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The Guardian from London, Greater London, England • Page 6
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The Guardian from London, Greater London, England • Page 6

The Guardiani
London, Greater London, England
Issue Date:

THE MANCHESTER GUARDIAN TUESDAY DECEMBER 9 1952 6 FITTING COMMENTS 37 goods that cost dollars if he prefers to do so. To ''declare that sterling Our London Correspondence able to follow with determination Schuman's policy of gradual reform. It now looks as though it will have to concede more than it has so earned in current business can be AID OR DEPENDENCE? Indonesia and the Foreigner By a Correspondent in Indonesia freely changed into dollars, but to London Monday Nigbt By, Private Wire also be called Chelsea). Fortv-eisht far bargained for and at a speedier All afternoon it was no more than retain at the same time the special import quotas which "keep out dollar goods would be a very small- step rate. live in Kensington tW. 8 and S.W. 7). misty with a red sun promising to Hampstead (N.W. 3), even with the break through but never quite- suc forward. It would certainly not be what the Americans and the ceeding. The river was imitating Traitor or dupe read the head- line of a leading article in a leading Bonn Manoeuvres Now that the dust has settled on, addition of West Hampstead (N.W. 6), can muster-only thirty-eight, and what was once the quarter inhabited by opulent artists, "St John's Wood Whistler and the towers of the Palace of Westminster looked enchanting. trade, the greater part of which is conducted by Dutch firms. All this forms one source of irritation. The second is that, as a nation offering raw materials in exchange for the manufactures it needs, it tends both Jakarta daily last July. The epithets referred to. Shaffruddin Prawirone- Canadians as well understand by convertibility. Are the sterling countries, then, prepared to take the the stormy debate in Bonn on the (N.W. 8). occurred only twelve times Gothic is the only style, of architec European Defence Treaty and the risk of dropping, within year or two. Contractual Agreements it begins to ture which the mist natters. Many motorists had brought their cars to to get the worst of the bargain and to in the list of addresses, one less than Wimbledon. Groups of artists are to be found in Bayswater (thirteen). Golders Green Blackheath become' clear what has happened. the special restrictions on imports from dollar sources It seems certain the City and West End, believing that the worst was over. Housewives were that they, will not go far along'1 The decision to put off once again the third and last reading of the bills was apparently the Chancellor's own. that road without- much more cleaning a layer of greasy grime that' coated every surface in the house. (ten), Hammersmith (ten), Highgate (seven); and Blcomsbury (five). Abstract Painters Charlotte Street and Fitzroy Square may. still be the haunts of assurance than they have now He got a clear majority on the second Fair-haired young women made reading and could presumably have that the external transactions of the United States itself will be gone straight on to steer the bills" through their final stage. Dr Adenauer artists, but few of them exhibit- mousey by the fog were mating appointments with hairdressers. Everybody had a fog story-to tell, just as everybody used to have a bomb story, "Fog lifting," said the "banners" of the evening papers. Before they were all sold the fo was coming "What a picnic You lost your your boat leaks and I'm not wearing a 'Sanforized' dress I Garments with this labal at the Royal Academy. In fact, the addresses in the catalogue evidently decided on the further delay so as to prevent still greater less unbalanced and more stable. The approach to the United States which everyone expects to follow the present London conference will not be a request for further help. The idea of an American Stabilisation goro, president of the then Java Bank (now the Bank of Indonesia) and long a leader in. the -struggle for independence, and were occasioned by the publication of the bank's annual report for 1951-2. The indictment was the first shot in a debate which made it clear that Shaffruddin's real crime was on the one hand to advise against credits to Indonesians who wished to venture into business, on the grounds that this was too expensive and would create a capitalist class and on the other to recommend that attractive terms be offered to foreign capitalists. Few discussed the facts he presented to support his thesis; most 'expressed their shock, disappointment, and indignation that an Indonesian could favour foreigners. A little later the Indonesian Nationalist party issued a statement which blamed the prevalent insecurity on foreign influences clearly referring to the Dutch. The document set forth the grounds, trivial as may be' a little misleading for demo delays in a few weeks' time. The be relatively more oepenaent on tne industrialised West than vice versa. Thus, as Dr Sumitro, the present Minister of Finance, pointed out in an article shortly before he assumed office: "During the last fifty years the price level of "raw -materials has fallen by 40 per cent compared to the price level of manufactured goods." And now the West manufactures some raw materials itself. Rubber, together with tin, accounts for 70 per cent of Indonesia's foreign exchange but its price depends on that for synthetic. To make the pill still more bitter, the