The Guardian from London, Greater London, England on September 1, 1939 · 9
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The Guardian from London, Greater London, England · 9

London, Greater London, England
Issue Date:
Friday, September 1, 1939
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THE MANCHESTER -GUARDIAN, FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 1939 HITLER'S DEMANDS Return of Danzig "Forthwith and Unconditionally A CORRIDOR "PLEBISCITE" Berlin Regards Poland as Having Already Rejected the Offer Germany' terms to Poland were announced by the German wireless last night. After reading the sixteen points of the proposals the spokesman said : These are the proposals that the Government of the Reich made for the solution of the crisis. The Fuhrer and the German Government have waited two days in vain for the arrival of a Polish negotiator. Under these circumstances they must regard their proposals as rejected. This suggestion that the terms had been before Poland for some time was authoritatively denied in London last night. They were not given to the Polish Ambassador in Berlin until late last night. The Sixteen Points The sixteen points are : l The Free City of Danzig, on account of its purely German character and the unanimous will of its population, shall return to the Reich unconditionally and forthwith. 2 The Polish Corridor between Marienwerder, Graudenz, Kulm (Chelmno), Bydgoszcz. and Schonlanke (Schneidexniihl) is to be the subject of a plebiscite to determine to whom it should belong. 3 Entitled to vote in this plebiscite will be all Germans and Poles who have been resident in the Corridor since January 1, 1918. or have been born there. All Germans who have been expelled from the Corridor or were forced to leave will return there in order to cast their votes. In .order to guarantee an entirely objective form of voting, an international commission will be set up similar to that which operated during the Saar plebiscite. It will consist of representatives of Italy, Soviet Russia. France, and Great Britain. The commission will exercise sovereign rights in the territory. All Polish police, military, and other authorities have to leave the Corridor at the shortest possible notice. 4 Gdynia is to be excluded from the plebiscite and will unconditionally remain Polish. The exact frontier between Gdynia and Germany will have to be determined through agreement between Berlin and Warsaw. 5 The plebiscite shall not take place before a lapse of twelve months. 6 During this period Germany's unlimited communication with East Prussia and Poland's unlimited communication with the sea shall be guaranteed. 1 The plebiscite will be decided by a simple majority of votes. 8 Should the decision go in favour of Poland Germany shall be granted an extraterritorial zone "Rejected" The German Government, the statement added, declared itself ready to receive up to the evening of Wednesday a Po)ish delegate on condition that he was given full powers to' negotiate and conclude an agreement Instead of the arrival of a delegate Germany heard of Polish mobilisation. The British assurance of a general character concerning Britain's willingness to co-operate in bringing about a start of negotiations came only on Wednesday, when the time-limit expired. The proposals were now considered to be rejected. The German Government, it was added, "considers that the situation between Germany and Poland is such that any fresh incident may lead to a releasing of military forces in position on one side or other." Later the German radio announced that its broadcasting station at Gleiwitz, Silesia, had been "occupied by Polish attackers." Some of the attackers were killed. Hitler is expected to address the Reichstag to-day. Messages from Berlin this morning suggested 44 from well-informed sources w that "the door to negotiations is not yet closed." It was learned authoritatively in London that the proposals are not a reply to any British proposals. British Precautions The precautions taken in Britain reached their climax yesterday. The mobilisation of the fleet is being completed, the Army and the Royal Air Force are being farther strengthened, and -civil defence is being putinto a state of complete preparedness. These measures, it was emphasised, should ".not be regar asevidence that Ae situation had worsened. ' . - The Soviet-German Pact was ratified by Ae Supreme Soviet last night. 99 through the district for the building of a Reich motor road to Danzig and a four-track railway. Should the plebiscite go in favour of Germany Poland to have the right to make free and unlimited use of all communications through the district to her port of Gdynia. 