The Guardian from London, Greater London, England on June 8, 1938 · 8
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The Guardian from London, Greater London, England · 8

London, Greater London, England
Issue Date:
Wednesday, June 8, 1938
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s THE MANCHESTER GUARDIAN WEDNESDAY, JUNE 8, 1938 Selfridge & Co., Ltd. (Editorial Rooms), London. NOTE This space is occupied iery day by an artieJ 3 fleeting the policies, principle, and opinions of tnl ausa of Business upon various point or public Interest. - SELFBIDOE & CO . LTD. THE QUICK, ENERGETIC STEP By CALL1STHENES " Watch your step ! " runs the admonition to those who, venturing on congested highways, carry their Iives literally in their feet. " Watch your step ! " we would like to suggest to all who care how the world appraises them. For there is nothing which more reveals the character of a man than his manner of walking. One either strides through life purposefully and deliberately, or merely ambles thoughtlessly along. One's gait is unconsciously attuned either to the lively rhythm of a brisk mentality, or it reflects the more leisurely tempo of the pedestrian's mind. The quick, energetic step tells of a quick wit, a fresh, alert, and observant outlook, each step an assurance that here is one to whom procrastination is abhorrent. The mind of a man may be an unknown quantity, but his gait reveals or betrays him. These thoughts were suggested to the writer as he observed the other day the quick, energetic, happily elastic step of one of the not-so-youthful "young men" of this House who occupies an increasingly responsible position among its executives. It was a pleasure to watch his movements, for they revealed a boundless energy, an evident joy in his work. Here was no suggestion of hesitancy or fear fear of criticism, fear of the years that marched on inexorably. On the contrary, every movement of the not-so-young executive suggested a desire to get where he was going as quickly as possible, yet with a dignity of mien and movement that won from the writer a glance of admiration and respect. This association of a man's step with the brightness of his mind appropriately recalls the interest now displayed in the influence of music upon happiness and output. It has been shown that workers make fewer mistakes, turn out a better article, and carry out their duties with greater zest when working to the music of wireless or gramophone. A phase of industrial welfare in which the psychologists are continually experimenting, it has much in common with the alert, quick-moving executive whose ways we admire. He moves to the music of his active brain, his gait reflecting his own mental harmony. Selfridge &. Co., Ltd. "TEXO" COMPOUND 13 STILL THE BEST FOR ALL LEAKY ROOFS It has withstood the test ot time. List and all particulars from BAX EN DALES, :: Miller Strcet THE GUAMJDIA.N MANCHESTER, WEDNESDAY, June S, 193S TO-DAY'S PAPER SPECIAL ARTICLES The Title (by J. Lansdale Hods on) 18 The Decline of Donkeys 9 The Changing North Wales Coast 5 Saturday Competition : " Another Faithful Failure " "8 Bridge (by Goulash) S Unpremeditated Holiday 6 Review of Broadcasting 10 Wireless Notes and Programmes 2 CORRESPONDENCE General Franco's Foreign Allies (Lord Glasgow) 18 Free Speech (Rev. T. Wigley) 15 Churches in Spain (Mr. A. W. Brady) 18 The Corncrake (Mr. W. B. Redmayne and others) Literary Borrowings (Mr. H. M. Wallis) 18 Sports Gear Appeal (Mr. G. Holgate) 18 Money for the Scouts' Fund (Mr. G. L. R. Joynson) 18 The Gore Brook (Rev. R. S. Hawkins) ..: 18 HOME Polling takes place to-morrow in the Stafford by-election. A close result is predicted. (10) Unemployment increased last month by 31,000. (9 & 12) Opposition to dilution of labour was expressed at yesterday's meeting of the National Committee of the AJE.U. (10) An emergency resolution calling for the establishment of a peace alliance of political parties in order to defeat the National Government is to be discussed at the Co-operative Congress at Scarborough Jto-day. (12) Mr. H. G. C. Mallaby, head master of St Bees School, has been appointed district commissioner for the special area of West Cumberland, in place of Mr. E. G. Sarsfleld-HalL who is resigning. (9 The suggestion was . made at the commercial travellers' uornerence .yesterday that all trains, trams, and buses should be fitted with safety glass. A resolution in favour of special courts' for motoring offences was rejected. (12) The British Legion yesterday adopted a resolution urging the promotion of friendly relations among nations by the interchange of .visits, in which the rank and file would be included. - (13) It was urged at the Sons of Temperance Conference yesterday that when a motorist . was' proceeded against for being drunk action, should also be taken yWJth'S 41wfiperatlori of Manchester's; new one-way traffic scheme on a business day yesterday there was a great hold-up of trams, and later it was decided to make some minor modifications in the scheme. (11) Awards of Kitchener scholarships for i3 are announce a. Lancashire were beaten by Yorkshire at Bradford and are now third in the county cricket