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The Guardian from London, Greater London, England • 6

The Guardiani
London, Greater London, England
Issue Date:
Extracted Article Text (OCR)

6 THE MANCHESTER GUARDIAN, MONDAY, MARCH 9, 1942 STOP-PRESS iSfiS? IN A NORWEGIAN STREET- MEN AND POLICY IN PALESTINE Zionist Federation's Demand for fs Fundamental Changes TRAGEDY OF THE S.S. STRUMA LAST MESSAGE BEFORE JAVA WAS CUT OFF Defenders Powerless for Lack of 'Planes hoped for reinforcements which did Not come deliberately into -death, is only applied number of Allied troops in Java is only small. They are fighting alongside the Dutch and Indonesian soldiers with spirit, but have been unable to turn the tide. LACK OF FIGHTERS The Allied fleet and Air Force in offensive actions scored great successes, but at the same time paid heavily for these because reinforcement was difficult. "Planes came in, and particularly United States bombers, which proved a formidable weapon, but their value decreased without sufficient fighter protection aod protection for the airfields.

The fact that the fighters available were not of sufficient duality to meet the Japanese material on equal terms especially made itself felt. Not only did the Allied offensive power decrease but operations of heavy bombers became more risky. This photograph was brought from Iorway. On the wall can be seen a chalk scribble in; German, "Mach Schluss!" "Put an end to it," presumably the work of a war-weary German soldier or of a Norwegian who wished to encourage this thought in the invaders' minds. Just before Bandoeng's communications with the outside world were cut at 12 55 p.m.

British time on Saturday a final message was received from the Netherlands News Agency. The last words keyed from the cable station were "Now we shut down. Long live our Queen Good-bye. To better times." This was the agency's message, as received by Reuter The situation in the west of the island had become critical following a Japanese break through the defences of the north side of the volcano of Tan-kuban Prahu. Again attacking with great numerical superiority, the Japanese achieved this success on Friday in the face of desperate resistance by the Netherlands East Indies troops.

'Book tnp ham ABiitansri PserwtttrU tblettr 6715 ndjotf ndoeng In addition to their far inferior numbers the Dutch forces are continually harassed by the Japanese Air Force, against which the Allies can no longer put up effective resistance. The tragedy' now proceeding in the previously peaceful valleys north of the Tankuban Prahu crater known to thousands of tourists for its beauty is thei more heartrending for Dutch people when, thev recall that a great part of the Dutch Air Force was lost in the unavailing defence of Malaya. WORSE THAN IN MALAYA In the Netherlands East Indies there has been some criticism of the Allies for their conduct of the campaign in Malaya and Singapore. Now that the Dutchmen are having to fight in the same circumstances as the Allies fought in Malaya judgment will be less severe. Conditions here, however, are still more unfavourable.

as Japanese superioritv is probably in the proportion of at least five to one to say nothing of their superiority in the air, where they have absolute mastery. When Japan on December 8 declared war on the United States and Britain the Netherlands East Indies immediately threw in their forces in the air and on the sea for the benefit of the Allied warfare. This was done in an aggressive spirit, which has been much praised by public opinion in all the countries fighting against tyranny. This policy was one which carried with it the risk of quick exhaustion of the Dutch forces, but the risk was taken in the expectation that reinforcements would soon arrive in the Far East. Agreements were actually concluded which made the arrival of reinforcements likely.

The Allied Command was established in Java, and this offered the moral certainty that the utmost would be done to convert the island into a base from which an Allied counter-offensive could be launched in the event of the fall of Malaya and SinEanore. Preparations were made to receive. large concentrations of troops. The Netherlands East Indies forces are not big, but it was hoped that if the enemy could be held before they got to Java the necessary reinforcements would then be available. During January the outer provinces that is, the Dutch islands other than Java were lost one by one.

Against this stood the well-grounded expectation that in February sufficient reinforcements would arrive in Java to enable the island to be held, and later the initiative could be taken. But these reinforcements never came. Indeed, the I Vichy, Sunday. An official announcement on the RA.F. raid on the Matford factory at Poissy' (see page "5) said There were Associated Press.

A British United Press message from Sydney says that Australian troops, after following the scorched earth policy, are withdrawing from Salamaua and Lae, New Guinea. In New Zealand married men in the 10 to 28 age group with children -are being called up for service on March 25. "Single men "arid married men without children who have not yet been called up are now being called. A Budapest telegram to Vichy (quoted by says that the Hungarian Cabinet lias resigned. It will be reconstructed to-day.