rubber which sells best is that produced on the large European-owned plantations. The Indonesian "(namely, smallholders') rubber is of such poor quality that it is difficult to dispose of, even to Russia or China. And all rubber is remilled in Singapore! Quinine, in the production of which Java was -once predominant, has been ousted by better drugs. Add Karlsruhe Constitutional Court still graphic -purposes perhaps the artists down again. Some of us will not see of Hampstead are represented below SANFORIZED- SHRUNK FABRIC Fund, or rather of transforming the their true strength because they are more starkly non-representational our homes to-night: out tnere are worse places to be benighted in than Fleet Street possibly an address list of abstract painters would show a different distribution, for they do not. need cen Housewives' Labour has to give its ruling as to whether the treaties are legal under the Bonn Constitution, and the Chancellor decided on postponing the third reading in the Assembly so as to enable the- Government to put in its own appeal to the Court on this issue. The Social Democratic opposition had already decided to place the case trally situated studios as portrait can never shrink out of fit however often you wash and iron them litutd bv: "Sanforized?" Semes A Bressmots Street, Manchester 2. BLA 8489 existing International Monetary Fund to fill this role, will certainly be advanced. Without such an addition to monetary reserves the risks of convertibility will appear unduly heavy for several years to come. But the fun would be smoothing out instabilities in the American economy painters do and many seem to nave settled'in the country. Ren Nicholson is in Cornwall, Henry Moore in Hertfordshire, and Graham Sutherland in All the labour of women with hot water and well-wrung chamois has been in vain. "Never have I seen such grime since I left Manchester," said a Northern housewife this morning. Some dim memory stirred in her and she began her labours by cleaning the front doorstep. All our before the judges, but the Govern the dislocation of war, occupation, and they are. for the. accusation. It the Weald of Kent. Decorating Kensington itself as well as fluctuations in the out ment suspects that the Opposition recounted the sordid story of Wester- revolution, and Indonesia now relies put or prices of the non-dollar coun would use its appeal to engineer long ling's attempted coup, now two years on me west ior a pari oi us Dasic Most of the London boroughs will tries. Western Europe is to be brought foodstuffs the American trucks carry procedural delays. With the initia ago, the recent, confiscation in an find themselves in the same position THE GUARDIAN MANCHESTER TUESDAY DECEMBER 9 1952 tive in its own hands the Government cars will need cleaning. Light-coloured ones are several tones darker American rice. Industrialisation fully into the arrangements this time. It remains to be seen whether the London conference, like that at may be able to set the pace in this Indonesian port of arms being conveyed from Holland to Western New Guinea; and named three Dutchmen known to be operating with the Army of Islam in West Java. Just how the latter managed to obtain a So the politically conscious Indo as the royal borough of Kensington when they come to decide what they will do about decorations for the Coronation. Mr James Gardner, on being invited to plan the decorations, Ottawa twenty years ago, will be nesian, even if- not a nationalist followed by something like a World fanatic, can hardly be blamed for NEW DESIGN seeing his country as a dependent last phase. All this is understandable and perhaps justifiable. But what has given this latest manoeuvre of the West German Government a questionable aspect is the fact that the new appeal can apparently only be made to the second or "black" Economic Conference. We must bear in mind that time presses. The breath looked over the borough and saw that milch-cow of the industrial States, The outlines of a policy are begin he had to cope with a widespread area ing-space gained for sterling is partly having to produce more and more to obtain the same or less. Hence the move to industrialise. The need for in which about 180,000 people live. due to a decline in food and raw ning to emerge from the Commonwealth Economic Conference. It will It would be easv for anv scheme of armaments plavs almost no Dart in material prices which has gone on for many months and may one day reverse Chamber of the Constitutional Court, whereas the Opposition application this decision (though the fear of decoration he might evolve to be lost in more than two thousand acres of streets, so he decided to concentrate on decorating two main axes the was made to the first Chamber. There another war does), and certainly responsible opinion does not look have to deal with three main causes of unbalanced world trade. The first is the tendency of a group of Commonwealth countries, including our own, to let their ambitions outrun their are whispers that the second Chamber upon industrialisation as a Danacea. familiar High Street and Kensington Road and the less familiar (except to residents and students) Brompton and All that is wanted is a diversified economy, able to produce sufficient manufactured goods for its own needs from its own raw materials. Shaff is "more favourably disposed" to the Government case. This makes the Chancellor's move look unpleasantly like a political approach to and you can write your name with your finger on them. The