are offered in exchange and live. Moreover, these council houses are built on a hieh hill. far from the harbour, with no facili-1 ties for the storing of gear or the making and drying of nets. For various reasons it is essential that each fisherman should have his own closed or semi-closed court, which is known as a cellar, and his sail-loft attached to or close to his own house. But there is compensation for these enforced sale's ? Yes, but it is inade quate. On the plan for a slum clearance area houses which come up to standard are marked grey" and houses which do not technically con GERMANY'S CONCENTRATION CAMPS Political Prisoners Without Hope of Release To the Editor of the Manchester Guardian Sir, In your issue of Sentember 22 you gave extracts from a report cf the Howard LeaEue for Penal Reform to the Fifth Committee of the League of Nations Assembly drawing urgent attention to the situation of prisoners awaiting trial and of internees in concpntratinn ramnt Tl- ic trim oo -"I"" " 1 , 0 stated in the report, that in Germany the Secret State Police in making arrests are completely free from judicial control and that the arrested persons can De Kept under lock and kev for an indf--firiit- i-w-.rir-H ritVioi.- legal process. in the interests of historical truth it seems to me to be essential to Doint nut that in th!c m.rA., ...... . . . . s&ui.cuuic: Germany has made a step back to an lmmeasuraoiy distant past. The institution of police custody (Schutz-haft) existed, of course, in Germanv ; the Prussian statute of February 12. loou, proviaea lor the taking of Dersons intn nnlicp ructnHv. it-han tk"e. was urgently necessary for their own iJiuiecwuu or ior ine preservation o public security, morality, and order. But under paragraph 6 of this statute, which might almost be described as modern, the Derson taken into custody had to be set at liberty at latpst in thp rTni-i-r. nf ihi-. rii,..; . day unless by that time a judicial orocr ior remand in prison had been -Jiu-juil-u. Larcelv owi-nr- tn tho cin;i growing terrorism of the National oUtiaiii,u, uiese provisions m regard to arrest and custody were rescinded by an emergency decree issued in 1931 by Chancellor Briining. under v. men custody was permitted to continue for a period not exceeding three months. Rut in 10,31 r-r,A iom only 2,600 persons in the whole Reich were aneciea Dy tnis decree. The three months' limit was removed by the Prpsadpntial rfprrpo iccticul Vi Aw after the Reichstag fire ; paragraph 1 ji mis new aecree declared that restrictions nf riiral litiA,, were permissible. And on January 30. his body daily, is life, death, and eternity in the Brahmin idea of being. Without water to bathe his bodv a Brahmin k intw ir-wi-,;m ably lost, perished to a whole millennial cycle of rebirths through which the meanest thing in creation may ascend, painfully, to deliverance. The social boycott of. an Indian village can be economically effective in a startlingly irrational way, and it had in U'tne cut off a Brahmin's water supply. The young Brahmin slipped away by night, and from the train window he looked out upon eternity. "India through the ages" the phrase flitted into his restless mind. Svarai vlUAtnninsiinn slowly he syllabled the words to hin sen. tsm someuung of tneir magnetic charm had gone. Fredoon Kabraji. The LM5. engine No. 5527 was christened " Southport " bv the Mayor of the town (Councillor H. W. Barber) at Chapel Str-eet Station, Southport, on Saturday. form to standard are marked " pink." The owners of " grey " houses receive what is called "market value" a term which can be misleading, while the owners of "pink" houses receive " site value " only. There are a great many of these " grey " houses in Newlyn and Mousehole built, as a rule, of good Cornish granite. A freehold dwelling of this type, which cost perhaps 500 the life savings, say. of two generations. and which could not be built now for twice that sum, may be estimated at a market value of 120. Where can the owner find an equally good five-roomed house, with cellar and yard, near or on a valuable sea frontage, for this price or indeed for the original priced It cannot be done. What, then, is the plight of an owner whose sole means of subsistence is an old-age pension of 2t a year ? As