The Registrar General's return for the week ended February 28 shows an increase in the number of whooping-cough For the 126 ereat towns of England and Wales, including London, tne figures were bti. compared with ouu the previous week. BIRTHS, MARRIAGES, AND DEATHS Is 6d. per line. Wnlmum two lines BIRTHS PARKCR.

On f-irUi a. at Contleton Cotiais Hospital, to EDITH (nee Henderson) and QBOFFBBT PARnXH. a dauahter. (Both well I 70. Waters Green, Macclesfield TAYLOR.

Oi March 4, at St. Anne Nuralni Home. Pinner, to UAIIX tnee Dickinson). wUe ol FRANK TAYLOR.of Noruivood Bills. MMdtesei.

daufbler (Jennfler). COMING OF AGE BIRD. Filch. and Mrs. P.

a BIRD. WuioUBhny Cottage. Ludworth, announce wltls Pleasure the lornlng of ase ot their son ANTBONy OOLDINO BIRD, Pilot Officer R.AF.V.S ENGAGEMENT TATTERSALL TOWMEHD. The enfeieraent Is announced between WILUAU HORROCKB TATTERSALL, M.A ion ot Mr. and the lue Mrs.

William Tail mail, ol Garth. Blaekbarn. Lancashire, and JOAN HOVELLO, daughter ot Mr. and Mrs. Hired TOWNIND.

ol Orchard Rise. Richmond, Surrey. MARRIAGES ROWN THOMPSON. On March 7. 1942, at St John's, Lythim HAROLD DAVID INOLIS, younlcat son ol Mr.

and Mrs. Hum BROWN, of to JOAN, only fauititer of the- late Mr. and Mrs P. THOMPSON, ol LjUiara. COCKER JACBlu.

On March 7. at the Ftlendi' Meeting Huuse, Manchester. RALPH, son of Frank-Banow and tne late Mary COCKER, to MARQARET. daughter of William ud AUKS JACQUES, of T'ldesley. OOLTON DEAROEH.

On March 7. 1942, at 8l aeorte's Church, North Harrow. CVRIL u. only son ol Mr. and Mrs.

W. Dollon, ot Hove, to NOR AH, only dauihler of Mr. f. DEAKDEN and the late Mrs. Drarden, of Mellar.

TACBV MARTINOALE. On March 7. at St. James'a Church. Oatley.

by the Rer. A. B. Learaan. M.A., FREDERICK, iounceat -son of the lata Mr.

and Mrs. A 8TACB7. to MARY, only dauihur ot Mr. and Mrs. MART 1 DALE.

Oakdrae, StjaJ Road, Oatley. Golden Wedding HARPER DOUGLAS. On March 8, 1892. at Uia Coclcaurn Hnte. Bath Street, Glasgow, by the Rev.

Jamec Klda. D.D., minister of Erskln'e Onlted Presbyterian Cnurch, CHRISIINAjDOOaLAS tu WILLIAM HARPER Present address 2B, Stockton Road, Caorlton-cum-Hardy, Manchester. DEATHS ALLAUH. On March 6. -with tra'ais suddenness.

HARRY ALLAUN. 7, BelDeld Road, Dldsturv, beloved husband Hannah Allauo aod father of Ray and frank Interment Southern Cemetery tJewlsn poitiun) this day 11 SO a.m. Will Mason-c brethren kindly meet at the entrance ALLMARK. On March 7, ac '65. Laburnum Road.

Denton. BENJAMIN WILLIAM, the he loved husband of Martha ALLMARK, aged 69 sears. (Plltv-two years' servlc with Bylands and Boca. feeivlce at fit PhUlp'a Church, burton, on Wednesda7 at 2 IS, prior to interment at Oorton Cemetery at 3 p.m. Inquiries E.

Taylor and Sons, Cross Street, Oorton. Tel. East 0793. March 6, atl, Harriet Avenue. DOUOLAS 70WNLXY.

the dearly loved husband of Jessie. Service at aatle Church on Tuesday ac 1 15 p.m.. prior to Interment at Southern Cemetery at 2 o.m. CULLEN. On March 8, suddenly, JAMES WILLIAM, tjje, Gloved husband of jsoet Rose COIXEN.

16. Willow Way, Didsbuiy, For many year with Bacons. St. Ann Sireet, Manchester. Service at Manchester Crematorium on Wednesday at jn am.

No oy request. Inquiries' Wm Peacock. -Phone 3397 Olds. 6i J942- HOPE EVANS. 10.

Wlnmarlelfll 3treet. Warrington (of Messrs Edwin Collier and chartered accountants, Manchester), aged 72 years: P.A O.D.C. Lodge of Llkhia 148, Friendship Lodge 2963. StrVtee al Hrt? Trinity ChunSi, Warrington, en Wednesday, noon, prior to interment at Warrmgton Cemetery. 12 30 pja.