icy ponds at Regent's Park and Hampstead seem to be covered with powdered graphite. It has been estimated that about three hundred tons of assorted chemicals are deposited throughout every square mile of this city over a period of twelve months, and a fair proportion of that must have fallen over the last three days. The great coal-burning electricity stations like Battersea and Fulham are trying hard to reduce the poisonous element out of what they call the smog by removing at least some of the sulphur dioxide in the chimneys, but the flues of Battersea are in a sorry state at the moment and the scrubbers are badly corroded. This means an even more choking atmosphere for1 down-wind, districts like Westminster. Filtering Fog In many cinemas the screens were obscured bv fog and the audience at Wells saw "Les Syiphides" like wraiths in the mist. Had it in fact been mist and not soot-laden London fog the effect would have itself. The stricter financial policy of the Conservative Government has been largely undermined by unexpectedly large Budget expenditure. We are not yet on firm ground. The Commonwealth Conference will be expected to open a path. Whether it will lead us out of our economic difficulties will not be known for some time. following of fanatical Moslems sufficient to form a force against which the Indonesian Army can so far do little was not explained. The declaration itself was probably no more than an attempt by the Nationalist party to recover some of its lost voting ground, but more important was the chorus of approval which greeted it, without criticism or evaluation. Mistrust These two unconnected incidents have been among the more striking manifestations of the underlying opinion about foreigners as a class that they are too wily to be trusted and full of sinister motives. The most suspect are distinguished visitors such as Quirino of the Philippines and MacDonald of Malaya. Just before the former paid his recent return courtesy, visit, certain quarters proposed he be refused entry lest he influence President Sukarno to join the-Pacific Pact Cromwell roads. There is to be a royal canopy or triumphal arch across Kensington Road at Palace Gate just west of the Royal Albert ruddin himself does not differ in this the Karlsruhe judges, whose whole basic aim of making the country less Hall. The boundaries of the royal dependent on the outside world borough will be marked with indeed, his argument holds that rather than spend foreign exchange, better have foreign firms produce goods in Indonesia. His opponents Trouble in Barbary illuminated pylons, lamp-posts will bear long banners and heraldic plaques, and there will be pennants on the top of the costs. Public buildings are to he decorated and flowers in window-boxes will be mattered wherever there is room for them. status and reputation depend upon their being outside the suspicion of coming under political influence. Dr Adenauer is resolved to do all in his power to ensure the successful" passage into law of the Defence Treaty and the Contractual Agreements, which are the keystones of his European policy, but he must realise that the future of democracy in Germany is also of the highest push past him to assert that Indonesians as a people must develop skill in industry and commerce, not remain tied to their traditional agriculture. conference to agree on definite domestic' policies by which these countries can be made to live within their means each Government represented here has to gain the consent of its own Parliament and public. But the need for more frugal conduct seems to have been more clearly recognised by the principal sinners, and action may follow. The second reason for the disruption of world trade is the cold war. With so many large markets closed to them the industrial countries of the non-Communist world must take deliberate steps to speed the development of resources and the raising of living -standards in order to maintain un this matter the maior political In spite of being a royal borough. parties Moslem. Nationalist, and Of course, interested parties capi Socialist agree. The first thing is to The trouble which has been endemic in Tunisia over the past year has now spread to Morocco. The latest outbreak of acts of violence in Tunisia attributable both to Tunisians and, it seems likely, to members of the French community culminated on Friday in the murder of the Tunisian labour leader M. Hached. Disturb I been quite pleasing. make Indonesians economicallv a however. Kensington is not going beyond fasonable limits in decorating itself. Stravinsky in Edinburgh talise this emotion. As one instance among many, the union of medical workers recently the Government to dispense with all foreign non- match for both the Europeans and the Audiences at the Roval Festival onmese. It is only when a verv large Hall, breathing washed and filtered air, seem to have come off best. On Sunday night several people described amount of capital is needed, or a cieany vital national interest is in specialist doctors by the end of this year; obviously not caring about the effects on their own disease-ridden consequence for Europe and indeed the world, and it is a first duty that its institutions shall not be discredited. The Karlsruhe Court can still show in its judgment that it stands outside all political attempts to manipulate it, but some damage has unfortunately already been done. question, that the State assumes The Edinburgh Festival for next year is already beginning to take shape and the