for the site value offered to the owners of "oink" houses, it can be a-mockery. For example, tht owner of a freehold house comprising three large rooms, a large fisherman's cellar, and roomy sail-loft received 12 7s. 8d. It is true that certain parts of Newlyn and Mousehole should be cleared and the inhabitants provided with new and good homes. This would be real and welcome progress very different from the wholesale, sweeping destruction which is contemplated and the appalling hardship which it will involve. A deputation came to me to-day. The spokesman was a grand, old fisherman. Godfearing and wise. He said : Miss Phyllis for we shall always call ee that, we've been thinking that if you was to tell England and Scotland and Wales and the people over to Ireland what was happening to we how the homes we've laboured for are being took away, and how there be'nt no money to pay lawyers to help us. surely there'd be some as would plead for us. some as would say " This must not be " ? And if you was to tell how the fishing is looking up and how 'tis a reviving industry if we gets a chance. And if you was to say to some great newspaper. " We've got treasures in Newlyn bricks made by the Phcenicians : and houses made with boulders still there from them ancient times when all the houses were built of boulders : and we got the old manor with its ghostie ; and 'tis the same over to Mousehole. There's cottages hundreds of years old. as snug and watertight as the day they was finished ; and there's Spanish swords and Spanish cannon-ball, and a score of things that is rare and secret." If you'm was to tell all that. Miss Phyllis, surely there'd be some as would help us, and show us how to act and we would not be turned adrift in our old age after we toiled and saved and done our best. This, then, is the tragedy which threatens Newlyn and Mousehole. I have told a great newspaper, and I have told the people of Britain. Yours, &c, M. de Verdieres. Hon. Secretary Newlyn, Mouse-hole, and District Housing Advisory Committee. Newlyn, October 12. 1937. Herr Himmler, a Minister of the Reich and the head of the Secret State Police (Gestapo), stated to a representative of the "Lokalan-zeiger" that for the enemies of the state tne gates ot the concentration camps would-never open: "Germany must De ireed irom them for ever. There are still snmp 400 nnlitirnl prisoners in police custody who have Deen in concentration camps, undergoing unspeakable sufferings, ever since the National Socialists seized power, and who, according to Himmler, have no prospect of ever regaining their freedom. Among them are Social Democrats like Dr. Karl Miprr-r-irinrfT F.rncr rToiltnonn and Kurt Schumacher, all three former members of the Reichstag, and Heinrich Jasper, formerly Prime Ministpr nf RriinQwir-lr rnmmimic like Ernst Thaelmann, Dr. Neuge- Dauer. and btoecker, and Hans Litten, who never officially belonged to the Communist party but was counsel for thp rWpn Communists. Litten and Schumacher are victims of private vengeance. Litten called Hitler as a witnpss in tho Eden Palace case. Kurt Schumacher hotly attacked the method of agitation of the National Socialists on February 23, 1932, describing it as a continual annpal tn the in Schweinehund " the beast in man. there is no need to describe yet again the physical and mental sufferincs of t.hpf liM The Howard League has rightly- stated tnat torturing is on the increase. The land of the Habeas Corpus Act will fully appreciate what has been going on in Germanv for nearly five years. I hope that enough has-been said here to bring a response from England, which Would carrv erpat Tt'oitrViT in Vm name of undying humanity. Yours, OC-., Kurt Grpssmann, formerly General Secretary of the German League of the Rights of Man. Prague, October 11. DISASTER WORSE THAN WAR "To Lose a War" The Minister of Pensions (Mr. Herwald Ramsbotham). speaking at Lancaster on Saturday on the Government's foreign policy, said that preservation of one's country from armed conflict with others was the touchstone of a successful foreign policy. The greatest interest of Great Britain and the Empire was peace. The Government was determined not to be seduced from its policy of peace either by the taunts or rash enthusiasm of its political