Deeniy wetted inoulnea it, Uesart. Arthur Oreenhaltri of Annie FAWBERT. of rrrriy. wSmiXmTs Avenue, BramtLut, aged 58 years director or Bsnun. New? HeaVh.

Vi Manchester Crematorium on Wednesday, March 11 at twelve- noon Pnenda please accept this (ihs Sitae anCo to Kanda" Bro Paaoert PJg: Mm Brterler Lodge No. 5317: PJZ. Townlej Parke raapterTSto. 1083 hSS' Jik hSf- 67 Humphrey crTeet pJ2JKE "ft 134: Josephs Preeeptory, No. 9, f.cemxn Conclave, No.

57. Li ij2-" nursing home. XUZABETH MARY, of Wythriocd. Envllle Road! SSSarnrSnS (xS tT. STTlV.i2DB2L- his Both year.

Service Irnulrlea Wm. Peacock. -Ph. 3397 Dlds. KOLi-AMO.

nn asavK HoiTsSnS- Mot tier the Church, the r. St. Joseph's. cuiitfrroSiiZc, Sa? JAMES SSI 51576 W- Tela. Col.

2252 and 192. at 21. seanlearh USDSAY. dearly ttWycir." nrU PZRCIVAL. "22? uient.

ru that. Mwt-r MeasrI StSSaSSS1 03, Love Lane, atock- CJStSrxSSiM'iJk ifrf1 wckport Jnenrraea V' twelve noon. Society uclnaoo. Steckport Co-operailva nrn wirrin; jycawooa. Selkirk, WAXiiACE.

aged 75. late of West-awoo- (Biuro private, tto BoVera, by 5r BEATRICE Ine a Stand Chapel 33miLZ2 Service at oSvSS. day (Monday) at WW. 2427 In'atrt" Jackson and acta Tel. at Hale.

Cheshire. rate ilfriT VStSP7'! "eawrd. wife of the atUanrtS Oetamyy. Interment Ut AJtrfadES" Tel? 1248 "lhlE0a So' "r2Scw'E5, 6. at his daoghiert.

SSfh VitW Prwootb op War 132- Caaerta SffiW Ilftr. LCpL OWEN EMRYS fltor' 24. the dearly Mr- Mrs. WlllUms. iSdlJ? I'STi" Messrs.

W. Batty tTOBtea la their jad bereavement. JOBH BUBBELL SCOTT. Sn EVENING NEWS. 3.

Cross Street. Monday; Starch 9. 1942. A special conference of the Zionist 1 Federation of Great Britain and Ireland, at a special meeting in London yesterday, passed the following resolution: This special conference of the Zlonlit Federation Qt Greit Br.uin and Ireland places on record lu horror nd profound cricl at the appalllnf trued; or tne ship struma, whereby 750 Jewish men. women, and children, victims ot Nazi persecution in Rumania, were drowned in the Blade Sea.

alter helni refused entry Into Palestine, and vere belnr sens back to Rumania, there to face further Nazi terror. This terrible tragedy would have been averted nub for the refusal of the Palestine Administration and the Colonial Office In London to admit to the Jewish National Home ttaese homeless Jewish victims pi Nasi oppression, wnorere flecins to the safety of the Jewish National Home and who could have been admitted to Palestine even within the limits of the current unmltTatlon schedule already authorised by the Palestine Administration. This conference is convinced that the attitude of the Palestine Administration in the Struma matter and other Incidents relating to Jewish refufees Is Inimical to the best interests of the Allied cause and calls upon Lord Cranborne. the Dew Colonial Secretary, to make such radical changes in the personnel of the Palestine Administration and the colonial Office In London and to effect such fundamental alterations in the policy regarding Jewish immigration into Palestine as vlll prevent ft recurrence of any such calamity and will ensure that Palestine, which is a vital lint in the Middle Bast, may be enabled to play its rightful part In the struggle for victory DR. WElZMANrTS SPEECH Dr.