championship. (4) Somerset and Warwickshire gained brilliant victories over Gloucestershire and Derbyshire respectively. (4) Spot cotton at Liverpool yesterday was 3 points cheaper at 4.40d. for middling American, and futures were 4 to 3 points lower. In New York spot cotton was maintained at 7.89c, and futures " were unchanged to 4 points down. (16) FOREIGN Canton was raided three times yesterday. The power station has been put out of action and last night the city was in darkness. (9 & 13) A Japanese spokesman said yesterday that Japan would bomb "with even greater vigour to make the Chinese realise the futility of their present attitude." (9) Three British ships were bombed during rebel air raids on Spanish ports yesterday. (9) The aeroplane carrying R.A.F. boxers, which was missing for 21 hours, has been found in a jungle in the Northern Transvaal. There is little hope that the occupants will be found alive. (9) The Polish minority in Germany has sent a memorandum to the German Government complaining that it is not getting the lair treatment promised it by Hitler. (13) EUROPE AND THE BOMBER The nrotests of Governments and the rising popular feeling have so far done little to restrain those who of set purpose or through a shameful carelessness are brutally attacking civilian populations from the air. In China Canton's sufferines are in- creased as the Japanese bombers daily attack the city "with ven geance and success." In Soain indis criminate raids continue, while in the last few days there have been new outrages whose object seems to be something much more than the Spanish war and for which General Franco himself is only doubtfully responsible. But world opinion, if properly roused and directed, may still be powerful enough to gain some relief for these humble people whose only part in war is to be killed. For this opinion to be formed it is necessary to present plain, uncoloured facts, and this is the nresent purpose of the British Govern ment. The British Minister in Spain has already visited the stricken town of Granollers. rebels claim to have discovered so manv "military objectives." His report is now in the hands of the Government ; it states that although there were a few factories and an aerodrome on the outskirts there was no military objective in the centre of the town, where most of the casualties were inflicted. No further evidence than this given by a high and responsible official in British service is required to establish the guilt of the Granollers bombing, but it is clear that such a report cannot always be obtained conveniently. The British Government's plan for the future is that a small independent commission should be set up which will reside somewhere on the other side of the French frontier. Immediately an attack is made on an open town it will enter Spain, inspect the damage, find whether there were any military objectives to justify the raid, and issue its findings at once in the form of an open report. These reports would be made on the observers' own authority and would not commit the Governments to any line of action. But the facts that such a neutral commission brought to light would be material on which world opinion could be formed without anv fear of being deceived. The United States. Norway, and Sweden have already been approached, and although the United States reply has not yet been received the two Scandinavian countries have informed the British Government that thev are willing to supply observers. This is only one further example of the way in which these small countries in the North of Europe, models of enlightened government in themselves, have willingly accented international responsibilities. There are countries which have forgotten they have duties to all peoples as well as to their own and that the world can only be well regulated with the help of all the nations in it. No countries can less be charged with such forgetfulness tnan those of bcandinavia. Time and again they have assisted the common cause; it will be remembered that in the difficult matter of the Saar plebiscite' Swedish troops helped to keep the peace during the polling. It is not as though such good work was done without some sacrifice, for Scandinavia is not some hannv isle far from the dangerous currents of European policy. These countries are right on the edge of Europe, and thev might have been tempted to avoid touching any of its troubles and to preserve complete isolation a policy which would have been of small service to humanity. The British scheme for organising world opinion against the hideous cruelty of the Spanish bombing' has been greatly strengthened by the favourable replies sent from Norway and Sweden. While in the last week Britain and France have been discussing plans for humanising the war in Spain, angrily derided by Germany and Italy who once claimed that they were eager to assist . in this very work, they have been faced bv new and sinister problems. After the sinking of three British ships Britain sent another, stronger protest to General Franco declaring that these attacks had been deliberate. The rebel reply was that they regretted these attacks and had demanded a full