The Guardian from London, Greater London, England on September 2, 1939 · 9
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The Guardian from London, Greater London, England · 9

London, Greater London, England
Issue Date:
Saturday, September 2, 1939
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THE MANCHESTER GUARDIAN, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER-2, 1939 FIRST GERMAN WAR REPORT Attacks on "Corridor" from Both Sides REPORTED ATTACKS ON AERODROMES FIRST STAGE OF EVACUATION Minister Pleased with Progress WEEK-END PLANS BRITAIN'S ULTIMATUM Germany Told She Must Stop Her War PREMIER'S CALL TO THE NATION All Men 18 to 41 Liable to Military Service DEFENCE CREDIT OF 500,000,000 Germany's sudden attack on Poland yesterday morning has been followed by an ultimatum to Germany by Great Britain and France. Germany is warned that unless the German troops are immediately withdrawn Britain and France will without hesitation fulfil their obligations to Poland. This announcement was made by the Premier last night in a crowded House of Commons. Mr. Chamberlain said : If the reply to this last warning is unfavourable and I do not suggest that it is likely to be otherwise his Majesty's Ambassador is instructed to ask for his passport. We shall stand at the bar of history knowing that the responsibility for this terrible catastrophe lies-on the shoulders of one man the German Chancellor. He has not hesitated to. plunge the world into misery in order to serve his own senseless ambitions. Eighteen months ago I prayed that the responsibility might not fall on me to ask the country to accept the awful arbitrament of war. I fear I am not able to avoid that responsibility. It only remains to set our teeth and enter upon this struggle, which we so earnestly endeavoured to avoid, with a deter The Premier emphasised the point that Germany's "terms" had never been submitted to Poland at all. Mr. Greenwood, acting leader of the Opposition, and Sir A. Sinclair, leader of the Liberal Opposition, followed with declarations that there could be no yielding by Britain. Military Service Mr. Chamberlain announced immediate legislation under which all fit men between the ages of 18 and 41 will be liable to militry aservice if and when called upon. It was not intended, he said, at the outset to call up any considerable number of men not already liable. The House immediately passed a credit for the defence of the Realm of 500,000,000. The King at the Privy Council signed orders making British mobilisation complete. The Day in Germany The German invasion of Poland began early in the morning without an ultimatum or a declaration of war. At 5 40 a.m. Herr Hitler issued a proclamation to the Army declaring that Poland had refused the peaceful settlement desired by him, and had appealed to arms. He added : In order to put an end to this lunacy I have no other choice than to meet force with force from now on. The news of the return of Danzig to the Reich, demanded " forthwith " by Herr Hitler late on Thursday night, came only a few minutes afterwards. Herr Forster, head of the Free City, issued a proclamation declaring that Danzig had returned, and Herr Hitler sent a telegram accepting it. At 10 30 the Reichstag met and Herr Hitler spoke. The Attack on Poland Meanwhile Germany was attacking Poland from both sides of the " Corridor." The Germans claim to be fighting on Polish soil, but of this there is no definite information. The Germans also claim to have bombed Gdynia harbour and to have taken some positions near the Bay of Danzig. Several large Polish towns were bombed. There were several alarms at Warsaw, but there is no definite information that the city was bombed. .4 Permanent "Black-Out" Censorship regulations for correspondence to places abroad have been issued. There has so far been no cancellation of the football matches arranged for to-day. The whole country is now under a permanent bjack-out order. The House of Commons will meet again to-day. A meeting on Sunday is also possible. Labour Manifesto The National; Executive of Ihe Labour Party issued a manifesto last night, saying: The decision of the BritUk Government to resist this latest effort of conquest bp aggression on the part of Bitter receives the fuU support of Labour movement in this country...: kWtmn'EmmmThmmymmnamGerasam people. Now that the die is east it will use all ii imUenee and authority to secure a peace basis which is in accord with . the faith it holds.- Mr. Cordell Hull, the United States Secretary of State, said last night that Britain .