Weizmann, President of the World Zionist Organisation, said If one reflects that only recently part of the Mufti's henchmen, his friends and collaborators, have been allowed to return from Iran to- Palestine, people who have been Dlottine asainst the British Empire, and aDDarentlv the Palestine Government sees no particular danger in tnis lact, one stands aghast at the attitude which the Palestine Government is taking up repeatedly ana systematicauv towards those un fortunate Jewish refugees who flee from death, nee from destruction, flee from the clutches ot the German or Rumanian wazis, and try at the risk of their lives to find refuge in Palestine and are very often, within sight of its shores, cruelly, inhumanly driven back into the sea, and driven back into the jaws of death." ine loss ot 760 Jewish men. women. and children in the Struma was, he continued, a traeedv which could have been prevented. Even within the strait-jacket of the White Paper permits could have been given for the entry of these immigrants without doing the slightest violence to the rules and regulations as laid down in the White Paper. "We have recently received 1,200 certificates, on which altogether about 3.000 people could come in.

and part of these certificates could have been allotted to these people so that they could enter Palestine as certificated immigrants if the slightest goodwill or the slightest desire to meet us in such a tragic case of emergency had been indicated by the Palestine Administration. But they remained adamant to all our entreaties and appeals. One is horrified to think what sort of people are those who rule the destinies of Palestine people without understanding, without compassion, and without pity. And if you think that when people, say, from Norway, or from Holland, or from France, come here, or when Poles have come to Palestine, they have been received rightly so with open arms, then one is driven to the conclusion that these draconian regulations, that this sending people THE ANKARA BOMB Soviet Ambassador's Assurances From our Special Correspondent Istanbul, March 8. The Turkish police have come to the conclusion that the bomb outrage at Ankara was the result of a conspiracy by several Moslem youths of Yugo-Slav origin, according to an official statement.

The youths are said to have immigrated to Turkey and acquired Turkish nationality, like the bearer of the bomb, who was blown to pieces. It is also declared that they had Communist leanings and had been acting on the instigation of foreigners. The outrage is stated to have been directed against Von Papen (who was only 17 yards away at the time) and another German official whose name is not mentioned. Since Thursday the police have been very active. It is believed that about fifty persons are suspected of connivance in the plot, among them two members of the Soviet commercial delegation and a dragoman of the Soviet Embassy.

OFFICIAL DISCLAIMER The Soviet Ambassador in Ankara, Mr. Vinogradov, had a long interview yesterday with Mr. Sarajoglu, the Foreign Minister. It is understood that the conversation was in a friendly and L-uuvuiawry tone ana tnat tne Ambassador disclaimed anv ronnoption of the official Soviet representation with the conspiracy. Naturally Axis propaganda is making the most of the incident and accusing Russia of having instigated the plot to trouble Turkish-German relations and eventually drag Turkey into war.

Nothing can be said on this matter while investigations are still in progress, but one thing seems certain tnat the Turkish Government is determined to throw full light on the affair. The impression prevailing in diolo- matic quarters in Ankara is that the in cident, unpleasant as it is, will have no grave consequences. and that the Turkish Government, with its usual foresight and moderation, will see to it that relations between Turkey and the Soviet Union remain unimpaired. The Times' Se 'Manchester GnarrHan' Service MANY FOREIGNERS' TO BE DEPORTED Ankara. March 7 (Delayed.) Sir Hughe Knatchbull-Hugessen.

the British Ambassador, saw Mr. Sarajoglu following Mr. Vinogradov's visit. It appears to be virtually certain that many foreigners of all nationalities for whose presence in Turkey there is no justification will be expelled. Reports from Istanbul state that a police cordon drawn round the Soviet Consulate there was lifted at five o'clock this afternoon.

From this it is presumed that two men who were reported to have taken refuge in. the Consulate have beep handed over to the police. Reuter. DOCKERS' "WORK FASTER' WEEKS Thousands of dockers in North-west coast ports have started their dockers' week in an effort to turn ships round more quickly. The aim is to' save time between control points and jobs, and a reduction in absenteeism.

Dockers have promised Mr. Churchill that they will go all out to beat their output successively as the weeks progress. to the Jews, and particularly to the Jews in their National Home. This traeic event is merelv a link in a lone chain of things which have been inflicted on us in the course of these last two or three vears. One cannot help feeling that this is a con sequence of tne Dolicv which was adopted by the Government shortly before the beginning of the war.

the policy which we have always condemned, which stands condemned morally and legally in the eyes of all well-meaning and understanding neonle. At the moment when the White Paper was inflicted or. us in Palestine the rela tions between Us and the Palestine government ceased to be relations of co-operation. We are not governed in Palestine any more bv consent, but we are governed by coercion, and this is one oi ine iacets of coercive government. "But we did not ask, and we have refrained from asking throughout this tragic period of war for fundamental changes in this nohcy which we con demn and with which we shall never agree.

These unfortunate 760 people could have been let into Palestine with certificates without in any way interfering with the White PaDer. But once Government has started upon a course which is immoral and illegal it will be forced on the downward nath to com mit acts for which it will be condemned in the eyes of the world. It conflicts peculiarly with all that we are saying about the great principles for which the democracies are fighting. It is a mockery and an irony to have to register facts of this kind and at the. same time to read the statements about liberty and democracy which are being made so often by the leaders of democracy.