opponents. There was, however, one disaster even worse than war. and that was to lose a war. They were taking all possible steps to avert such a" calamity, and as every day passed they became better able to- ensure their land against aggression. MAN MILES FROM HIS CAR Held to be "in Charge" 15 FINE FOR DRINK OFFENCE When does a motorist on a journey cease to be in charge of his car ? Is a man still in charge of his car when walking one and a half miles away ? These were among the questions discussed at Dorchester on Saturday, when a Yeovil (Somerset) man of independent means, James Gay Michael Payne Audain, of West Coker, was fined 15, including 2 9s. 6d. costs, and his licence was suspended for twelve months, for being under the influence of drink while in charge of a car. The prosecution's case was that the car was found standing near some cross roads near Puddletown at 5 30 a.m. on October 8. Police Constable Margrie said that at 6 45 a.m. he saw Audain walking along the road one and a half miles from the car. He first said that he had walked there but later that his car had run out of petrol and he was fetching a fresh supply. " In my opinion," said the constable, he was in a drunken state, and as he was going for petrol I considered that he was still in charge of the car and was not in a fit state." Dr. G. O. Taylor, police surgeon, said that at 8 50 a.m. Audain was under the influence of drink and was not fit to be in charge of a car, but he might have been sober at 5 30 a.m. A "Reasonable Distance" Mr. Christopher Arrow, defending, submitted that even if Audain was drunk at 6 45 and there was no evidence of this he was one and a half miles away, and when that distance away could not be held to be in charge of the car. The Chairman (Mr. E. R. Sykes, a barrister) said that was a very interesting point, but he should have thought it was possible for a man to be drunk in charge of a car even though he was not in the vehicle. Mr. Arrow replied that unless a man was within reasonable distance he was not in charge. He suggested that a reasonable distance would be not more than a quarter of a mile. He argued also that a man could not be in charge of a car if he was not in sight of it. The chairman pointed out that it would then depend whether it was light or dark After the magistrates had ruled that there was a case to answer, Audain, in the witness-box, said that he lost his way while driving from Yeovil to Bournemouth and ran out of petrol about midnight. He was not going to fetch petrol when the constable saw him but was walking to Dorchester to get a bed and send someone to fetch the car. Superintendent Lovell : Who do you say was in charge of the car ? Audain : I intended sending someone to fetch it. I should say the constable was in charge of it, as it was at the roadside. FOREIGN AFFAIRS A Year's Work at Chatham House From a Correspondent The Royal Institute of International Affairs is a body which, since its foundation at Paris during the Peace Conference, has been working, in one important part of the field of social studies, on the lines that are to be f oUowed in Oxford at Nuffield College. Chatham House might be described as an institute for adult self-education in international affairs. Its method is to bring together, for purposes of common study, people who have had some experience of international affairs in different lines of activity. Its work is done in part by pure scholars, in part by what the Americans call "executives," but perhaps mostly by people whose life and work lie somewhere between these poles. Its methods of study range from discussion-meetings to the publication of the research work of individual investigators. The different departments which the institute has organised, one after another, a? it has felt its way. are clearly set out in the report for the present year. (Royal Institute of International Affairs : Report of the Council, 1936-1 ; Chatham House, 111 pp. is.) The Study Groups Department, for instance, has completed and published this year the reports of the work of four groups : one on the British Empire, one on the problem of international investment, one on the colonial problem, one on the Republics of South America ; while other study groups are at this moment at work on Anglo--American