first -of many leaflets has been published. It announces that it as the only togprooi place "London the engineers sav this is a ances in Tunis have now been people in this heavily under-doctored responsibility. Otherwise, through a number of agencies and in a number of ways, it extends credits and nrivi- followed by serious riots and a heavy loss of life in Casablanca. All this has slight exaggeration as a little fog did set in. but was unrecognisable country. In large part this virulent atti because it had been cleaned on its leges to Indonesians by origin." This happened just when the United tude expresses a resentment that wav through the ventilating plant. sovereignty has not meant Nations is being asked by a group of To-day mechanics were busy changing the filters which were wrecked by Arab and Asian countries to intervene The Coronation independence. Those who thought that they would now be able to approach the rest of the world as their laborious weeK-enas worK. the festival will be from August 23 to September 12 and is able to give some precise information about what will be offered to the visitors. The Glyndebourne Opera will give the first British stage performance of Stravinsky's "The Rake's Gioconda de Vito, Yehudi Menuhin, and Isaac Stern will perform in concerts to commemorate four centuries of the violin six orchestras the B.B.C. Symphony Orchestra, Where Artists Live equals find that in many spheres they still have to dance to the Western in the affairs of both protectorates. The knowledge that this debate was to be held has no doubt heightened tension in both countries and has made it difficult for the French and The artists of Chelsea have per piper, not only in their international relations but also at home. It is not suaded the Borough Council to pro vide studios for painters on top of the only that Dutchmen are still needed for a number of important posts in the the local Governments, to resume their negotiations. Whether it can be held new blocks of municipal flats. The first three studios will be occupied in a to account fully for the latest troubles. Public opinion has won a deserved victory on the televising of the Coronation ceremonies. There was little to be said for excluding (as the Coronation Joint Committee and the Coronation Commission originally proposed) millions of the Queen's subjects from a view of the impressive central ceremonies in the Abbey the Recognition, the Crowning, and the Homage. The B.B.C. should nave no difficulty in arranging to televise these ceremonies with dignity, and public respect as some French officials seem to is, cieariy, in part a transfer of the profits of the large European and the middling Chinese concerns to their weaker Indonesian rivals, and expresses the Indonesian view of the functions of foreign capital. Although a declaration of general policy is still awaited, its likely general lines can be deduced from the preceding considerations. The foreign capital most welcome will be that which helps to free Indonesia from foreigners; which produces not only raw materials but also finished goods which not only employs Indonesians as tappers of rubber and planters of tobacco but also trains them to be technicians and managers. What is not liked is action of the type taken, by a prominent oil firm, which drilled new wells in Sumatra but erected a refinery in the Philippines. The formal conditions have probably been foreshadowed by those laid down for foreign capital taking part in the (Continued on next page) Administration. The visions of a higher living standard which were and are held out before the people cannot be realised without capital, and what little there is (in relation to the country's needs) lies mostly in think, seems more questionable. No real progress has been made since the Philharmonla, the Vienna Philharmonic, the Rome Radio Symphony Orchestra, the Scottish National, and the National- Youth orchestras will provide the heavy music and the chamber music will be. given by the Barylli, Loewenguth, and Paganini string quartets. Kathleen Ferrier, wide markets for commerce. Thirdly, there is the problem of the dollar. In the last ten years or so the sterling area and Western Europe have become more than ever dependent on food and raw materials 'from dollar sources. While they have invested huge amounts in new industries the output of their farms and mines has hardly grown at all. It would not be fair to say that no attention was paid to the expansion of output in the sterling area, but the methods chosen, such as the groundnuts scheme or the bulk purchase contracts, were not entirely successful. We are now plainly faced with a revolt of several Commonwealth countries against further restrictions on their imports of dollar goods, and we have discovered that restrictive controls get more and more leaky the longer they are maintained. A new approach is imperative. It is heartening to find that the London conference has given its main attention to these production and development problems. Unless and until an expansion of output in the sterling area output of food and raw materials in most overseas countries, and of engineering goods in Britain is well under way all month or two. It has been said that the shortage of studios after the bombing and the increase of rents in the district are driving painters and sculptors away from Chelsea to Belsize Park, Paddington, Maida Vale, and other districts where there are large Victorian rooms which make Western hands. There is not yet enough