inquiry. Since then the British tanker Maryad has been bombed and set on fire at Alicante, the St. Winifred (5,775 tons) has been fired in the same port, while three more British ships and a Dutch vessel were attacked at Alicante and Valencia yesterday. Several British seamen have-been killed and more injured. It can hardly be believed that General Franco, immersed in the difficulties of fighting a resolute enemy, pursues this policy of his own will ; it is pretty clear that he cannot control his airmen, who are not Spaniards. The same can be said of the provocative Sights made by rebel 'planes over the French frontier with the object of destroying a power station and a railway line. General Franco himself can have no wish to offend two Great Powers, and, in spite of his formal responsibility, it is obvious that the attacks on British shipping and on the French frontier are made by forces almost entirely outside his control. The methods which were employed at sea during the "piratical" campaign ended by Franco-British firmness at Nyon have been transferred to the air. Now, as then, the object is to hasten the defeat of the Spanish Government by a " blockade " which will cut it off from all supplies, whether borne by land or by sea. Bigger Battleships On February 5 this year the British, French, and United States Governments formally asked Japan to deny or to confirm the reports that she is building battleships above the 35,000-ton limit to which the three Powers (but not Japan) were restricted by the London Naval Agreement of 1936. As Japan refused to give the infor mation desired, the British and United States Governments, after allowing a period for second thoughts, invoked the escalator clause of the London treaty on April 2, thus declaring their freedom to do likewise. The French Government, less concerned with the Pacific, stated that it would not avail itself of the opportunity. Since then the British and United States Governments have been engaged in discussing what new limit they should set for battleship con struction. If, as is generally assumed, Japan is building ships of 40,000 tons or over, should Britain and the United States go to 45,000 tons or rest content with 40,000 ? And should they install 18-inch guns instead of the 16-inch gun previously accepted as the maximum ? American naval authori ties were inclined to build the biggest battleships that would go through the Panama Canal and even fancied the 18-inch gun ; British authorities, on the other hand, would have been quite satisfied with a limit of 42,000 or even 40,000 tons and had no liking for the 18-inch gun. Agreement, it is said, has now been reached: 45,000 tons and the 16-inch gun. As 45,000 tons is generally said to be the limit for any battleship which must pass through the Panama Canal and as recent tests are said to have shown the 18-inch gun to be an unsatis factory weapon, the United States seems to have had its way. On. the other hand, Britain is clearly not bound to match the American Navy unless she so desires. ior both countries (as also for Japan) the decision will mean increased expenditure. Even a battle ship of 35,000 tons costs about 7,000,000 to build in this country and about 14,000,000 in the United States. A 45,000-ton ship will probably cost the United Stales nearly 18,000,000 and ourselves about 9,000,000. Even in these' days of frenzied rearmament. when no one bothers to question the cost, it is an enormous sum. It is much harder to say whether the im-ieaseu expenditure will give greater efficiency. The "perfect battleship" is a nice proportion of guns, armament, and speed, and though naval experts have tended to express the view that the bigger the battleship the easier it is to reach the perfect balance, they do not consider 45,000 tons to be much better than 35,000 tons for this purpose. British experts, moreover, have recently concentrated on the 14-inch gun, which is said to have been greatly improved in their hands. Now these designs will have to be scrapped for the 16-inch gun, which is the peculiar pride of American naval designers. That, however, hardly matters: we are not competing against the United States. It is much more exasperating to consider that we still do not know for certain whether Japan is in fact building ships of over 35,000 tons, though she will certainly do so now. It is still possible, though unlikely, that she is really concentrating on building bigger cruisers, in which case our money and energies might be wasted. It is some consolation to know that the big cruiser (that is, of 10.000 tons and over) is considered to be of doubtful value in naval warfare. But so, the sceptic might add, with his eye on aerial weapons, is the big battleship. Traffic, Rural and Urban A great public holiday puts the road-user on bis mettle. He sets out with a salutary fear of congestion and keeps himself better attuned for emergencies than on normal days. The fact accounts for the, relatively low accident rate on such holidays as Whit Monday, when millions of motorists and cyclists are abroad upon our still inadequate roads. The driver speeding lonely and carefree on an apparently unencumbered highway is more