relations, on problems of Imperial trusteeship, on sanctions, on the limitations of nationalism, and on international economic policy. The most important single event of the year in the history of Chatham House has been the endowment by Sir Henry Price of a chair of international economics. This step which follows up the earlier endowment of a chair of international history by Sir Daniel Stevenson marks a notable advance towards realising what is the council's next major aim The council hopes to establish at Chatham House a number of such research chairs, which will be concerned respectively with different aspects of international relations (e.g International Law and Institutions, British Commonwealth Relations, Far Eastern Affairs). Another important event of the year has been the renewal of a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation for study group work and individual research. But the demands on Chatham House continue to grow rapidly, and the financial problem involved in trying to meet them is so serious that it has led, the council to appoint an endowment committee. Why is it that in these days an Institute cf International Affairs is perpetually finding that it has more work to do than it has the mpanq to provide for? The answer is that the field of international relations is quite the most backward, barbarous, and. on this account, dangerous wilderness in the modern world. Research into international affairs is a croes between settlement-work in a slum and laboratory work on cancer. And. by the same token, it has a very strong claim for support from all public-spirited people in this generation. Mrs. J. Mulliner (50). wife of. a farm worker, of Stapeley. Nantwicb. was struck by "a .motor-car near bet home on the Nantvnch-Market Drayton Road on Saturday nizht and died on the wav J to hospital. PRAGUE PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA Concert in Manchester There were many vacant seats in the Free Trade Hall on Saturday night for the visit to Manchester of the Prague Philharmonic Orchestra. The occasion was the first of Mr. Harold Holt's concerts here this season, and I hope that this notice will be read by all the people who should have occupied the vacant seats, and that it will spoil their breakfasts entirely. A more gorgeous evening of orchestral music seldom has occurred in Manchester, or anywhere else. The Prague Philharmonic Orchestra has not the massed precision of. say, the Berlin Philharmonic and would probably be unhappy with it- This is an orchestra of artists as skilful individually as most, but too much in love with music ever to make a drill of it I have not heard an orchestra of more character. A wrong note here and there, or an uneven attack, are of no consequence ; the general style is so fine and vital. The tone is sumptuous, especially in the violins, 'cellos, basses, and brass. The trumpets challenge Jericho retrospectively, of course. Even the cymbalist is a virtuoso. The dash, rhythm, sonority, and unaffected nuance: all were a delight, a refreshment for senses and spirit The people who stayed away will probably argue: "But why should anybody go out on Saturday night and face the horrors of Peter Street to hear the ' New World ' Symphony ? " That is where they would be wrong ; the " New World " Symphony we heard on this occasion was not the amiably melodious sequence most of us have heard man and boy these many years, interpreted by conductors who usually pick out the " top line," and leave the inner parts to the rank and file. Continental orchestras usually have a deep harmonic sense; the musicianship of the average Continental orchestral player is usually a serious matter, not just part of a professional calling. I have known Continental orchestral players who preferred to go to concerts and hear other people making music even on their nights off. The Prague Orchestra is engaged on a strenuous tour of this country ; none the less, the gusto of everybody was exhilarating to feel. But the gusto never ran to waste or ended in that most dangerous of things in performance mere enthusiasm. Style and technique went hand in hand. As I say, a few loose ends of tone the attack of the horns at the beginning of the first movement- of the A WORLD LEAD FOR PEACE