9 In case the plebiscite decides that the Corridor should go to the Reich Germany is prepared to carry out an exchange of population. 10 For the settlement of possible complaints of the German and Polish minorities, both contracting parties agree that these complaints should be submitted to an international commission which will investigate each case on its merits. 11 The special privileges sought by Poland in Danzig will be laid down in a manner analogous to the German privileges in Gdynia. 12 In order to obviate all feeling of insecurity on the part of the population both Gdynia and Danzig will be declared to be mere "centres of trade," which will not be fortified. The Peninsula of Hel will in any case be demilitarised. 13 Germany and Poland mutually agree to repair and recompense all economic damages caused to their respective minorities since 1918. 14 The minorities which will remain in either country after the plebiscite will by mutual agreement be exempted from military service and enjoy full social and cultural freedom. 15 In case of acceptance of these proposals, Germany and Poland declare themselves ready to order and carry out immediate demobilisation of their respective armies. 16 All further measures which may become necessary will be laid down through mutual agreement between Germany and Poland. RADIO STATION FIGHT German Report STORY OF ATTACK BY POLES Berlin. Anensrr 37 Allegations of German-Polish incid ents were published by the German News Agency to-night. A message from Breslau to th Agency said: "At about eight o'clock to-night the radio station at Gleiwitz (Silesia) was occupied as a result of a Polish attack. The Poles forced their way into the siuaio ana succeeded in reading an appeal in the Polish lanmiaee and partly also in the German language. They were, however, overpowered within a few minutes by the police, to whom the alarm had been given by listeners. The police were forced to make use of their weapons, as a result of which-deaths occurred among those who had invaded the studio." A later message from Oppeln, in the same district, said that the alleged attack on 'the Gleiwitz station was attack by heavily armed Poles at two runner poims oi me frontier, folice resisted the attack but " severe fighting continues." Reuter. THE STOCK EXCHANGES Closed To-day It Was officiallv announced vpstor. day that the London Stock Exchange will close to-day. This is because of the Government's decision to evacuate the school children. It had previously been stated by the Stock Exchange Committee that the fixcnange would close during the days when evacuation was Koine xorriiu nf The committee states that normal suburban nttpnni tranviit fnniiuj will be virtually suspended, so that apart uuui auv utucp considerations it would be nhvuirnllv imnniaiKlo TnomKn. and their staffs to get to their offices. The Stock Exchanges of Manchester, Liverpool, and elsewhere, which usually observe the same holidays as the London Stock Exchange, will also be closed mmc cvKuauou is proceeding. Manchester Corn Exchange, and other markets outside London are expected to remain open as usual to-day. STOPPING FOOD HOARDING A Week's Supply An order issued last nieht nmfiihifs the hoarding of food. The order makes it an offence for anyone to buy more than a week's simnlv of any kind of food or to keep more than a weeKs supply, apart from stores which have been boueht Dreviouslv. The restriction does not apply to stocks or rood traders acquired in the ordinary course of their business, but it is an offence for a trader to sell fnnrf in a customer if he has grounds for knowing mat tne customer would be buying excessive quantities. Food includes tea. coffee, and cocoa. This order does not mean that there is a shortage of food. It is designed to prevent people from making abnormal purchases, the result of which would create ft shortage m local shops. One week's supplies are taken generally as a reasonable maximum limit of people's requirements. The Government's plans for food supply are designed to prevent any undue rise in prices, to maintain the flow of distribution, and to provide every person regularly with his or her fair share. JAPAN IN DOUBT What to Do with Her Anti-Comintern Ties Tokxo, August 31. " The Anti-Comintern Pact will, possibly, become less strong than before, even if it is kept alive," said Japan's new Prime Minister. General Abe, in a press interview to-day. " It requires further study to decide whether the anti-Comintern ties are to be kept alive,' he continued, "or whether some better formula can be found to replace them. He stressed the necessity of a cautious attitude in "readjusting the relationships between Japan and the Soviet Union." Reuter. POLISH DESTROYERS Reported to