likely tobe involved in accident than when he is surrounded by anxious fellow-travellers, and the statistician is not surprised to find that the days of mass movement are not the days of high casualty rate. But this Whitsuntide the relative freedom from accident has been so great as to suggest that the millions spent on road improvement and the ceaseless campaign of education in road sense are having their effect. Pressure on the roads has been greater than ever. An A.A. patrol-box on the London-Clacton road reported that at one time on Monday cars were passing at the rate of 3,500 an hour. The figure for Mere Corner in Cheshire, where the Liverpool-London and Manchester-North Wales roads cross and which is usually at such times the second busiest spot on our highways, can have been little less. Yet the reports from skilled observers throughout the country suggest a welcome access of care, courtesy, and common sense on the part of road-users. The advantage of the dual carriageway separated by a central strip over other forms of road construction has been well proved, and the value of the new cycle tracks is put beyond doubt. A considerable experiment in the handling of city traffic has been begun in Manchester, with mixed results. The one-way system is familiar in most great cities, but to devote a mile on two parallel main arteries to oneway movement is exceptional. The experiment with Oxford Street and Upper Brook Street has been started only after a full Ministry of Transport inquiry, and many of the hitches that have marked its start will be overcome. But it has reminded us sharply that the fixed-rail tram-car, however valuable the economic part it plays in transport, is an extremely intractable vehicle under modern traffic conditions. At the rush hour of yesterday morning as many as seventy trams in line could be seen motionless on Oxford Road awaiting a chance to continue , their journeys. Their paralysis was in part caused by the increased mobility of the rest of the traffic, which, overtaking them on the off side, passed in procession across the bows of the leading tram that was waiting to make a rightward turn. The annoyance of tram passengers, no doubt, was not lessened by their realising the greater freedom that had been achieved for railless traffic. In the upshot a portion of the one-way system had to be restored to two-way use. It is clear that a tram-dominated city is not the ideal one for such a system, but the scheme must be given a fair trial, and adjustment at a number of detailed points should greatly improve it. Diminishing Donkeys That we should ever live to see the donkeys of this island diminish is a proposition that would have been scouted with extreme derision by Carlyle and other philosophers who affect contempt for the intelligence of their fellow-citizens. But, as an article which we publish to-day points out, there appears to be no doubt that the real donkey, the four-footed and often derided beast of burden which is civilisation's degenerate version of that usually much finer and more handsome creature the wild ass of the East, has so far decreased in numbers that it is hard to find any place in this island where the animal is now bred. If donkeys were needed, donkeys would be forthcoming; their decline can only be attributed to lack of demand. Miniature motor-cars banging about on a shore fairground have possibly brought relief to the backs of donkeys that were once urged over the crowded sands ; small carts are drawn by small ponies that breed themselves on the moors of the West Country. So the donkey quietly recedes from the scheme of things, and, since there are no wild ones in this country to replenish the stock, extinction would seem the end of the process apart from man's intervention as stud- Keeper or importer. Yet the aged Queen Victoria used to take the air in a donkey-carriage, and Chesterton has a well-known reminder nf hnw the same derided creature had its hour : One far fierce hour and sweet; There was a shout about my ears And palms before my feet. 1 I hat poem was addressed to "The Donkey " and not to the ass. Yet the very word "donkey" is of doubtful and, as words go, of exceedingly recent origin. It was not seen in print before the slang dictionaries of the end "of the eighteenth century, and in 1804 Mrs. Barbauld admitted un certainty about the right spelling of the word eves though the animal itself had its "fashionable function at Tunbridge Wells. "Donkey" has since expelled "ass"; and now the little beast with the mysterious name is threatened with mysterious extinction. PROFESSOR FREUD Professor Sigmund Freud, : who has arrived in this country from Vienna,- has been given permUtion for. an unlimited M stay by the Home Office.' "" Dr. Ernst Freud, one of Ms ton, said yesterday that they were very grateful for his having been allowed to take refuge in London. .. , . OUR LONDON CORRESPONDENCE LONDON, Tuesday Night Unrest in Jamaica It is probable that when the Cabinet meets on Wednesday of next week it will receive a report about the labour troubles in Jamaica. The present unrest in that island, which follows earlier troubles in Trinidad and Barbados, has given