Test of Greatness From our Correspondent Barnsley, Sunday. Addressing a peace meeting over which Mr. Joseph Jones, the Mayor of Barnsley, presided, in Barnsley Public Hall to-night, Mr. George Lansbury declared that the greatest British interest was peace, and that Mr. Eden or any other Minister for Foreign Affairs would go down in history as a great man just so far as he was able and willing to take the necessary steps to keep this nation out of war and to give the world a lead which would bring peace. " Sometimes," said Mr. Lansbury, " I am tempted to be doubtful of my position as an out-and-out pacifist, but I am always brought back to reality when I read the statements of men like the Prime Minister, Lord Baldwin, Mr. Eden, and Mr. Churchill that another great war must end in catastrophe, with no victors, but everyone vanquished, and that war cannot settle anything." " It has been my good fortune to meet the leading statesmen of the world both in Europe and America. Whatever our judgment may be about dictators and democrats, all of them declare their belief that universal war will mean universal destruction. They all unite in saying they will be willing to attend a peace conference to discuss the territorial and economic problems which, at the moment, lead them to arm against each other. They all agree that, although it was not possible in the years gone by to organise for the co-operative sharing of the markets of the world and the undeveloped portions of the earth, it was possible to-day. " My message to them has been that at this conference all should agree to a standstill arrangement in respect of armaments, and that they should then discuss what international commissions are needed for the purpose of bringing mandated and non-self-governing countries under international control." TO-DAY'S ARRANGEMENTS Exhibition of Photographs of Famous Buildings, 156. Queen Victoria Street, London. 11 50 to 8. Annual London Medical Exhibition, New Hall. Roy' Horticultural Society. Greycoat Street. Westminster, 11. Naval Exercises. Cromartjr Firth Lord Samuel at Birkenhead. Manchester and Salford Oxford Road One-way Traffic Scheme: Local Inquiry, Town BaQ, 10. Winchester Count; Court. 10 15. Salford City Quarter Sessions. 10 15. County Quarter Sessions, Atslza Courts. 10 30. North-western Traffic Commission: Public SittiDf. Manchester Town Han, 10 SO. Chancery of Lancashire. Before tht Vice-Chancellor. Motions: OUter t. Walker; Victoria University r. Shields. Petitions: Crofts v. Crafts; Clayton . Carristton; re Leigh Spinners. Ltd.; Thompson ., Wlfrlesworth: re Elton Cop Dyetnc Company. Limited. Motion for Judgment: Jag. Prankhn and Co.. Ltd.. T. Talbot. Assize Courts. lO 45. Cotlere of Technology: Orsan Recital by Dr. rjesnla Chapman. 12 45. Vecetarlan Society: Annua Meetm-p Dr. U. Seddov Bayly on FjvnrHl Factors tn Cancer Cassation' Memorial Ball. 1; Mrs. U- Howell Bitaon and Dr. Bayly at Public Meetlnc. Memorial 7 30. The Msnrhester Assembly Booms. Cbeethao am Bead: Reopenlnr by the Lord Mayor, 4. London Kisstocarr Society District Animal as Mrs. Arnold Brysoo and Miss p. M. SpeaiSan at Wccnen-a BaDy. Milton Ban. 3: Rer. H. V. Martin at Tooth srinr union Ball, 7. Literary Club: Mr. P. B. Dean on - Some Pickwickian ! Mr. w. D .Coble, on -Literary Humcor. Reform Club. 7. Alliance Prascaise: u. Besaoutrot on " La ucne Aerienne Sud-AUanUcue." Central Library. tBJtttaaaa of the Bobber Industry: Mr. C. J. McMesKmy on -The OoAd-curtcx of Bobber Praonns..- CaristttcaionaS Cmb. 7 SO. "M OMntirlrlrr Graduates' Dinner: Mr. J. WeDealer Orr MMr.Loris T Mather to speak, ncmeeisr' THTttmteof Weldmct Cccrersazlarje. .CbDece of Teexmoloey. 7 30. WoroenIoternational Lea&sr: Mrs. innes on "A w xr rej sor nnt,fi. - njym Left Book ass: Professor A. D. Ritchie and Be. 8. grrthnm. on -lbs Spirit rnd atructara of German Fascism." Burlmsaon cue. 7 SO. PrxctI P!!r5I-,ctab: Tower on -The Laws-at Psychology xv. Pun Growth astf SaStmiiaa." Memorial Han. 7 45. Uaxaoaf Glrbr Cists: Miss p. U. Tatcx on - Why Clubs ? "at Annual Meetlnc Town Haft, laao-rfif iff f. flL g.OJJ-A-W. and Shop w.t).