Have Left the Baltic Berlin. August 31. The official German News Agency reported from Danzig to-day that three Polish destroyers had left the Baltic Sea. They were last seen by German naval and air observers at Skagen neaoea in a westerly direction, Their base is Gdynia. Associated Press. ON OTHER PAGES t Ttaaiflil Dvriag Evamatinn 4 4 4 It K Taaajan Pifcrtiaa af MaaOatrntiaai OnUw 10 Encaattio. FIaa ... Tiefat Sartic -To-day 11 11 11 That AJLP. Facta ATaaaft tk Corridas , ON PACE 12: Tk Gamut StataMt TKw Ciwh Pact Tk Cm -Ham Fna HaJr Aim Fanaa Tk Fiaatek Caanat NOT A REPLY TO ANY BRITISH PLAN Poland Only Told Last Night FAMILIAR METHODS London, Thursday Midnight. It was learned authoritatively tonight that the proposals published to-night by the German Government are not a reply to any British proposals. ' In pursuance of the well-known British view that the questions at issue between Germany and Poland should be settled by negotiation and not by the use of force, the efforts of the British Government have been directed to seeing whether a ' discussion between the German ' and Polish Governments could be arranged, it being understood that the discussion would be on terms of equality, that the settlement should be one which safeguarded the essential interests of Poland, and that its due observance should be secured. With regard to the proposals 1 now made public, it is learned that they were only communicated to the Polish Government for the first time this evening. The proposals were read over to the British Ambassador in Berlin late on the night of August 30, but they were not communicated to him officially on the grounds that it was now too late to communicate them officially as a Polish repre sentative had not arrived in Berlin by midnight on the 30th, that being the time stipulated in the atest German communication ,'dated August 29 to the British Government. HITLER'S 'OFFER' The Plebiscite Calculation From our Diplomatic Correspondent London, Thursday Night. The German proposals for a settlement of the dispute with Poland were announced on the German wireless this evening. They were accompanied by an official statement which was untrue in two respects. First, according to this statement, the German proposals "were known to the British Government before they were communicated to the Polish Government. The fact is that neither the British nor the French Government was officially informed of the German proposals, which were only read over to Sir Nevile Henderson later last night. According to the German broadcast statement, the Polish Government had rejected the proposals. This also is untrue. The Polish Ambassador, M. Lipski, was only received by Herr Hitler at eight o'clock this evening, after waiting to be received since this morning, and there has been ho time for him to communicate with his Government and for that Government to consider the German proposals. The German statement that the German Government waited for two days before M. Lipski called is also untrue. FAMILIAR METHOD The German proposals reveal the familiar method. They are very skilful in so far as they have a certain plausibility. Last year Hitler demanded the Sudetenland and spoke of a plebiscite in those other regions of Czecho-Slovakia where there were German minorities, knowing that if he held the Sudetenland he would be in such a strong strategic and political position that he would be able to secure the rest without difficulty and without even a plebiscite. as indeed happened in March this year. In the same way Hitler demands the incorporation of Danzig in the Reich, and proposes a plebiscite in regions where there is a German minority, knowing that when he has Danzig he will be in such a strong strategic and political position that he can invade the Corridor with irresistible force (that is, if force is needed at all), and take it without resorting to a plebiscite. The subjugation of the whole Polish Republic would follow auto matically, just as. the subjugation of all Czechoslovakia was rapidly accomplished after March 15. As a pre condition for the plebiscite (a plebiscite that cannot be seriouslyf - . . T T TT -.1 , . y I intended), Hitler demands a motor- . , - i . r- - roaa ana railway inrougn xne kjottm j T J .1 i i ' i car wuiui wuuu ixiereuy pe traversed by a band of terrijory under German control. Hitler also demands thataUTolish police, military, and other authorities have to leave the Corridor at the shortest possible notice.' THE PLEBISCITE COMMISSION The voting is to be guaranteed by an international commission consisting of the representatives of Italy, Russia, Great Britain, and France. This commission would be in a state of permanent deadlock, for the "pro- German " Powers (Italy and Russia) would be represented equally with the Western Powers (France and Great Britain). It is clear how the deadlock would he brought) to an end by the Power which is on the spot, the Power that has in the meantime secured Danzig, that is to say. Germany. . Even if the population of the Corridor votes for Poland! which it certainly will. not. even it t votes at all for fiie necessary terrorists and other instruments of German penetration and dommation will "see to that. if there is a plebiscite at alt-the Ger man motarroatt ana railway is to NEW APPEAL BY THE POPE Letter to Powers "MORE PRESSING INSISTENCE" Vatican Cmr, August 31. The Pope made an urgent effort to avert .war in written appeals sent to-day to the British. French, Italian, German, and Polish diplomatic representatives at the Holy See. This action had apparently only been decided upon this morning after the Pontiff received latest reports on the international situation. Immediately afterwards he summoned his Secretary of State, Cardinal Maglione, to Castel Gandolf o for an extraordinary audience. On his return to the Vatican the Cardinal asked the envoys of the five European Powers principally concerned to call on him. To each he handed a document which a Vatican informant said contained "new and still more pressing insistence and prayers of the Pope that the existing tense situation be settled by -peaceful means." The Vatican does not conceal its fears that grave developments may be expected, although some prelates interpreted the Pontiff's peace efforts to mean that all hope need not yet be abandoned. Throughout to-day there were signs of intense diplomatic activity at the Vatican. The heads of almost all missions accredited to the Holy See called and conferred either with Cardinal Maglione or his assistants. The new Belgian Ambassador to the Vatican reached Rome to-day after having advanced his arrival date by several weeks. He will call at the Vatican tn-mmrmu It is reported that the Vatican has been kept advised of the nature of uie exenanges m progress between uiiidiu ana vjermany. DIPLOMATIC CONTACT WITH ITALY M. Francois-Poncet. the French Ambassador, twice saw Count Ciano. nauan foreign Minister, to-day. Sir Percy Loraiae. the British Amha.- sador, had a twenty-minute talk with Count Ciano this afternoon. The object of the interview, according to British quarters, was to maintain contact Reuter and Associated Press. BRITISH AND ITALIAN ENVOYS MEET Berlin, August 31. The Italian Ambassador in Berlin, Signor Attolico, called on Sir Nevile Henderson, the British Ambassador, twice to-day first at 8 a.m. and again at 10 30. The second interview lasted thirty minutes. Reuter. INSTRUCTIONS TO ARMY RESERVISTS The War Office, in an addition to its statement on mobilisation (reported on the next page), states that "other ranks" should act on the general instructions in Army Book 334 and Army Book 33d, and not those on Army Form D 464. "Those not in possession of Army Books 334 or 335," it is added, " should act under instructions contained in their identity certificates. "Special instructions for the deferment of joining at the places stated in Army Book 334 or in their identity certificates have, however, been issued to certain Royal Artillery and other Army reservists. These should act on the instructions which are already in their possession, and not join until they receive further notice." remain, so that the Corridor will be cut in half. As for the great port of Gdynia which is purely Polish and has been built exclusively by Polish effort, it is to lose its present status. It is to be demilitarised and become a mere centre of trade. More than this, Gdynia is to be as Danzig is now that is to say, the Poles are to lose everything in Danzig and to lose almost everything in Gdynia. Their fortifications on the Hel peninsula are to be dismantled. The German proposals would if carried out mean the end of Polish independence. Danzig in German hands and th Corridor evacuated by the Polish my. the rest of Poland would be i : more able to resist complete conquest by Germany than Czecho-Slovakia etrtfld" resist after the cession of the Sudetenland. The proposals show that there can be no question of any victory on the part of the. German Moderates, They show that Hitler stands absolutely by what is. known to be his real intention the partition of Poland. If his last proposals seem a little ' 1 . , , . , I more moderate tnan what be is proposed verbally before, in so far as parts of Poznan and Eastern Upper Silesia are not mentioned, they are so only in the sense in which the proposals he made at Munich seemed a little more moderate than those he made at Godesberg. They are but "reculer