the Colonial Office a big problem to settle, and Mr. Malcolm MacDonald, Lord Harlech's successor, is anxiously concerned with the matter. The immediate object of the Acting Governor of Jamaica is to restore j order, but when that is done the main tasks of the British Government will only be beginning namely, to get a thorough account of the present labour position in the islands and to. survey the economic position of the West Indies. Problems of labour will be investigated by Major Orde Brown, the new Labour Adviser to the Colonial Office, who, according to present plans, will leave for the West Indies in the autumn. "The method of treating the other problem has yet to be settled, but it is possible that the Government may send out a Commission to make an economic survey. The Plight of the West Indies The economic problem of the West Indies is extremely complicated and bad conditions of labour and low wages are only a symptom of a more general distress. Several members of the House of Commons, including Mr. Creech Jones, Mr. Ben Riley, and Mr. J. de Rothschild, have suggested from time to time that more accurate statistics should be obtained if a true picture is to be got of the possibilities for expanding the trade of the islands and for providing a higher standard of life. At present some of the islands, and notably Jamaica, have a large population which it is not always easy to employ.- The two largest exports from Jamaica are bananas, the production of which this year was described by Mr. MacDonald as being in " a reasonably satisfactory condition," and sugar, which is subject to the rigorous control of the International bugar Agreement. It is difficult to see how exports can be expanded, and home demand cannot be stimu lated until more money is paid :n wages. The Austrian Debt The news that Germany has defaulted on the service of two Austrian loans, one 1933-53 and the other 1934-59, is an aid to the interpretation of the statement put out on June 1 to dispel the fears that the financial negotiations in Berlin between Britain and Germany had broken down. That statement admit ted that the two sides did not see eye to eye about the Austrian debt, but explained that the return home of Sir Frederick Leith-Ross and his delegation was a holiday interruption and not a sign of failure. This is still the official view of the matter, for no change has yet been made on this side in the plan to resume the talks after the holidays. Yesterday's announcement by the trustees of the two loans of Germany's failure to furnish funds is not, how ever, likely to facilitate the negotia tions. The Freethinkers' Conference The International Congress of the World Union of Freethinkers, whose meeting here in September has created such a pother, is being held in England at the invitation of four organisations, the Ethical Union, the South Place Ethical Society, the National Secular Society, and the Rational Press Association. It has been described as an anti-God congress, but it will actually be a gather ing of people who do not believe in orthodox Christianity. It will discuss such subjects as science and the churches, the struggle for peace and liberty, secular morality, schools, and freedom of thought. M. jidouard Wernot will be president of honour of the congress and people are coming in a representative capacity from most European countries, including Holland, France, Czecho-Slovakia, and two representa tives from Russia. The German repre sentatives will be exiled members of the Freefhought organisations, which have been suppressed and had then- money confiscated by the German Government. It has been pointed out MEASURING TIME BY TREES New Science from United States From our London Correspondent Fleet Street, Tuesday. Those who attend the summer school of the Men of the Trees at Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford, from July 16 to 21 will hear , a paper on dendrochronology, and if they do not (know yet what the name means they are no more ignorant than everybody else in England except a . few scientists. For dendrochronology is a science only ten years old, and so far hardly explored at all outside the United States, where it was originated oy rroiessor xsougias ai tne university of Arizona. Everybody knows that the age of a tree can be told by the concentric rings seen in a cross section Of its trunk. Professor Douglas has carried this much farther by studying the rings in timber used in ancient buildings, so much so that he has now been able to build up a synthetic tree core representing two thousand years of growth. From this he has been able to discover important facts about climate, notably the cyclical recur rence .of droughts, and to establish principles which, it is hoped, will one day enable scientists to Tfotell climatic changes many, years ahead. In addition his new sdence . of dendrochronology, or the ;tteasure- mentr of time by trees, offers to instrument to archaeology. A -piece of timber taken from a'newly discovered prehistoric -building "can, if it is less, than 2,000 years old, -be By PRIVATE IwiRE ti!if imiiirn similar organisations here tUa ttVasftiraiotif organisations on the Continent have