-and: France-had agreed, in response to President Roosevelt's appeal, not to bomb civiliaii wulations. A White Papefwswd-last night, give, the tea of the recent exchaigesbetweBiiand Gennany. It a set out fully on another Page. mination to see it through to the end. We shall enter it with a clear conscience and with the support of the Dominions and the British Empire and the moral approval of the greater part of the world. We have no quarrel with the German people except that they allowed themselves to be governed by a Nazi Government. As long as that Government pursues the method which it has so persistently followed during the last two years there will be no peace in Europe. We are resolved that these methods must come to an end (cheers) and if after the struggle we can re-establish in the world the rules of good faith and the renunciation of force then even the sacrifices entailed upon us will find their fullest justification. A POST FOR MR. CHURCHILL? Cabinet Changes LABOUR PARTY'S POSITION From our Political Correspondent London, Friday Night. There will be a reconstruction of the Cabinet very soon. Ministers, I learn, have all put their r". ".in Mr. Chamberlain's hands. This afternoon Mr. Chpmberlain saw Mr. Churchill and, it is understood, offered him the Ministry of Supply, now held by Mr. Burgin. So far, I gather, neither Mr. Eden nor Sir Archibald Sinclair has been approached by the Prime Minister, but then, Mr. Chamberlain has not had much time to spare to-day for Cabinet reconstruction. Labour, I believe, is still resolving the question whether or not it shall enter the Government. At the moment the balance of opinion in the party is against Labour's joining the Government and in favour of giving it the fullest support from outside, but consultations are still going on in the party and no final decision has yet been taken. MOBILISATION Instructions by War Office The Secretary for War has issued the following notice concerning the Regular Army, Militia and Supplementary Reserve, and the Territorial Army : General mobilisation has been proclaimed. 1. Officers of the Regular Army Peserve of Officers (including the Supplementary Reserve of Officers) and officers of the militia will act on instructions already in their possession. If not in possession of instructions they will await orders from the War Office. They are particularly requested not to call for personal interviews at either the War Office or at other military head quarters. !. All reservists (including supple mentary reservists) are to report them selves at once at their place of joining in accordance with the instructions on their identity certificates. Army Form D 461 or D 477. or in their identity books (Army Book 344 or Army Book 335), for the purpose of joining the Army, whether or not they receive any individual notice. Special instructions have been issued to certain Royal Artillery and other reservists who should act on the instructions in their possession and should not join until they receive further notice. All men belonging to the Territorial Army, which has been embodied, are required to report themselves im mediately at their headquarters. Every reservist will receive 5s. advance of pay if he presents the cash order on his identity certificate or army book at the nearest post office or money-order office. Railway or steamboat ticket to place of joining will be issued to every reservist when he presents at the booking office the railway warrant on his identity certificate. It is of the utmost importance that every reservist and man of the Territorial Army shall join at the earliest possible moment. 3. All gentlemen registered in the Army Officers' Emergency Reserve who hold instructions should act upon them. It is particularly requested that those not in possession of instructions will await orders from the War Office. 4. Personal applications from officers in connection with appointments on mobilisation are forbidden. The regu lations regarding interviews at the War Office will be strictly enforced, and serving officers who have permission to make inquiries at the War Office after mobilisation is ordered will present themselves there in service dress with out swords. Offers of service from retired officers or civilians should be made in writing to uie under secretary oi state, AH 12, the War Office. TERRITORIALS CALLED UP The following announcement concern ing all Territorials has been made by the War Office : " The Territorial Army has been called out for service. If you are a Territorial and have not joined your unit you should do so without delay. " This does not iipply to the Terri torial Army Reserve of Officers. These officers should awai' written instructions unless they have already received them." WAR RISKS The Institute of London Underwriters announced last night an increase of 50 per cent on all war-risk rates 'on the present schedule of homeward rates. AIR-RAID WARNING SYSTEM Instructions have been sent to local authorities to put the air-raid warning system into full operation. This means that from now on the sounding of all factory syrens and I hooters is prohibited except for giving air-raid warnings. An air-raid warning on a factory hooter or syren is given by a seies of short blastSL The " raiders passed signal as in the case of police syrens. Is a long, steady blast lasting two ON OTHER PAGES : - 'Pi Tka Nates Yesterday. E Germanylaunched" an offensive against Poland early yesterday morning without a declaration of war. The .attack, which was accompanied by air raids, was directed simultaneously from both sides of the " Corridor," and also, apparently, from the most southerly point of East Prussia, Dzialdowa, which is some 80 miles north of Warsaw on the Danzig-Warsaw railway. It is believed that there were attacks in Silesia in the direction of Czestochowa, Silesia, but of' this there is no news. Attacks were expected from Southern Silesia or Slovakia in the direction of Teschn, but of this, too, there is still no news. The first official German war communique says The military actions of our troops in Silesia, Pomerania, and East Prussia have brought