- Ascalxxrcation ataQj; Sogboao. Ward By-elertlon: Mr. Harry Brooks The Jarrow committee of Sir John Jarvis's Surrey fund scheme was wound tip on Saturday, as -Sir John has now decided to devote the money remaining in the fund to the promotion of industries in the town. symphony ; the stray wisps of string tone at .the end of the largo did not mean anything ; it would be ridiculous to question the general technique of the orchestra; nobody but the 'legitimate successor ot Beckmesser would think of it Dvorak was made to sound a composer of some symphonic substance. The native elements of the work were given fullness, strength, tang. The derived Wagner isms were put in their place as skin-deep blandishments. But the playing in the " Venusberg " echoes of the last movement was- sumptuous, heralded by a stroke, on the cymbals which evoked enchantment Towards the end of the Largo we were given a chamber concert of brief and rare, beauty. The scherzo was genial, not the usual racket and rattle. Each movement carried a style of its own. and in the end Dvorak assumed the mark and stature or composer of rich and original fancy and of no small orchestral power and resource. The performance provided a necessary act of re-cre-.tioa. Mr. Rafael Kubelik. the conductor,- is a young man of much temperament; some day he may become a masterful man at his job. At present he is obviously work ing out his technique passionately. It is his good fortune to have under him an experienced band of artists who can be trusted not to go astray. Mr. Kubelik's excessive gestures do not lead the orchestra into unnecessary emphasis or "point-making"; after all Mr. Kubelik, being an ardent young Czech, cannot be expected, while conducting to observe the calm reticence of certain of our English masters. The programme included Smetana's "Vltava" Poem, which was transformed into a ravishing flood of tone ; again a vital performance, inspired by belief in the music, revealed a composer of no slight genius. The concert was alive in every note, and proudly and happily alive. Lovely string-playing, with noble and poetic 'cellos, made two pieces of Suk well worth while ; and apparently "The Bartered Bride " Overture and some Slavonic dances of Dvorak were composed only yesterday. Players become hackneyed; audiences become hackneyed; and many critics are born that way. Music, if good in the beginning, remains good to the end. The concert lifted the audience out of themselves. Also it sent us home much in love with the Czech spirit and the art it has kindled. N. C. THE WEATHER Forecast for To-day The Meteorological Office issues the following forecast for the period from 6 a.m. to-day till midnight to-night : General Inference. An anticyclone ta centred oyer Western Germany, and a deep depression near Icelani will move north-east. A secondary depression will probably develop west of Ireland and more north-east. It will be fair and rather mua in many aisincig, cut m welt ana north Dcouanu mere win oe occasional rain. London. Light variable or south-westerly winds; fair; local morning foz: rather mild. S.E. and E. England, E. and W. Midlands. Light variable or south-westerly winds; fair; local moraine lot; rather mild. S.W. England. Light variable or southerly winds; lair, local morning fog: rather mild. S. Wales. Light or moderate south-westerly uua. ujci uiua. H.W. and NJE. England. N. Midlands. N. Wales. SE. and S.W. Scotland. Moderate southwesterly winds; fresh locally; mainly fair; rather mild. Irish Sea. Moderate south-westerly winds, fresh at times; mainly fair; visibility moderate; sea moderatev rather rough at times. Further Outlook. Mainly fair in most districts. Sun rises SU atoon rise Sets Toiay. 6 41 ... 5 01 4 08 p.m. 4 45 a.m. Tomorrow 6 43 ... 8 OS 4 32 p.m. 6 06 a.m. For every ten miles north of Manchester sunset ta earlier by I? seconds. LAMP.T1MB FOB VEHICLES TO.DAT. 5 37 p.m. YESTERDAY IN MANCHESTER Whltworth Park Meteorological Observatory Sunday, October 17. 1937. Flue Barometer Tendoncy Steady Tolay yesterday Bsrometer 9 p.m. (Millibars) .. 112-6 ... 1,031-4 The millibar Is the international unit of baro. metric pressure. One thousand millibars one bar) equals 2953 inches ol mercury. On inch of mercury equals 3385 mill ban. Shade Temperatures TojJayYest.i To.rtay lest. Dry bulb 9a.m. 530 ... 510 I Maslmnm... 60 . 56 Dry bulb 9 p.m. 642 ...54 0 Minimum... 45 ... 46 ToJlay Yesterday Humidity (percentafo) 9 a.m. ... 