PALESTINE AND THE WAR We realise that Palestine to-day is from the war point of view becoming a focal -point. It is a fortress, and in its importance does not fall behind Singapore. Elementary military considerations should have dictated to the authorities the one simple rule that it is easier to hold a fortress if there exists harmony' in the population and one should not try to embitter a part of that population and a very important part of the population, which forms one-third of the total which is straining every nerve to give of its utmost towards the war effort. But in their blindness, and perhaps in their hatred, they are neglecting even this ordinary, simple, elementary military precaution. Perhaps they wish to drive the Jews of Palestine into despair, and perhaps break their spirit and in that way.

diminish their war effort. I am certain, and I am sure I am voicing the feelings and the opinions not only of the Jews here but of every Jew everywhere, that this will never happen, and our detractors, if they do have these sinister intentions, will not succeed. "We shall go on in Palestine and elsewhere, giving all we can in men, in effort towards the war effort and neiping in mat measure in which our small numbers can contribute to a final victory, in which we believe, in which we trust, in spite of all the ignominy which is being inflicted upon us." AN AMNESTY FOR PRISONERS Mr. Joshi's Appeal From our own Correspondent New Delhi, March 8. An appeal to Mr.

Churchill and Sir Stafford Cripps to declare an amnesty to the 2,300 political prisoners and persons detained when the announcement of the new policy on India is made was voiced by Mr. N. M. Joshi, secretary of the All-India T.U.C. and a nominated member of the Indian Legislative Assembly, during the Budget proceedings.

He declared that it was incongruous that the Indian Communist party should continue to be declared an illegal association although many Communist jtnd peasant leaders had advocated unconditional support of the war after Russia's entry. Mr. Jamnadas Mehta, another Labour member, suggested that an invitation for a Russian trade union delegation to visit India would rouse the enthusiasm of Indian workers. Sir Sikandar Hyat Khan, Premier of the Punjab, suggested a clear and unambiguous declaration conferring a status of free and equal partnership within the British Commonwealth upon India. He would immediately have the Viceroy's Executive Council strengthened, he said, by the addition of Mr.

Jinnah and Mr. Rajagopalachari, leaving the door open for further additions and changes at a later stage. SPECIAL MEETINGS Several important meetings have been convened for the week after the announcement The Committee of the States Ministers, with the Prime Minister of Baroda as chairman, will meet in Delhi soon, and the Chamber of Princes opens jts annual session on March 16. Both the Moslem League Working Committee and the Standing Committee, of the Sapru Conference have summoned emergency meetings. The Congress Working Committee will meet at wardha on March 17.

"EQUAL PARTNERSHIP WITH BRITAIN" Hindu Leader's Cable" In a cable to Mr. Churchill, Mr. Savarkar, President of the Hindu Mahasabba, urges on behalf of his organisation a proclamation of Indian independence with equal partnership with Britain in an Indo-British Commonwealth. He asks' for the immediate formation of a national Government. Tht- Mahasabba.

the telegram adds, repudiates the claim of Congress to represent Hindu interests, and demands that Hindu representation should be strictly in proportion to population in relation to the Moslems. Reuter. TOWN'S VIGILANT COMMITTEE Beaumaris (Anglesey) has formed a Vigilant Committee to receive -reports from members of the public of anything they might come across which in their opinion is detrimental to the successful prosecution of the war. All communications received will be treated as confidential. The movement, star by the Mayor and certain members of sue sutvu Hiuaiu, is uuenoea to increase the' efficiency of the war effort in the district.

The Allied fleets ten days ago did the utmost they could in an heroic attempt to prevent landings in Java. Aeain. however, thev were faced with enemv superiority, and the kernel of the Dutch fleet was lost. Mourning for these losses cannot nullity satisiaction about the magnificent work of the Allied fleet. As far as the Netherlands fleet is concerned one may sav that it fought to the death.

The result of the battle was that Sourabaya was no longer usable as a base for cruisers and destroyers and that the necessary protection- from heavv bombers could no longer be given. When the attack finally started last Saturday night heavy losses were inflicted on the enemy during his landing attempts, but these successes were also dearly paid for. The number of troops landed undoubtedly amounts to at least seven and possibly ten or even more divisions. After resistance at sea and in the air was broken the Japanese practically had free play. Nothing could prevent them from landing just as many men and as much material as they wanted.