the expected but the communique does sot give Another official German communique says that units of the German Navy have taken some position near the Bay of Danzig. Gdynia harbour was bombed by the German Air Force. Other large towns, includisg Cracow and Katowice, are said to have been bombed, but there is no definite information. Apparently there were three alarms in Warsaw in the morning but no raids, at least in the early part of the day. WHERE GERMANS ATTACKED The Air Raids From our own Correspondent i Warsaw, September 1. Without any ultimatum and with out a declaration of war. Hitler launched his waVon Poland at five o'clock this morning. The German Army opened artillery fire at five points round the frontier. Shells fell on Puck, Chojnice, Nzialdowo, and Grudziadz. At the same time bombing raids were made on Tczew, Westerplatte (Danzig), Cracow, and Katowice. Altogether sixteen districts were attacked and only Zbonszyn taken. In Cracow one woman was killed. In Puck there were casualties, but it is not yet known how many. The bombing of Westerplatte followed Fprster's declaration uniting Danzig with Germany and annulling the Free City's constitution. There were three air-raid alarms in Warsaw this morning at six, nine, and ten o'clock. ANGLO-POLISH TREATY Invoked by Ambassador The Polish Ambassador, Count Raczynski, told Lord Halifax yesterday that Poland had been the victim of German aggression and invoked the treaty. " The towns bombed by Ger man warplanes were taken completely unawares," he said. Nobc v supposed there was a war. Without sr y declara tion of war they have boi. bed our Polish cities. Orders for mobilisation and evacuation of the principal cities, in accordance with arrangements previously made, are being carried out Wireless reports told of attacks on Upper Silesia, an important, Polish industrial region with several coal mines. 1 A detailed map of the German-Polish frontier on another page NAZI DEFINITION The shaded the Nan POINTS FROM ANGLO-GERMAN CORRESPONDENCE On August 22. when the first precautions were taken by Britain, the Premier wrote to Hitler warning him that no greater mistake 'could be made than to think that the Russo-Gexmaa Fact made British intervention unlikely. Herr Hitler replied next day declaring his desire for friendship with Brit""' and his willingness to settle the dispute' with Poland by negotiation an' the basis of a proposal of unparalleled magnanimity. Tn a verbal imnminiratfon on August 25 he said that the dispute "must and win be solved.'' He undertook to' pledge hhtwrif for the continued nriT- of - the British Empire if his colonial demand, were fulfilled- ' .1 The British Govexnrrjent on August 28 said it was ready to consider Hitler's general proposals for closer ""-German uhVi iijiirting 'if the differences between ' Germany ' and Poland yrer pcanefuTlj; composed- preliminary successes, any details. "FIGHT TO THE END " Poland Firm Paris, September 1. The German acts of aggression against Poland started a few hours after M. Lipski, the Polish Ambassador, had informed the Reich Government of the Polish attitude towards the British Government's efforts to maintain peace, according to a communique of the official Polish News Agency received here. It states : This aggression, which is unequalled in brutality, will be resisted by the entire Polish nation, which will defend its liberty, rights, and honour to the end. The German allegation that Polish soldiers had attacked Gleiwitz, which is the pretext for the German aggression against Poland, is a cynical lie. No cne in the civilised world has any doubts who the aggressor is" Reuter. ' Warsaw, September 1. Political quarters in Warsaw were very definite in their opinion of the German communique setting forth the German " proposals." " In the tension of events German aggression has thrown off the mask." it is declared. " It is perhaps better that Germany should play an open game. To-day no one anywhere in the world can have the least doubt as to the aggressive aims of Germany, who wants to trample underfoot the elementary principles of international life." Well-informed Polish quarters also state that at the very moment yesterday evening when Germary was reporting alleged Polish incursions into such districts as German Silesia and the towns of Pitschel and Hohenlinden. which we have declared here to be pure inventions, a German detachment entered Poland at Chwalfczyce, in the region of Rybnik, firing some 150 shots at the Polish frontier guards who ultimately drove the invaders back. Reuter. RAILWAYS TAKEN OVER The Government yesterday decided to take control of main-line and other railways and the London Passenger Transport and the London Passenger Transport Board. OF " CORRIDOR " is Ac district defined by Germany as the "Corridor" oa Tkanday idghi and claimed immediately. I nn Aiieust 29 Hitler renlied suggest ing that Britain should secure the riicnatrh of a Polish representative with full powers to Berlin by August 30. The British Government replied that it could not advise the Palish Government to comply with this procedure, "which is wholly unreason-able.