Indonesian a year ago, when the French Government, for reasons which had more to do with its own internal divisions than with its North African policy, capital to nationalise the European Bruno Walter, and Elisabeth Schwarz concerns, and even if they were con reasonably good substitutes. The last Royal Academy catalogue does not fiscated there are not yet enough virtually rejected Tunisian requests kopf are among the singers engaged, and a Renoir exhibition will be the principal art event. trained Indonesians to run them for swifter steps towards internal suggest, however, that the night from The State itself depends on their exis The ballet and drama programmes Chelsea has proceeded far. for the Monarchy surely can only gain from public participation in thce acts. With this point conceded there should be no further dispute about the exclusion of the self-government. Concessions which tence about 40 per cent of its revenue are not yet hxed except that the bixty-six of the exhibitors give might have been accepted then are no Glasgow Citizens'' Theatre will do comes either from foreign enterprise or from indirect taxes on foreign addresses in S.W. 3 and twenty-seven in adjacent S.W. 10 (most of which can The Highland Fair." longer enough. The end of the United Nations debate may clear the air, but meanwhile the French Government Letters to the Editor THE TROUBLE IN KENYA has found itself able only to demand of the Bey of Tunis that he should discuss a plan of reform which he has already rejected and to maintain order at the cost of further bitterness. If the trouble should get more and more out of hand wherever the talk of "setting the pound free" is solemn rites of the Anointing, the Communion prayers, and the Administration of the Sacrament. It must be hoped that a complete record of these rites will none the less be made and shown later after editing. But on the main issue there has been too much avoidable disputation already. The Coronation Committee and Commission have made honourable amends for their early clumsiness and their seeming lack of consideration for the general public by lengthening the route of the Coronation procession and by their revised arrangements for television. The public should accept this as useless. What is required, moreover, is efficient output at low cost. Old- responsibility might lie France might find it increasingly difficult to established trade connections and currency union will continue to give press on me unuea naiiuiu strong legal case against outside some mutual advantages to Common' wealth goods, but wherever dollar products are much cheaper or better interference. The problems of both protectorates are extremely complicated and at first sight almost insoluble. French officials are quite justified in pointing or easier to get our overseas partners will object to any restrictions that prevent them from getting those evidence of good intentions and leave it at that. goods. A great deal of new equip ment is needed to raise output and cut costs. The development of natural A COUNTRY DIARY Cheshire, December 5. -resources requires large and continu ing supplies of capital. This is the The old watermill at Marbury. near that temper our judgment of those, who have had to do likewise in similar situations. Yours Peter Marsh. 20 Cranley Gardens, London S.W. 7, December 4. To the Editor of the Manchester Guardian Sir. It may be doubted whether Mr Crozier's allegory in the domestic context advances the inquiry. Comparisons between a homogeneous community with a long political tradition and a multi-racial community with none merely irritate the officials concerned without improving the situation and presentation in terms of black and white is indeed too naive. In practice, as the Labour Government found, the choice may lie in a depress-irigly small segment of the spectrum between dark grey and sable- Nevertheless, and despite the overriding necessity of restoring and maintaining order, policy in Kenya is open to grave criticism. Under pressure of war. and faced with sabotage, our late enemies resorted to the taking of hostages and collective punishment, and these acts were rightly felt at the time to be grossly repugnant. No end can justify such means. To many of people in the undeveloped territories of. America, Africa, India, and South-east Asia it will appear that such things have been done because, and only because, the victims were coloured and not possessed of political rights: Whether this is an over-simplification -of the position does not matter simple people have simple views. And who stands to gain Yours Gerald V. Tew. 10 Carlton Drive, London S.W. 15. December 4. crux of the Commonwealth problem. To the Editor of the Manchester Guardian Sir, In a letter in -your issue of to-day Mr Crozier puts the situation in Kenya into an English dress and attempts from that to prove that the restrictive actions of the Government in Kenya are all quite unjustified. however, his attempt to transpose the Kenya situation into an English background merely showed how blatantly absurd it is to think of the position out there in terms of our home scene. As Mr Crozier so truly says, such things are inconceivable in, England this should be extended to cover not merely the remedies but also the circumstances. Then his argument bears rather a different appearance. Mau Mau cannot happen in England 'because our tradition is that we as a community -would help actively to maintain law and order against the influence of such an organisation as Mau