WHY COUNTER-BLOWS FAILED Meanwhile, as at sea and in the air, the defence on land was directed on offensive lines. Waiting to see what the enemy's next step would be was not the intention of the Dutch Command. Immediately it was decided to take counter-action. An attack from the Bandoeng plains on the airport of Kalidjatic proved once again that even crack troops without sufficient air protection cannot take the offensive. The troops were incessantly harassed by murderous dive-bombing.

Their moral remained high, and history will tell of many individual deeds Of heroism. Protection was not possible against this inferno. Other offensive actions failed, although often undertaken with great courage and sometimes with partial successes. It was always the same story without sufficient protection in the air the troops were practically powerless. Where there would have been room tor thousands of 'planes there was only an ever-increasing minority in the air.

ifATTLE FOR BANDOENG These actions led to the withdrawal of the Dutch forces at Batavia. and the city was finally completely evacuated in order to concentrate all power on the plains around Bandoeng, which because of its natural geography is more easy to defend than the flat country of the Java north coast. It was of the highest importance to hold the entrance to the Bandoeng plains from Soebang. Here the Netherlands East Indies Army is now writing history. Against fierce air attacks and greatly superior forces on the ground the Dutch troops fought for this entrance for two days without resting for a single moment until the position could no longer be held.

As a result of this Dutch action, however, the assault on Bandoeng launched from Indramajoe has not yet been successful. Stubborn fighting being continued to keep the Japanese outside the upland plains, but the question may now be put whether this will indeed be possible for a long time in view of the enemy's enormous pressure and his complete freedom of action in bringing up reinforcements. The surrender of Bandoeng, where the Government is now staying, would then be unavoidable. battle for Burma began. After their aeiensive successes over Rangoon they soon took the offensive, and for many weeks they have been attacking enemy troop concentrations, lines of com munication, aerodromes in Thailand, and motor transoort.

Allied losses have been insignificant in comparison with the Japanese, and the ratio in lavour of the Allies is believed to her better in Burma than on any other front. 'The Times' 'Manchester Guardian' Service JAPANESE CLAIM ALL S. SUMATRA A Japanese communique issued yesterday said Southern Sumatra has now fallen under complete Japanese domination. Japanese Army forces, following the annihilation of enemy troops in the neighbourhood of Moearatebo, at the confluence of the Tebo and Djoedjoehan rivers, have occupied Jambi, a strategic town on the southern bank of the Hari River. Jambi is 125 miles north-west of Palem-bang.

All oilfields in the neighbourhood have also fallen into Japanese hands. Reuter. "CHINA DAY" IN INDIA India observed "China Day" on Saturday with public meetings throughout the country. Speakers emphasised the unity of India and China against Axis aggression. Newspapers brought out special China supplements.

All radio stations broadcast special programmes, including messages from Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, leader of the Congress party-; Sir Sikander Hyat Khan, former Governor of the Punjab and Sir Maurice Gwyer, Chief Justice of India. Reuter. RUSSIAN WAR HEROINES Bravery and Devotion From our Special Correspondent Moscow, March 8. To-day is known as International Women's Day. It was founded by the German Communist Klara Zetkin 31 years ago as an attempt to organise women's opinion all over the world in favour of better social conditions.

Since the revolution it has tended here to become a celebration by Soviet women of their position of equality, "gained and connrmett constitutionally. In the present war situation it has the double function of rallying the women of the world against Fascism and of holding up examples of Soviet women's bravery and devotion. At the same time, in broadcasts to Germany and occupied countries, women are being exhorted to use their power to demonstrate and commit sabotage. It is a long Russian literary tradition to create prototypes heroic, over-life-size characters whom everv Russian child knows as if they were historic figures. The war is creating real figures of such a stature, already well known and examples to all.

Among them are many women, and to-day some of their deeds are made known. There are 70 Kiev girls who left the city with a Guards regiment, serving as field nurses. One, named Troyan, distinguished herself bv savine 70 wounded under fire. A young girl all know as Tanya, who became a partisan, was caugnt, retused to betray her com panions under torture, and was publicly nangeti ana mutilated. Nurse Kukhina was crushed bv a tank in bravely trying to save an officer.

These are but prototypes of thousands uoon thousands of other Soviet women who are serving as medical workers, pilots of Red Cross planes, ana partisans, or toiling in the factories. Nor is the maintenance of family life, which is so much stressed in the modern U.S.S.R., being neglected. Many women are adopting war orphans or those whose parents are remaining in occupied territory. The Times 'Manchester Guardian'ServIce GIRL PARACHUTISTS Moscow, March 8. The newspaper "Red Star" to-day printed a picture from the front showing five Soviet girl parachutists armed with automatic rifles, with their 'plane in the background.

