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The Guardian from London, Greater London, England • 9

The Guardiani
London, Greater London, England
Issue Date:
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75 70 GaptiLScotb's route 1 1 1 second to the dash for the Pole. Amongst- other results brought back by tho Terra Nova twelve months ago were the cinematograph films whicli have since been watched by tens of thousand? in picture theatres all over the world. During the first summer and winter and the early part of the second summer much valuable scientific work was done by members of the expedition. Full meteorological records were kept and much attention was given to atmospheric electricity. The biological observations met with considerable successes, amongst which were tho discovery of new forms of protozoa.

The geologists examined many outcrops of rock, amongst which they fotuid bituminous coal, and also closely studied the glaciers. It was hoped that these last observations would throw much light on tho part played bv ice in earth sculpture. Several parties" were sent out to collect geographical information. On the evening of November 2 Captain Scott and his southern party started inland on their last journey. Arrangements had been made whereby the leader hoped to bring 30 units of food a unit being a week's provisions for four men to the foot of the Beadmore glacier.

From there he intended, with three divisions of four men and 21 food units to extend the advance to the required distance. Eight sound pomes were then left, but bi' the time the glacier was reached the last of the ponies had been sacrificed. The motor sledges had been abandoned long before. Amundsen is convinced that dogs are far superior to ponies for Polar work, and in view oi that opinion Captain Scott's decision to sacrifice his ponies, in some cases, as he himself stated, to afford food for tho dogs, is interesting. Up the glacier tho explorers struggled under terrible conditions.

Tho men on foot sunk to their knees in soft snow and the sledges to their crossbars. On one occasion fourteen hours, uninterrupted by a meal, wero spent in covering eight miles. A storm caused a delay of five days. On the plateau things were better, and when on January 3 Captain Scott sent back his reports and" with four companions and a month's provisions pressed southward his hopes were high. CAPTAIN SCOTT'S ROUTE TO THE SOUTH POLE.

ON THK RIGHT HAND IS SHOWN CAPTAIN SCOTT'S ROUTE TO THE POLE; ON THE LEFT CAPTAIN AMUNDSEN'S. now there aro five more names to add to tho roll of immortality of gallant Britons Scott Wilson, Dates, Bowers, Evans. n. WHAT WKKK THE CAUSES OF THE DISASTER? By D. V.

tf. BRUCE (leader of tho HcoLia Antarctic Expedition, 1902). fcouth Polar exploration has been singularly clear of any disaster of the kind that has befallen Captain Scott. Some of the severest hardships experienced by human beings, from the" time of Captain Cook in 1773 up to the present day, have been experienced by Antarctic explorers, hut on every occasion they havo come through triumphantly, out of almost insuperable difficulties. Consequently the blow has been tho heavier, because it'was thought that Captain Scott and his companions would overcome all those diffii ulties as his predecessors had done before him.

One of the reasons for tho previous immunity from disaster is that nothing in the way of winter work was dono (although the Belgians wintered iu the Antarctic during 1899 to 1900), and that no extensive sledge journeys were done until Captain Scott himself initiated that work in the winter of 1902. Captain Scott, indeed, was the pioneer of interior land work in tho then, to Captain Scott's own account of his Antarctic regions, and jn this work he was experiences on the first Discovery ex-well supported by Captain Armitage, who pedition. Certain symptoms were reported was the pioneer of high-altitude work, al- him in October, 1902, and he says There though Captain Scott was the first to push 110 blinking our eyes to the fact that southward to a high southern latitude on tho neither more nor less than scurvy, land, reachiim 32 degrees 17 minutes south t- whence it has come from, or why it ja PRESIDENT MADERO IN FLIGHT. GENERAL DIAZ DECLARES HIMSELF PRESIDENT. The mutinous troops at-Mexico appear to have gained complete or almost complete control of the city.

President Madt-ro is in flight, and General Diaz, the nephew, who was released from prison by the mutineers and put himself at their head, is said to have proclaimed himself President. Seiior Madero admits his inability to assure the protection of foreigners, who, however, do not appear to have been menaced so far. Si'fior Madero became President of Mexico by election in November. 1911. Genera! Porfirio Diaz, who had governed the country with absolute power for nearly forty years.

had to meet a great deal of opposition his last years as President, and Seiior Madero put himself at the head of tho insurgents, who finally became so powerful that Diaz was oompclled to resign in May, 1911. President Madero. however, has never succeeded in making his authority recognised throughout the country, and has had to -meet rebellious movements on the part both of parti' sons of tho old rfgimc and of his own old associates who were dissatisfied with their position under the new There has been constant unrest and rebellion in the north, and also to the south-west of the capital, but hitherto the rebels had not succeeded in producing more than widespread local uprisings, and the central governnieut appeared to be secure. A PREMATrRE Ol'TKKEAK. (K-eutkr's Correspondent.) New Yojik, Monday.