Mau. Until such a tradition can be instilled Into the Kikuyu any attempt to think of remedies in the terms of could we do it here must be utterly unrealistic and perhaps even dangerous to the men on the spot. In Kenya the officials have a duty not only to the whites but also to those Africans who are ahead of their fellows and are risking their lives in 'remaining loyaL If un-English methods alone will suffice then we must use un-English methods. But let no one tell me that this is the same -as allowing any brutalities. A final hope is that the situation in Kenya may give us a better understanding of the problems which face the Governments in Southern Africa, whom we are perhaps too prone to condemn without full knowledge. We have had to use force against the Africans: let "PEACE" To the Editor of the Manchester Guardian Sir, Outside the Friends' Meeting House in Mount Street, Manchester, there is a poster of considerable size which displays as froni Thomas a Kempis this sentence All men desire peace, but few demand the things that make for peace." From various indications in the same neighbourhood and from the odd rendering of the Latin curant by demand," I surmise that the poster has a quasi-political purpose, being designed to promote the pacifist movement. I need not tell you that Thomas a Kempis was the least political of men, concerning himself wholly with otherworldly, spiritual matters, so that it is strange to find him on a poster of this sort. The sentence quoted is in the 25th chapter of the third book of the Imitation," that chapter being concerned not with any sort of political peace but with "peace of heart." It begins thus My son, I have said Peace I leave to you, my peace I give to you not as the world gives, do I give to you' (John xiv.27). Peace is what all desire but all do not care for those things which belong to true peace. My peace is with the humble and meek of heart in irfuch patience shall your peace be." And so the chapter. goes on, remaining throughout on the plane. I submit that this- poster gives the- authpr's teaching a wrong direction 'and is in effect a travesty, of it. Youprs Justin McCanh. St Mary's Priory, Buttermarket Street. Warrington, Dec. 3. BLACKPOOL TEACHERS To the Editor of the Manchester Guardian Sir, May I draw Your attention to the article in the "Manchester Guardian" on November 29 with the title "Blackpool Teachers' The article contained a reference to the Burnham Technical Award of last ApriL" In fact the Burnham Technical Award came into force on April 1951. and our grievance is the failure of Blackpool to implement the award within a reasonable time. Many of vour readers must have Northwich. is still in active use, as it has Can we induce the sterling countries been since the end of the fourteenth century or possibly earlier. In the last two that are aiming at rapid development to slow down their pace to the rate of or three decades three other water-mills capital which Britain can provide, with such additions as the United to the economic achievements of French rule and in reminding the local Nationalists that the full independence they demand would most likely be illusory. But it is this very economic progress, unaccompanied by an equally swift advance in political self-government, that must be reckoned among the chief causes of the present trouble; and such arguments are not likely to have any effect on the surge of Arab nationalism, helped as it is by the example of Arab countries that are independent though more backward. Lately the autocratic rulers of Tunisia and Morocco have tended to identify themselves with the nationalist movements in their countries and to demand democratic constitutions as well as full sovereignty. But although the Nationalists have THE PRAGUE TRIAL To the Editor of the Manchester Guardian Sir, Discussions about the "real" name of a man are always unpleasant. Under normal conditions it is an absolutely private affair when somebody decides to ask the authorities for permission to change his (or her) name. Yet under communism even this becomes a matter of political significance. I trust, therefore, that you will allow me to correct some mistakes in your otherwise excellent reports of the Prague trial. Rudolf Slansky (this is his real name) never joined a Sudeten German Communist party." He is a Czech Jew, coming from an entirely Czech surrounding. Reicin was not born Friedrich Reisman but Fritz Reitzin. Karel Svab is not a "Slovak peasant." The indictment, carefully differentiating between "persons of Jewish origin and Czechs," called him a Czech of working-class origin." Otto Sling was not born Schlesinger but Schling. From the point of view of aliases the most interesting of the defendants is the man called Arthur London. The only thing which is above doubt in connection with him' is that London is not his real name. Sometimes (but not during the trial) his name was given as Gerard or Kolanda, neither-of the two being possibly his real name. It might be, as you state, that this man lived in Britain during the war, but nothing of this kind was said or indicated during the Prague trial. The past (real and invented) activities of thirteen defendants were discussed in Prague in great detaiL The man called London was the sole exception. It was revealed only that he lived in France in 1940 and then again after the war' until the end of 1948. It seems most probable that the court was ordered not to go too deep into this matter in order to avoid an unmasking of the pre-war Comintern spy net Yours Brdegel. 