This was the first news that women being employed as parachutists. From Sevastopol came the news that among the defenders of the city is Nina Onilova, a machine-sunner xuhn was reported to have killed 500 Germans. Associated tress. RUSSIAN FRONT REPORTS A special announcement on Moscow radio on Saturday morning stated that between February 6 and March 5 40,000 Germans were killed on the western (central) front and 263 inhabited localities were liberated. The announcement included an impressive list of war material captured in the same period.

The week-end communiques are RUSSIA Saturday Midday. During n'ght or March 6 our troop cent tuned offensive op attons on ml accton ifalnst Che German Fascist troops. Durinr Marco 7 our troops lourjht offexulT bittln pafnst the German Fucln troops. In fierce flghttnj. durinr which the enemy suffered heTy losses, our units advanced or unit aect-ira ol the front and occupied iCT'tal inbabltea localities.

On Marh 6 55 German 'planes were destroyed: we lost seven 'pianea. On March 7 three German "plane were uruusut auvu nra mikdw. Sndy NIHr. During the nliht of. March 7 our troops continued offenslre operations against the German troops.

GERMANY Saturday On the Eaatern Front several enemr attacks were repulses The utwJXe sop ported German offthalre operations oy destructive oiows on enemy oositlcns and troon concentrations on the tuner Valaa met In the Lnt sector. On thp Karelian front Finnish bombr sod fighter formations scattered enemy ctuuouis Mita imp cancrDxraium. Between February 25 and March 5 the Sorlet air Force lost 197 'nlanes. of which 165 were shot down in air combats and 16 by' A. A.

guns. The remainder were aenraym cm sue grouna. uuruif tne period we lost 31 'planes on the Eastern Front. SanaW. In the Donets reaion and in the area, la fhm of Kharkov numerous enemy attacks were repolxed with Mxung zona's.

vn ue ocnrr occurs nrninr itiH In the central and northern aactora-defemlY rawr. tlons arw proceeding. Daring German offensive operations -inay detachmenta and SJ3 dlalodgfd the spite of tcrtgh enemy resistance 7he-aesry Joat a. number of prlaonera. amofig tbem a dtrlsloaal commander, and OTer- S.ODO inr klRnS.

In air cambmt German fithters shot down 22 Soviet uuuaj imbs oa exaoxomaa r'nt 'P-anes were destroyed on the ground. MALTA RAIDS GO ON From our Special Correspondent Malta, MaiAh' 8. Raids continue, unremittingly, even defenceless fishing craft being machine-gunned. Since intensified combing began on December 21 252 people have been killed, as compared with 582 since. June.

1940. Rarely, however, do the raiders escape uimauioL -iwo more ixerman were saot aown on riaay. There are already sisns that ttw Germans are feeling the depletion of bombers, which oblies; them to employ ANOTHER ALL-DAY RAID Malta. March 8 (9 Enemy aircraft have been attacking Malta throughout, to-day after nine alerts during the A LIBYA OUTPOST CAPTURED Free French Success Increased enemy air activity is reported in the latest British communiques about Libya. The G.H.Q., Cairo, report said: Our artillery successfully shelled the enemy during engagements between our mobile columns and enemy detachments.

Enemy aircraft were active in the forward area, but our casualties were light. Our own Air Force carried out interception nights. The R.A.F. communique said During Fridav night further attacks on enemy shipping in the harbours at Benghazi and Tripoli were carried out by bomber aircraft. A vessel lvine at the Cathedral Mole at Benghazi was hit and French; Ch cr SUDAN 300 blew up.

In Cyrenaica on Saturday tighter aircraft continued their patrols. Enemy air activity was on an increased scale. It is now known that a second Me. 109 was shot down by anti-aircraft gunfire over Malta on Friday. one or our aircratt is missing.

Saturday's G.H.O. communioup renorted the capture of the earrison of an enemv post by a Free French column. Other Free rrencn captured an enemy position in Fezzan after violent fighting, it was added. Fezzan, deep in the Libyan Desert, was captured by Spahis, Arab cavalrymen now mechanised. Foreign Legion troops, and other Free French units, which came from inaa territory.

xney swept across ine sands by night and hid by day This success will upket Axis plans to attack our trans-African communications from southern bases. ENEMY WAR REPORTS The week-end enemy High Command communiques follow GERMANY San 'n NortL Africa there were live: cAtmi actlvitlea on both aides. In the harbour of Tohrut Oerman dive-bombers tank bv direct hits a frelshter of 3.000 tons ana three lighters. The Wist Egyptian railway was broken at several points by low-level attacks by German bombers Military Installations In Malta were subjected to effective bomttcE attacks by day and night Saturday. In North Africa German trooot cirri ed oat a.

successful reconnaissance patrol. Dive-bombers and light formations ot the Luftwaffe attacked encamp ments, concentrations of motor vehicles, and fuel dumps in Eastern Cyrenaica. During attacks on British air bases and railway targets in North Egypt uu marca 3 a jargo enemy imgnier was ail oj Domes east of Mersa Matruh. On Malta German aircratt dropped the heaviest type of bombs on the citadel and on aoccs at uc port oi vaueiia At lease two SUD' maxima were severely damaged. ITALY flnndar.