pour mieux sauter." What is astonishing is the complex ingenuity of his cynicism. After the experience of last year, no one in this country or in France (not to speak of Poland) will be taken - in by these latest proposals. Perhaps they will seem reasonable to the less sophisticated part of the German public, though even that must seem a little doubtful. The proposals were communicated informally to the British Ambassador, Sir Nevile Henderson,' late last night. This would "pi" why certain informed observers took a graver view of the situation to-day than at anytime and why others in their natural desire to grasp at some slight reasons for hope emphasised the signs of discontent among the German population' and the apparently " moderate " character of Hitler's new; Defence CoondL But Hitler's latest proposals cannot but dispel all fllnsions about niir anfi his intentions.' FLEET FULLY MOBILISED A.R.P. Key Men Called Out : To-day's Evacuation CHILDREN AND PRIORITY CLASSES Britain's new defence measures were announced yesterday afternoon in the following statement issued from 10, Downing Street: In continuation of measures already adopted, it has been decided to complete naval mobilisation and to call up the remainder of the Regular Army Reserve and Supplementary Reserve. A further number of the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve will also be called up. Officers and men should await further instructions which will be made public immediately by each of the three Service Departments. This notice was subsequently supplemented by detailed instructions, issued through the press and wireless, to the classes called up and to other reservists. Instructions have been sent to local authorities to set up the A.R.P. Emergency Committees and to local A.R.P. controllers to assume duty. This establishes the regional organisation already arranged. Work on public shelters is to be accelerated, and 20 per cent of the whole-time members oE A.R.P. services are to be called up. including the Auxiliary Fire Service. Local authorities have been given power to requisition premises for civil defence purposes and for public shelters. Restrictions on flying by civil aircraft in the United Kingdom were announced last night. All telephone services to other countries and to ships at sea have been suspended, and there are strict regulations for telegrams. Evacuation Evacuation of children, expectant mothers, blind persons, and cripples from certain congested areas, including Greater London, Manchester, and Salford. will begin to-day. Some 3,000.000 people are affected, about half of whom are school children. Rotherham, Runcorn, and Widnes have been added to the list previously announced of areas from which evacuation will take place. The evacuation will cause considerable disruption of transport, both rail and road, and people are especially asked to restrict travel as much as possible. The London Stock Exchange will be closed to-day because it is not anticipated that members would be able to reach their offices. Nine main trunk routes from London will become one-way streets in an outward direction during the period of the evacuation. An order was made last night prohibiting the acquisition or purchase of excessive quantities of food. It is now an offence for anyone to bty more than a week's supply of any kind of food. The restriction does not apply to stocks of food - acquired by, traders in the ordinary course of business but it is an offence for traders to sell food to a customer if he has grounds for knowing that the customer is buying in excessive quantities. The order does not mean that there is a shortage ; it is merely a necessary safeguard against hoarding. 3,000,000 Evacuation begins to-day. During the next two or three days some 3,000,000 people, about half of whom are school children, will be evacuated from congested areas to places of greater safety. Those who are not school children include children below school age accompanied by their mothers or some other responsible person, expectant mothers, patients in hospitals, and blind persons. litid-wives will accompany expectant mothers. The Ministry of Health and the Secretary of State for Scotland, in a joint statement yesterday, stressed that the bringing of the scheme into operation is a precautionary measure and does not mean that, war is regarded as inevitable. " Evacuation, which will take several days to complete, is being undertaken as a precautionary measure in view of the prolongation of the period of tension," it is added. " The Government is fully assured that the attitude of quiet confidence which the public have been displaying will continue, that no unnecessary movements which would interfere