usually been closely associated with political organisation. When the congress met in .tragus two years ago Ihe leaders were granted full and formal honours ana were even received by the President. They could not expect such special recognition in a country, such as this, where a variety of international conferences are held every year, but they will appreciate the status of the British supporters. Among them are Mr. Bernard Shaw, Mr. Bertrand Russell, Mr. H. W. Nevinson, Mr. J. A. riobson, Mr. 1. i. wens, ana Mr. Somerset Maugham. The P.E.N. Club Dines Professor Gilbert Murray and Mr. Jan Masaryk, the Czecho-Slovak Minister in London, were guests of honour to-night at the P.EJJ. Club dinner at Pagani's Restaurant. Mr. Masaryk had left Prague this afternoon and flown to London to welcome the P.E.N. Club members who are attending the International P.E.N. Club conference which is to be held in Prague on the last four days, of this month. He wanted them, among other things, to be sure to look at the collection of Prague baroque in Prague, which he thinks is the loveliest in the world. Mr. Nevinson, who presided, gave two pieces of good news. The P.E.N. Club in Barcelona has been resusci tated under the presidency of the man whn hpld that, nosition before the rebellion, and the Chinese P.E.N. Club has also been revived, though its home is now in Hong-Kong. He paid eloquent tribute to Professor Murray and "congratulated the company on the presence of Miss Elizabeth Robins, "the greatest actress I have ever seen," he said, "when she was in Ibsen." There was a certain constraint about the speeches since as part of an international organisation the P.E.N. Club does not touch on politics, but Professor Murray spoke of the renaissance which he believed was being brought about by the fact that some of the most learned, gifted men in the world were being driven out from their own countries and were carrying their great gifts to far-off lands. The Tortoise Marches On At least one Mediterranean industry continues to flourish in spite of the present troubles. That is the export trade in tortoises. The dealers here are receiving supplies sufficient to meet a demand which has remained fairly constant over a long period. The tortoises are caught in the deserts of Northern Africa and shipped, usually from Casa Blanca, travelling no longer in casks a practice stopped by reasonable protests, but hi crates holding about a hundred. The season for them is well on its way and will end with the hot-weather period, after which people do not care to spend from 9d. to 3s. 6d. for a pet that will so soon become a sleeper. One can buy them from animal shops, from stalls in markets or streets, or from hawkers at the door, who polish up the shells with oil till they look beautiful. There is at least one man in the heart of London who sells them from a barrow throughout the season. A great many people buy tortoises for their children, and gardeners like them because, although they have a liking for greenstuff, they make, up for their depredations by devouring grubs and other pests. Kindly folk provide their tortoises with winter quarters and greet their awakening in the spring, but thousands of owners are so careless that they leave them to dig themselves in and never see them again. Pets' Corner in Moscow Probably none of the multitude of children of all ages who are enjoying the Children's Corner in the London Zoo this week knew of the pioneer work in another zoo of an unknown Russian girL As a child of thirteen. Vera Chaplina visited the Moscow Zoo daily after her school hours, and stayed there so long that she attracted the attention of Professor MonteifeL the principal naturalist there. He offered her a post as a junior assistant, which she eagerly accepted. A few years ago she started her experiment on the " Green Platform," as the Moscow "pets' corner" is called, with three cubs of different species, and she gradually introduced new specimens. compared with Professor Douglas's synthetic tree core, and its date thereby established to within a few years. Professor Douglas's paper, which he will deliver in person, will be the scienunc peak oi tne summer school's programme, but there is much that is interesting in the rest of tha mureo Experts are to talk to the-delegates on such varied but relevant subjects as fruit, tree roots, and soil conditions, national parks, tree planting in cities (Mr. J. Richardson. Manchester's Director of Parks,-will "contribute the paper on this), the. com mercial uses oi wood, tree portraiture, tree genetics (narticularlv tht harm ing of tree growth by cross-pbllina-turn).