- Britain's final effort to secure direct negotiations between Germany and Poland was a telegram to Sir Nevile Henderson on Thursday night, which read: -Please inform 'German Government that we understand that Polish Government are taking steps to ctoKHh -fnntaft with them through the Polish Ambassador in Berlin. It suggested the services of M. Bureknardt, the League High Commissioner in- Danzig;.. for securing aa-iM.riate provisional modus Vivendi as irgjrilE lwinlg.' ilr- 7 , . same " night - Germany ", an nounced ber terms to Poland -terras -rlV-h it i.fJr.W- already itfextaj. LIGHTS OUT" ORDER Permanent Notice INSTRUCTIONS TO MOTORISTS An official notice issued from the Lord Privy Seal's office contains a "lights out" order which came into force at sunset last night and continues in force : A lighting order has been made under Defence Regulation No. 24 ana comes into operation at sunset to-night, as a further measure of precaution. The effect of the order is that every night, from sunset to sunrise, all lights inside buildings must be obscured and lights outside buildings must be extinguished, subject to certain exceptions in the case of external lighting where it is essential for the conduct of work of vital national importance. Such lights must be adequately shaded. In cases where drivers of motor-vehicles have been unable to take the full measures prescribed under the Lighting Restriction Order, and who have to make journeys after dark to-night, the following improvised method may be employed for to-night only (the three preceding words are underlined) : Sidelamps. Sidelamps should be covered by two thicknesses of newspapers, if necessary held in position by a rubber band. Any side, rear, or top panels on the lamps must be completely obscured. Headlamns. A thick cardboard disc should be fitted behind the glass. In this should be cut a semi-circular hole not more than 2in. wide, the straight side being uppermost and not above the centre line of the lamp. Rear Lamps. All class panels in rear lamps, other than the obligatory red lamp, must be completely obscured. The red light itself must bs covered with two thicknesses of newspaper. Motorists are urged if they can they should find it practicable to drive with dimmed sidelamps only. In cases where it is absolutely necessary for safety one masked headlamp can be used. NO BOMBING OF OPEN TOWNS Roosevelt's Appeal Washington, September 1. President Roosevelt has appealed to all nations that may take part in a European war to give a pledge not to. bombard civilian populations or unfortified towns from the air. The appeal, addressed to Britain, France, Italy, Poland, and Germany, was dispatched at 10 30 B.S.T. this morning. The President said : The ruthless bombing from the air of civilians in unfortified centres of population during the course of the hostilities which have raged in various quarters of the earth in the past few yearr, which have resulted in the maiming and death of thousands of defenceless women and children, has profoundly shocked the conscience of humanity. if resort is had to this sort of inhuman barbarism during the period of tragic conflagration with which the world is now confronted, hundreds of thousands of innocent human beings who have no responsibility for and who are not even remotely participating in the hostilities which have broken iut now will lose their lives. I am therefore addressing this ursent appeal to every Government which may be engaged in hostilities publicly to affirm its determination that its armed forces shall in no event and under no circumstances undertake bombardment from the air of civilian populations or unfortified cities upon the understanding that the same rules of warfare will be scrupulously observed by all their opponents. I request an immediate reply. FRENCH AND BRITISH ACCEPTANCES It was later announced that the French and British Governments have accepted President Roosevelt's appeal. Reuter. UNITED STATES AND THE WAR Roosevelt's Statement A Reuter Washington telegram says that President Roosevelt was asked at a press conference whether the United States could keep from being involved in a European war, and he authorised .the following direct quotation : " I not only sincerely hope so, but I believe we can, and that every effort will be made by the Administration so to do." President Roosevelt also announced that Mr. Hugh Wilson, the United States Ambassador to Germany, had submitted his resignation this morning. Mr. Wilson has been in the United States for several months. The President said that Mr. Wilson would be assigned a special duty at the State Department. SUPPLEMENTARY RESERVE OF R.A.S.C. Skilled Men Wanted Approximately 1.000 skilled trades men are required at once for the Boyal Army Service Corps' Supplementary Reserve, Category C Enlistment is for one year, and is open to men between the aces of 21 and 42. At the reguest of the War Office the National -Service Coauaittee of the Retail Motor Industry has sent a circular letter to approximately 16.000 earaces throughout the country, drawing, the attention of proprietors to file cooditiortr. ox service ana seetcmg weir co-opera- ttpn' in omatrnog suiraoie men xrom among their employees. '-Anvma the trades in which vacancies exist are the following : Clerk (technical U.T.)i crk (supply), black- TaTnTn, carpenter mvjonier, mar n-trjxmner.'' luypei Miutt-j-drairghttarnrfo mpto n n wliiimTtSj 7!IdPCtjejBtt. i Pjiijpfljfc A good start was made yesterday with the evacuation of children from London, Manchester, and other big centres