with the smooth operation of the transport arrangements will take place, and that all concerned in the receiving areas will entirely put aside every consideration of personal interest and convenience and do everything possible to contribute to the success of a great national undertaking.1' EVACUATION AREAS Evacuation will be from the following places : Greater London, which Includes the LCjC. area, the County Boroughs of West Ham and East Ham, the Boroughs of Walthamstow. Leyton, Dford, and Barking, ia Essex; the Boroughs of Tottenham. Hornsey. Willesden. Acton, and Edmonton, ia Middlesex ; the Med-way towns of Chatham, GUIinsham. and Rochester ; Dagpfiham. Tburrock. Graves-end, and Notthfieet, Portsmouth. Gos-port and Southampton, Birmingham, and Smethwick, Liverpool. BooUe, Birkenhead. Wallasey, and Crosby; Manchester. Salford, and Stretford. Sheffield. Leeds, Bradford, Hull, and Rotherhaxn. Newcastle and Gateshead. Runcorn and Widnes, and in Scotland Edinburgh. Glasgow, Dundee. Clyde-bask, and Rosyth. Rotherham, Runcorn, and Widnes are additions to the list of areas previously published.' There will be no further additions to the list for the present.. In! some of the places named only certain areas -will be evacuated. There will be no evacuaoon from Wales. In order, that the process of evacuation may be carried out, all day. schools in evacuation and reception areas, are to be closed for ordinary lessons from today until further notice. : School premises in evacuation and reception areas 0 be kept open for assembly of children and other purpowi connected with evacuation. -- Schools in neutral areas will -remain.' open for instruction unta further notice.,. . ... V iroiweq .;,;. :'From"''it5'.; days o- .tkuatlrin. ijP wajs, tufaesy he. foapilr AFFECTED occupied with evacuation. AH other persons are asked for the time being to refrain from making unnecessary journeys and from impeding the transport of children to a place of safety by crowding railway or tube stations. During the evacuation period ordinary railway and road passenger services will be drastically reduced and liable to alteration at short notice. People must not try to take accommodation in reception areas which is required for children and mothers under the "Government scheme. From nine to six both Underground and bus services in the London area will be seriously affected. The London Passenger Transport Board points out that it will be a- help it regular passengers will arrange their journeys in the morning so that they will arrive in Town before nine o'clock and in the evening will make their return journeys after six o'clock. THE EXODUS FROM LONDON About 1,300,000 persons are on the London dispersal list alone for evacuation over the counties between Land's End and the Wash. It Is expected that about 400,000 school children will leave London to-day under the care of about 2,000 teachers. Plans for the exodus of children from London will probably take four days to complete, an official stated. An L.C.C-official at County Hall said that, beginning to-day, 500.000 school children from 1,000 L.C.C. schools would be evacuated. To-day and during the first part of to-morrow school children would be evacuated according to their schools. During the remaining part of to-morrow blind persons and expectant mothers would be evacuated from London along with a limited number of, . mothers and children under the age of five. On Sunday, and if necessary on Monday, the remainder of the mothers accompanying children under school age. and those scholars who are going with their parents instead of their school, will be dispersed. Officers and cadets of the Salvation Army in London and in the large towns outside were mobilised yesterday for duty in connection with the evacuation of children.' ' - i - - . The R-SJ'.C. acting with the full approval of the L.CXTM has undertaken the evacuation' of all -schools pet animals in the Metropolitan-" area and in a few places oinsiae it to the association's homes oi rest in the country. ... ' - From Liverpool and -. Merseyside zicooo persons will go to wales, z7,mo are to -leave Manchester--lor places in Lancashire; r Snropshire. St Cheshire, and Derbyshire, and 12700 from Newcastle and Gateshead' wfH- be dispersed. , over Cnrnrxrlirnd, Durham, Northumberland, and the North Biding. ' nKpmvjatnkTs ' ' ''-. -. The Jffiraster of Health-ifMr. Walters-Elliott) -announced yrsterdaythat as.'a : precautionary 'iheassncerlbfo -: in London andc4her towntLia .nting.' arranged. plan far 1 of their patients ,td tether! ouier ;mso., no. : hospital b -staff . me4raSec ot-some bveihH54s-a: wUm rwLMlmjmUi-Lm. LsL gtgL ' individuals. J; rf-

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