Pnrmt npriwlf in tht T.lhcfln TVirf Numerous formations of our Air Forre made low-level atttCKs or. lmoortant enemv concentrations of mechanised units to the south of Gaza la. A large number of vehicles were damaged or destroyed. Italo-Oerman aircraft attacked military instillations at Tofarufc. In the harbour a tanker was hit and set on Are.

In spite ot fierce; enemy nti-aircraft fixe all -our 'planes returned safely. In an serial combat a Gloster was shot down. Some- action was carried out aninst the IsJnnrl of Malts, vhrre Important oojecuves were consiaeraoiy oamagea tlons On land and in thm- Sir mrlnc tn bad weather. BiinruT. in i.Trrriic.n.

uvrt vern iimiLPn oaera A British raid on Tripoli caused neltber victims nor damage. Italian and German "planej attacked aerodromes at Ualt At the naval base of Valletta bombs or ine neaviest type wnicn were aropoea aamagea enemv submarines In the- oort. On Slanoel Island. which was also effectively bombed, an extensive fire was nsiaie at great distance. TWO NAZI RAIDERS DOWN An Air Ministry and Ministry of Home Security communique yesterday had nothing to report of air activity over "Great Britain on Saturday night, but later it was learned in London that an enemy aircraft had been destroyed.

An Admiralty communique later stated that -another German bomber had been destroyed by one of HJU. trawlers on escort duty with a convoy. WILMSLOW'S EFFORT Rear Admiral- Cedric S. Holland, R.N., a former commander of the Ark Royal, yesterday' opened. WUmslow's Warship which began with a first day's investment of over 51,000 towards a target of 210,000 for the adoption the destroyer Winchelsea.

-Although- the knock-out blow to the enemy would be given by the. Army, he said, we must have a big and strong Navy to keep open the hundreds of thousands of miles of sea lines of com--mtmication and to deny those same lines the enemy. An excellent beginning has been made at Heywood in the week's campaign, which opened on Saturday, to raise 175,000 to purchase the hull of a submarine, and including contributions actually received and promises to subscribe specified amounts it is officially stated that more than 80.000 has alreadv been totalled. The effort was opened by Mr. Beverley Baxter, MP.

Three persons in Danzig one a Pole have been executed for being a danger -to' the people." says the Berlin correspondent of- Svenska Dagbladet," quoted by Reuter. il I NEW ENEMY THRUST IN BURMA The Japanese are astride the lower end of the Burma road north of Pegu and are apparently trying to move westward. There is no confirmation from any other source of a Saigon radio report that Rangoon was occupied by Japanese troops yesterday. A Rangoon communique issued yesterday said Latest reports indicate that the enemy has occupied Payagyi and established a road-block at Pyinbon. His intention appears to be to move westward.

Payagyi is on the railway about ten miles north of Pegu. Pyinbon is 18 miles north of Pegu. Both these places are villages on the Burma Road. The news is not regarded in Londor as suggesting any great worsening of the situation. The western movement of the Japanese from these points may indicate an intention to attack the other main "road running from Rangoon to Prome, with the object of cutting off all communication with the north.

There are minor roads connecting the Rangoon-to-Prome road with the Burma Road. CRUCIAL BATTLE From our Special Correspondent Mandaiay, March 8. Fighting west of the Sittang is now taking place on a salient 50 or 60 miles north-east of Rangoon, and the fate of the capital, which will be defended to the last, may well depend on the course of this battle. British tanks which have already eneaecri thp enemv north of Pegu may be relied upon to harass Japanese troop movements, especially as me enemy not supported by tanks. It is known that the British have strengthened bridges in the Pegu area to take the weight of tanks.

If the enemy is to be Ktnnrjpfi hpfnrp Rnnennn the British land and air forces must put. forth, their greatest effort yet in this campaign the open country between the present scene of operations and the capital. Japanese air losses over Burma and at airfields- in Thailand are now unofficially put at over 250 machines destroyed and many others so seriously damaged that they are not likely to have got back to their bases. Whatever success the Japanese, have achieved on land the Allies have maintained supremacy in the. air since the.

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