in England, which is to continue over the week-end. The arrangements worked with the greatest smoothness yesterday, and last night the Minister of Health, Mr. Walter Elliot, expressed his appreci ation of the great progress made. ine railways, the road transport organisations, the local authorities and teachers, and the voluntarv workers in the reception areas are all playing their Dart sDlendidlv." he said. Tho time that evacuation will take to be complete will vary in different areas. The removal of the school children will continue in the areas where it is not already completed, and this will be followed by the evacuation of young children, accompanied by their mothers or by some other rcsnansihle person, the expectant mothers, the blind. ana any cripples who have received instructions that they will be moved. By this time all nersons affected in these special classes ought to have been iniormea oy tneir local authorities where to assemble and the day and time at which to be there. If any persons in these classes are in doubt they should at once make inquiries at their local council office. NEW AREAS ADDED The arrangements which started yesterday have been limited to those areas for which transport plans had been previously worked out It has already been possible to extend the arrangements to a few other areas. Evacuation from Grimsby and Cleethorpes started yesterday and will continue to-day and to-morrow. Evacuation from Derby will take place to-day and to-morrow, and the evacuation from Coventry will take place to-morrow and on Monday. All persons included in the Government evacuation scheme who draw State pensions or allowances paid. by means of order-books should be careful to take their pension and allowance books with them, even if the book has just expired. They will be able to draw their pensions and allowances from the nearest post office if they present the book. Pensioners who at present get their books from a pension officer and not a oost office should get from the oost office in the new area the address of the local pensions officer As a further precautionary measure ine minister oi wealth nas sent instruc tions to hospitals in the casualty organisation to send home all patients wno are m -to oe sent, nome. -,'isy direction of hte Secretary for Scotland " similar action will be comaleted in Scotland to-day. orders ror the transfer of stretcher cases from inner to outer hosnitals were issued yesterday in both countries. w.estminster Hospital was cleared yesterday of all patients, except two or inree. wno were unnt to oe moved, to provide 200 beds in case of emergency. A further eiehtv beds are to be kent available for urgent cases of illness and lor expectant mothers living in Westminster. A week ago 180 Datients were evacuated voluntarily to other hospitals or to their homes. A.R.P. authorities have been notified by the Lord Privy Seal's department that if the need of services of first-aid parties should arise to an extent that cannot be met by volunteers who have completed their training the position may be eased by forming parties consisting of two trained men and two men wno nave not received training. This is a temoorarv exnedlent It U stated, and every effort should be made to train the required number of men, as laid down in training instructions. It will be seen that this notice indicates a valuable sphere of national service for able-bodied men whose services can quickly be utilised as 5ireicner-Dearers, lor whom there are vacancies in most districts. Intending volunteers should offer themselves at their town hall or AJLP. offices. THE POLISH ARMY By our Military Correspondent The peace strength of the Polish Army may be taken as somewhere about 35 divisions, of which at least five are cavalry. Owing to the circumstances in which Poland has been living for some time past the greatest secrecy has been observed as .regards all military matters, and it is difficult to get exact details. The total of trained man-power including reserves reaches a very much higher figure. In the past the equipment of the Polish Army has lagged behind that of other armies, but much has been done to remedy this state of affairs. in any case, the probable terrain over which a Polish array would have to fight contains much wooded, marshy. ana mountainous country winch renders it unsuitable for the use of highly rnechanised forces. The Polish Army contains a higher proportion of horsed cavalry than most armies to-day. Again this is explained by the nature of the country, and the Polish cavalry have a high allotment of machine-guns. A good deal has been done lately towards the building of fortifications in the frontier districts. Poland has never been able to arm and equip her entire man-power, with the result that service in the Army is confined to selected men. The Army is one of the most democratic institutions in the Polish State! It is possible for the son of a peasant to rise to high rank. Most impartial observers agree that the spirit of the Polish Army is very high and that, in war, s it will give a good account of itself. TELEVISION SUSPENDED. . The , . television service . has Toesn suspended. A Post Offke oasaiti; ine suspension of, - the . tele-asfcm I service was aproved by the Posttntj arniergetrrraaffl i 1 .i , -y"

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