According to a u-lcgraiu from the city of Mexico received early this morning President Madero and the members of the Government aro still holding out in the Palace, around which the most sanguinary encounters between insurgents and loyalists havo taken place, tho Minister of War being among tho wounded. General Gregorio Kuisc and five other officers were put to death in tho Palace patio (courtyard), but tho circumstances in which they met their end are not j-ct definitely established. The capture of tho arsenal by the revolutionists was only effected after a severe struggle. Later. A telegram from the ciiy of Mexico states that President Madero and his Ministers left tho Palace yesterday evening.

They are believed to have gone to Chapultepee, three miles south-west of the city. General Huerta has been left in charge of the Palace. It is surmised that the Federal reinforcements have not arrived. Tho Mexican rebel leaders at El Paso (Texas) declare that the mutiny was part of a general revolutionary plan which was prematurely exploded. The revolt had been timed to take place on March 1.

Replying to an inquiry by tho diplomatic representatives in Mexico whether he was able to guarantee protection for foreigners, President Madero stated that he could offer no protection. He had between 2,000 and 3,000 men, he said, including mounted police and artillery, but ho regretted ho could not detach any of these for protective services. 3 30 a.m. It is stated that President. Madero decider! to flee owing to the knowledge that General oianquet, wno nad arrived the city with a small portion -of his force on whicli fch Prl.

dent had relied for reinforcements, wau unwilling to fight General Diaz Since General Blanquet's arrival the bridges 'between capital and Toluca have been burned. A tracic sequence to General Rcvpr'r doih is the suicide of his son Rodolfo," who shot himself owing to grief. Aftkunoon. General Diaz has proclaimed liim.lf silent of Mexico, and lias denounced President Madero as an onemv of the Republic. Washington." Monhav.

The State Department has decided one hattleship to vera Cruz and one to Tampico, while other warships will bo ana Acapulco for the purpose of making observations and reoortina- on tli situation at those daces. Mr. Knox says it lias been decided to the I nited States cruiser Denver at Ar.apuho instead of sending her to Acajutha (San Salvador), as had previously been intended, in view of the indications of unrest there. SAFEGUARDS AGAINST FOREIGN AIRCRAFT, TEXT OF A WAR OFFICE BILL. The text of a bill presented by Colonel Seelv.

the Secretary- for War, the object of which is to protect the country against foreign aircraft. was issued last night. It is entitled A bill to amend the Aerial Navigation Act, 1911." It empowers a Secretary of State to prohibit the navigation or aircraft over prescribed areas where advisable for the purposes of defence or the safety of the realm. The area proscribed may include the whole or any part of the coast line ot the United Kingdom and the. adjacent territorial water.

A Secretary of Stat i given power to prescribe the areas in -which aircraft coming from other countries are to land and other conditions with which foreign aircraft' are to comply. Any person contravening any order is guilty of an offence and liable under tue Act oi ivu to imprisonment for not more than six months, or to a fine of not more than 200, or to both imprisonment and unless He Troves that his action was due to stress of weather or other circumstances over which he haa no- control. Any officer designated for the purpose on seeing an aircraft fail to oomwV with regulations may give a prescribed signal, and, if the aircraft fails to respond to the signal, may nre ai. or into sucn aircraft and use any and every other means necessary to comoel THE ENNISKILLEN LANCES FOR A CIVILIAN REGIMWWi' At. a meeting at Enniskillen.

yesterday of officers and; troop sergeants of the Enniskillen Horse, a civilian regiment maintained at its own expense, it was resolved that as the War Omce were not lending any assistance their would proceed further with the arming- of 'Sia corps, and in addition, h). the two troops already .1 iti- i- 1 r- ituwu mm luuces- rarm tne' outer; fieri troops permittediSMd-; was subscribed immediately towards tnrj'-nwAii f1011' tft phiefoetice, last ngt'reparted'to have had a-good an4. was considerably better. TRIBUTE TO CAPTAIX SCOTT. London, Monday Night.

It was hushed, even an. awestruck audience that gathered to-night in the big theatre of the Civil Service Commission in Burlington Gardens, the usual meeting-place of the Royal Geographical Society. It was one of the fortnightly meetings of the Society, and in the ordinary course the event of the evening would have been a paper by Mr. D. G.