65 Beaufort Park, London N.W. 11. Nov. 28. RAILWAY MICE To the Editor of the Manchester Guardian Sir, I was Interested to read the paragraph-, in "Miscellany" to-day entitled "Beserved for Mice." Travelling from i Manchester to Chinley a few months ago I felt something run across my knee. I jumped up and sat on the opposite seat and saw a mouse looking at me from the corner of the one I had vacated. I was disappointed when the furry little animal disappeared I put some biscuit crumbs on the floor but it failed to return in spite of the bait Yours D.P. Chinley, December 5. States and the World Bank are willing to make Or can we in this country make a great effort to consume less and save more for a few years so as to finance those Commonwealth developments that will secure our livelihood in the future? Obviously the solution will have to include some thing of both these propositions Unless the United States suddenly not far from my house have stopped work, but the brooks that tamed their wheels still flow To some of us, who are perhaps not qualified to judge. It seems strange that this source of power should be allowed to run to waste. In the rafters of the old mill several ledgers were recently discovered. One of them, dated 1852-4. gives some idea of the price and quality of flour and feeding stuffs a hundred years ago. Flour of the highest quality was" supplied to the squire, J. H. Smith-Barry, at Mar-bury Hall. There was evidently a big rise in price during these years. French flour, the dearest quality, rose from 42s to 72s a load, superfine flour from 32s to 64s. and oneway flour (whatever that may have been) cost 46s a load in 1833. The farm and stableyard accounts dealt with bean flour, split beans, pease, oats, meal, and the like. Few other customers bought the dearest flour. Barley flour, which rose from 2s to 5s a bushel, may still have been used for bread as in the eighteenth century. There was no waste. "Randan." a very fine kind of bran, was In good demand at Is a score arid was still used in thermemory of some of my neighbours. It was little more, in some cases, than the mill sweep decides to multiply the outflow of EYESIGHT AND DRIVING TESTS offered to keep up certain ties with France they are not prepared to give political rights to French and other European settlers, some of whose families have been in North Africa for several generations and whose share in the economic life of both with little administrative cost. by ensuring that if a An did ate for the countries cannot be left out of account. The settlers, for their part, have dollar capital the Commonwealth will not have enough capital to finance all the desirable development plans on which its members have set their hearts. This gap will not be bridged by the list of projects which the conference has had before it A carefully sifted and graded list will be highly useful but, like the Colombo Plan, it will merely serve to. allocate a reduced amount of to the most productive schemes. Compared with the problem of capital the problem of convertibility is of secondary importance. Shorn of technicalities, convertibility means that a man. who holds pounds can buy To the Editor of the Manchester Guardian Sir, Your leading article on November 29 on the submission of medical certificates with applications for driving licences raises very wide issues, especially in view of the additional legislation necessary and the administration of any such scheme. Both the Taculty of Ophthalmologists and the Association of Optical Practitioners have expressed their concern about this in recent months, and although they do not ask for more restrictive legislation it i obvious that something should be done to ensure that those in charge of motor vehicles are completely fit to be so. The Motor Schools Association Is of the opinion that a start could be made, driving test needed to wear spectacles to pass the simple eyesight1 test, this is recorded on subsequent licences, issued. If this were done, the police, when taking particulars after an accident, could ascertain whether or not a driver should have been wearing spectacles at the time, or, in other words, whether or not the driver was protierly equipped to be in charge of the vehicle. Yours J. S. Grant Roberts ok. The Motor Schools Association, 8 New College Parade. Finch-, ley Road, London N.W. December 4. mostly resisted all conciliatory measures. A compromise such as the institution of dual citizenship might perhaps have a chance of being formed the impression that the awprd was dated April, 1952, and wondered what all the fuss was about. We venture to hope, therefore, that you will be kind enough to let us exolain tht the serious taken, bv the N.U.T. and the A.T.T.L is due to the inordinate delays in implementing a national award. Blackpool as the sorry tinction of being the only authority in the country-in this position. Yours R- -I. Hawker. Hon. Secretary. Blackpool -Branch, Association of. Teachers in Tech- nical Institutions. December 4. accepted. But the French Govern ings, but meal siftins (sittings) supplied to one customer in 1852 at 6d a score must have been the final sweepings: the same buyer also took at 6d a score several lots of "seedes," which apparently were the husks of oats left after grinding, and seems to have made good with what he coujd ment, suffering from the strains of coalition and of divided Ministerial responsibility, has scarcely been 1UU1U. A. VY. Ot

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