- and forestry as a solution of unemployment promem for the imrtKiiica worKer. . At least three papers are to be read on this last subject. Dr. F. O. Darvall will describe the work done in the United States, where 300,000 unemployed people have been put to reafforestation work. Mr. Rolf Gardiner wm laus arxmt iorestry policy, in Germany, and finally Mr. St. Barbe Baker, the founder of the Men of the wju pnt iorwara tus own plan for absorbrng 20,000 of the unskilled unemoloved info affnicbiKAii areat-Britain. Mr., Baker what he Is talking nhrmt fm. -1, . much . a anvhrtrfv (nflnMi - ReosevdrW"starr- the 'American1 scheme and has watched its progress closely throughout. COURT & PERSONAL , THEQVEEN STAYS INDOORS " " . WITH A COLD Although the Queen has cancelled her immediate engagements because of her-cold, it was stated yesterday that she will go to Glyndebourne, Sussex, on the evening of Saturday. June" 25, to see Verdi's opera "Macbeth." It is emphasised that the cold is of. a very slight character. The Queen' is to remain indoors at. Royal Lodge, Windsor Park, as a precautionary measure. THE KING AND THE ALDERSHOT TATTOO The King will take the salute on tho last performance of the Aldershot Tattoo on Saturday, June 18. On Friday the salute will be taken by. Queen Mary, ami on Friday, June 17, by the Duke oi Gloucester. THE PRINCESSES TAKE THE SALUTE Princess Elizabeth and Princess Margaret took the salute at a daylight rehearsal of the Aldershot Tattoo at the Rushmoor Arena yesterday. It was to have been taken -by the Queen, but she was unable to attend owing to a slight cold. The two Princesses stood In the royal box as the performers saluted. On their arrival the Princesses had been driver, slowly past thousands of children who cheered wildly. They walked to the royal box along a gangway lined by men ot the 1st Battalion Scots Guards and 2nd Battalion Cheshire Regiment, who provided the royal picket " Sitting on either side of Lieutenant General Sir John Dill. General Officer Commanding-in-Chief at Aldershot, the Princesses watched with delight the performers in the "Field of the Cloth of Gold" item. TROOPING TUB COLOUR The Trooping the Colour ceremony in celebration of the King's birthday will take place on the Horse Guards Parade at 11 a.m. to-morrow. The King, attended by the royal procession and with a sovereign's escort of the Royal Horse Guards, will ride from Buckingham palace to the parade-ground and will be received with a royal salute The King will then inspect troops and at the conclusion of the ceremony wilt head the King's Guard when the procession, led by the massed bands of the Brigade of Guards, moves off to the Palacv for the march-past The King will be accompanied by the Duke of Gloucester, the Duke of Kent Lord Harewood, and Lord Athlone. A captain's escort of Life Guards will escort the Queen, who will be accompanied by Queen Mary, from the Palace to the parade-ground. After the royal salute at the end of the ceremony the Queen will leave the Horse Guards and return to the Palace by way of Whitehall and Admiralty Arch. WALKER CUP TEAMS LUNCH TOGETHER The American Walker Cup golf team and some ot the British side which was successful at St. Andrews on Saturday were entertained at luncheon ' at the American Embassy yesterday by the Ambassador, Mr. Joseph Kennedy. Sir John Simon,, Chancellor of the Exchequer, a former captain of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club, St Andrews, and Lord Stanley, Secretary of State for the Dominions, were among those present The Americans leave for home to-day. CAMBRIDGE UNION OFFICERS The following elections of the Cambridge Union officers are announced for next term: Elected unopposed: President, S. M. Kumaramangalam, " King's ; . Vice-President, P. T. T. Butler, Trinity; Treasurer, D. R. Hardman, Christ's; Librarian H. L. . Elvin, Trinity Hall ; Steward, E. M. Wilson, Trinity! Elected: Secretary, P: B. Hague, Emmanuel ; Committee, G. Ellenbogen, King's, C. V. Win-tour. Peterhouse, E. H. Ades, Trinity, J C. T. MacRobsrt, Queens', H. E. M. le Goy, Caius, and R. Chandra, Trinity. LORD STANLEY'S CANADIAN VISIT Lord Stanley, the Secretary for Dominion Affairs, has received through the High Commissioner for Canada, and has accepted, an invitation from the president and directors of the Canadian National Exhibition to open the exhibition at Toronto on August 26. The Lord Mayor of London (Sir Harrv Twyford) ended his visit to Glasgow yesterday with a round of engagements. To-day with his party he will be at Edinburgh. Major G. Thompson has been selected for command of the 50th Northumbrian) Divisional uivuiuiiaii w Colonel and Brevet Colonel C. Walker, T.D., whose tenure expired on Monday. The King has approved the appointment of the Rev. Cyril Rawson, curate of Haigh-with-AspulI, to the vicarage of St Thomas, Bradley, Huddersfleld, vacant by the cession of the Rev. Charles Edward Diggle. Lord and Lady Leverhulme will accompany the large party of British chemical experts who will sail for Canada on Friday in the' Canadian Pacific liner Duchess of AthoU to attend tho annual meeting at Ottawa of the Society of Chemical Industry. . READERS' OWN TEST TEAMS The result of the competition in which readers were invited to send their selections for. a Test team to : meet the Australians will be published in the Manchester; Guardian TO-MORROW" together - with 'a- special article dealing,with the entwritten by ' CRldCETER Another article to-morrow will describe London's once-famous spas, and the "BacJf Page article will be a Balkan sketchTby Henry" Baerleih. The ,f !';. iv,. series bfL holiday pbotpgtapha; will uau ue puuusnea. . . - , v . . ,

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