75 ... 81 9 p.m. ... IB ... 78 Rainfall (in millimetres) nil ... nil Sunshine (hours) H 37 ... nil A COUNTRY DIARY CnMBERLAlfD, OCTOBER 16. A grey-lag -goose was walking erect in a grassing at the head of the lake, and scores of hundreds of mallard and teal were among the lanes in the reed-beds. It was impossible to get near them from the marsh, so we approached by boat. Fifteen cormorants, which we had not espied, rose before we were three-quarters of the way on our journey. They were flying to a promontory from which they fish, but tiirectly they saw us they paused and wheeled back, shooting high in the air as though to make sure they should be out of gunshot The manoeuvre seemed to startle the goose. He also took fright,' and instantly the teal sprang up from the water with a velocity that was amazing. while the mallard, following suit though not so quietly, sheered off to pass over the mountain ridge. Then came a surprise. We put up a small company of duck which but for an incident a fortnight ago we should have been puzzled to identify. The drake had a crest rather like a pewit's and a golden-eye, though smaller than that of a golden-eye, and a peacock sheen on his blue-black back. The females were all brownish but showed more white underneath. A drake was caught and skinned and sent to the Sweden Museum the week before last. It was identified as a pochard or red -eyed poker, ringed as a young bird, on June 29, 1933, on the island of Gotland. G. W. M. THE INDIAN BALSAM A Nortbenden correspondent writes: It may be of interest to record (if no one has done so already) that the Indian Balsam' dm pattens glandulifera) has established itself in profusion on the banks of the Irwell in Salford. The precise spot at which this has uccmied had better perhaps be withheld, as it is a handsome plant with a thick, dull crimson stalk nnr! -ms. pink flowers which might attract unirel- came anemton. Last year there were only a few plants, but visit last -week revealed that it had spread alone the' bank for several yards and was forming a gay border to the sombre stream. CATHEDRAL SERVICES ifxtlss at. 11; Erengoc-c u'S SO. S"6r Dot aawtum tchccal). at 11 a.m. axpSm Trtf ei,n ,-!. I r, avi ' OBtaoInd); STOP-PRESS NEWS . RAIDS ON CATAUVN COAST . TOWNS Barcelona had a two-hour " blar. out " last night when rebel aircrj; flew over Catalan coast towns dropping bombs. ' There were no casuri: ties, and no material damage w,. done as the bombs fell dear of th -objectives, states Reuter. Six men were treated at Livcrpo." Infirmary as a consequence of n. 'juries following a disturbance outsirk a Liverpool club last night. WESTMACOTTS GRAPE FRUIT SQ SI I Best on the Market. All Hotels. 17, M-kn s BIRTHS, MARRIAGES, AND DEATHS Announcements tn this column are cbarsed at i r rate ol Is. 6-d. per line. All sucb announcements must be nulbentlcated b r -name and address ot the lender, and in ttie i ot " Encasements " by the Mtmiuret-. ot , parties. Postage stamps or postal orders au t sent in sayment. BIRTHS CUtSONS. On October 17. 10S7. at Derbv n..l Nurslrur Home, Fallovflekl. to WINSOME u-Wheal), wile or LSSUE CDSSONS. a son. GIBSON. On October 15. at the Crolts Numi Home. ChtatUe HuUae. to WINIFRED tnee Horub . and ERIC W. OlBfeON, ot Cheadle. u son MARRIAGES ANDREW BR0ADHUI1IT. On October 16. IV at Sale Con-u-ecatlonal Church. oottOOH NORMA-, son ot Mr. and Mrs. N. E. ANDREW, ot Beckeiih..u Kent, to UABIAN, elder daughter ol Mr. and Mi-J. D. BROAD HURST, ol Bale, Cheshire. EHRCNS HADPIELD. On October 16. 1957 Hale Chapel, by the Rev. O. U Prtelss. EDWAK'. LIOKEU Ue eldest son ol Mr. H. L. BSHRliN and the late Mrs. Behrens. or Mobberle). ' -SYLVIA MART lh' youruer daughter .of the 1 -Mr. Charles J. HADFIELO, ol Altrtncham. a:, Mrs. HadBeld, ot Hale. McOARTHV H0LMCS. On October 15. 1937. list. Andrew's Presbyterian Church. Heaton Moor Stockport. PETTR REAOH. roanier son ol Mrs MCCARTHY and th lata Mr. McCarthy, of Hasting to AGNES (Nancy) HUNTER, datuhtcr ot Mr. am! Mrs. Robert HOLMES, ot Heaton Moor. WHITTAKSR TYRRCLL. On October 16, 193T. :n oi. joau a t-ansa csiaw, AltrincriMn. Leslie, on son of Mr. and Mrs. Owen A. WH1TTAKER. Mspperley. Nottingham, to IRENE, only daughter o! Mr. and Mrs. John TYRRELL, ot Hale. cKshl-i DEATHS A1HT0M. On October 15. at 12, Kingston Roin muju... wuNcuti. njuwMAi oaugnier OX IJ f late Thomas ASH TON, of Ford Bank, Dldabury. m her 82nd year. Sen-leg st Manchester Cremator-'- to-morrow (Tuesday), at twelr noon. No Hon-.-by request. Inquiries to Messrs. Kendal. Mill., and Co. A Memorial Berrlca will be held at Manchrux Cathedral, on BeUnetday. pet. 20. at twelve noot, ROADWHT. On October 16. at 14. stocitp.. Road. Alttincham, ADA HARRIET, ds-jihter ol n Ji Mr. and Mrs. Samuel BROADBENT. Funn ,, at St. Oeorfe's Church, Altrincbsm, to-mfi-V. v (Tuesday), at 3 pjn. Iftonlrlei to Byroras. Kint'-wr. Altrlnebun. (Telephona 1165 Altr.) C0X0H. On October 17, at Stathtm Lodge, i).,.r Warrington. JOHN, the dear husband of N.n-OOXOH, in his BOlh year. Arrantements l-" CURTIS. On October 15. 1937. suddenly. f-Valmf. Abbotswood, Guildford, EDWARD BERBER 1 the belored husband of Clara Ada CURTIS. .'! from 1900 to 1924. tba managing editor ot "Daily Mall ' (Manchester editions) run.r on Wednesday, at 2 30 pjn.. at Brookwood Cemetr- OAHIIL. On October 16, ALICE MACD the d'.-' lored wife ol th late Charles DANIEL, aged . Eeara. of 20. Klnssfleld DriTe, Dldsbury. Brt i Emmanuel Churcb, Didsbury, to-morrow Tw-dsy), at 1 45, prior to Interment South". , Cemetery, at 2 M do- Inquiries Win. Pestw . Telephone Didsbury 3397. OUIfWHSn. On October 15, fortified by the rlt-3 Holy Mother Chumi. at tils residence, Rltrnri.. -WhalrrB ridge, and of 277. Wilms low Road. Fm - -fleld. EDMPWD. the dearly loved husband of Er.. DCKTNEK in his 73rd year. Heauiescst m P -BequJem Mass at S3. -John and Thomaa Chutr, Chapel-en-le.prltb, on Tuesday at 10 ajn.. follow. by intmnent at 81. Joseph's Cemetery. Mor.'.' Manchester, at twelre. No flowers, by request. I - -9S'lf,to.. Messrs. ryana and Gordon. Ltd. c-6727 (2 lines). DUMKERUEY. On October 17. at Mesdolf.r--Mere. Cheshire. WILLIAM CHARLES DDNKERI.l- ' Interment at Rostbeme Parish Church, to-murr-(Tuesday), at 11 a.m. Inquiries to Worthing,. Altrtncham. Telephone 1243. TOJiHT On October 17. at Bmlon. Rial Alt!' nd for many years with th Prudential anh---- f "Mf u oum jrar. nenxt at nir".' - Ctnatorlnm to-morrow (Tuesday), st 2 30 p inquiries " to Messrs. Kendal. Mlina and Co. CIOM. On October 16. following an ' JREDESICr PZASLSY GIBBON, of Westgnw. H rESSiiSi 67 rears. Sirrlc at Msneh.-- No roourjilni. no flowers, by request. Intni - to Woithintxon's, Altrlnchsrn. Telephon 12Jo "CCIrrj --ri October 13. peaqifully. st Irtfe " E. Stanley MEOOITT (late of Ljti-' Bt. Annas). MCL On October 16. 1937. at Warden . Bournemouth, OEBALD GBAHAU PEEL (-.! "). TOUWMt son ot th laU Oenid Pe.1. J Zomna at swinton, Msnrh ester, aged 59. ruri HnKOThpm. near Bounce ouxjth. on Wedxu-i. next, Octote-r 20. H leHARCIsaH Oo October 17. at her resl-ltr -J 1- Cawdor Road. Fallowfleld. ANNIE, belo.-ils ruth 1ST of the 1st John and jane RICHARDf- (For- many years la AOedc and Brown's t. jwraot) Serriea at Southern Cemetery morrow fruesday). at 11 s-m. lllB.AX'tSa October 17. at 92. Bomestf gl,. Jilt TM.1l,l. T,l M.I I , . ... . iowbrudes Bids-way, aced 66 years, tnt-innt Southern Cemetery, to-morrow (Tuesd-at two o'clock. WALLOW On thj October 16. at Cooiston. Ttcz osta ot Una House, Swtnton). In her 82nd - 1-OOTJenl at . Scwttlera Cemetery, to-morrow (T-- 8&-22S3?stt&B- Bto-toOOTi T "' 7 ."Viy '-"22?I 16, 1337. at the jr"-Bfg"". ?ton. ANBTIE FLORENCE THEOB "XT -MJ3-. sxrd 65. Funeral serriee at Trinity Ch'.r TU... a, ... . . jmtwn. lO SO s-nu. Wednesday next, prior '. CTtmsflnn at Stockport. In Memorjam ' LtY- In lo-rtcg meotBT ot THOMAS ROLI- i 111. Clartmont -Road. Pendleton. AtLp In 'proud meoory " of HERBERT HEVRV SPS - . fO"a In the British sdrsnce " Waa-Ucw i-c oaofcer la, 1918. ,Al--o in grateful metoory of an other Brltis.-yoldlei. who- cxts their h-res that w might u.e "May their soois la Paradise. S-esD Xhm frails o sacrifice.- mo.tn SSSS? -SS&T01 "aLUAHV SUSAJQfAH JALLAND. TJEAFNESS DHOPS make you efc-sftp and aharpiy. w-wnparetli. 17. Mi hear Marsm st- AB letters Ootid'' be s-resaed ' either to the Editor or fmrft-f-bfeMlc Prtnted and p-j-bMstW-b- JOHN tUaBEU. sccrri, t"' - sno, LTD,, at lbs Oaar-USa SuiUIn-c. 3. Crass Uttt, Msnchester z.- ' Monosr October 18. 19.".7.

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