Hogarth on the geography of the Balkans. But in face of the calamity that had fallen it was thought' best to postpone the lecture, and after a short and impressive address by the Vice President, Mr. D. W. Douglas Freshfield.

the meeting dispersed. The audience that filled the long semi-circular tiers of seats presented in thgir dress an appearance of incongruous gaiety. Many of the members had come in from the country, and probably had not heard the news until they reached London. Consequently many of the women were in gay coloured evening dress, but many members wore deep mourning. Mr.

Freshfield, addressing the members, said I am not in a position to give any complete or consecutive account of this great, this most unepected and in some ways unexampled disaster. I can only piece together me saa scraps or information that have reached us. You may remember the plan of Captain Scott's intended march from his base camp, some 800 miles, to the South Pole. Sixteen members of the expedition were to start with their leader, and at successive stages four were to be dropped, leaving the last four to go with Captain Scott to the final goal. They left in November.

1911, and they had not returned when the relief ship left the base in February, 1912, but were reported as last heard of 150 miles from the Pole, all well, and advancing steadily on January 4, 1912. the news that has come to hand is as follows. On or about January 18 in last year, the advance party, consisting of Captain Scott, Lieutenant Bowers, Captain Oates (who had charge of the ponies), and Pottv Officer Evans, reached the South Pole. They found there Amund-j sen's tent and records. On the return journey at a spot known as One Tun Depot, and on or about March 29 two months therefore after leaving the Pole the party wera caught in an overpowering blizzard.

Scott, Bowers, and Wilson died on the date given. Captain Oates succumbed some time later Evans died of accident the word concussion is used, wo know no more to-night. Tomorrow the details of the sad story will be made clear. "We shall learn how their comrades learnt tho fate of the pioneers and how their records were recovered, for it is evident from the fact that we learn of their finding Amundsen's records that their own must have been preserved. Excellently Equipped.

It is a truism to say that in groat adventures it is always the unexpected that happens. No Arctic or Antarctic party was, 1 suppose, ever sent out better equipped or better fitted by the gallantry or experience ef its members from Captain Scott downward to meet with the ordinary perils of the poles. But Arctic travel would not be what it is a training-ground for the highest qualities of the British race if these perils were alti-gether avoidable, and of all dangers in the region of snow and ice, crprrtn crette, there Is none so terrible or overwhelming as -i blizzard. Even on European mountains it has counted its victims bs dozens. I lost a friend on the Alps only last summer in such a storm.

We can imagine how these terrors are multiplied a hundredfold on icy uplands ten thousand feet about the sea level in the heart of tho Antarctic. In those conditions, unless shelter is at hand, human powers, even of the toughest, cannot long maintain the struggle against the malignant powers of nature. The end must come, and as a rule it comes speedily and not unmercifully. To-night it is too soon to realise what we have lost or to tell tho praises of these men and to move votes of condolence. Such more formal expressions of our deep regret and our heartfelt sympathy must be left to a later day, wheat we can speak with further knowledge.

Mrs. to whom condolence is in the first placo due and of whom we all think at this moment, is on the ocean between America and New Zealand on her. way as sic oelijves to her husband. All I can say to-night, ami in doing so feel I am giving" voice to the feelings of everyone present, is "Farewell! ore alqur rale." to a band of heroes whose names will shine as examples of tho endurance which is the highest form of courage and a noble evidence of the qualities of Englishmen. Not onco or twice in our rough island story have these qualities been shown, and never more conspicuously than by the members of this ill-fated experition.

Captain Scott lives in all our minds and will live in our memories as an ideal of the English sailor of our age a man intellectually gifted as well as brave and resourceful in all emergencies, full of scientific zeal and enthusiasm. Xor do his companions deserve less. They were equal in their endurance and their "deaths. Of their accomplished work we shall hear hereafter. For the moment we can think only of the price that jhas been paid for it.

The meeting is now adjourned." Without another word and in complete silence the great audience dissolved. OTHER EXPLORERS' VIEWS DIFFICULT TO BELIEVE THE REPORTS. i FROM OUPv CORRESPONDENT.) New York, Monday. The news of the death of Captain Scott and ot the catastrophe whicli has overwiielmea his South Polar expedition, has evoked everywhere the deepest sympathy with all who were connected with the enterprise. Captain Scott was highly esteemed in this a lu' Smith Polar exnlorations have been followed with intense interest.

He was a personal friend or near Aumirui tuo discoverer i Admiral, though ill in bed at his home in Washington, where he is recovering from a recent operation, was immediately informed of the disaster to Captain Scott's expedition. dmiral Peary was loth to believe the intelligence at first, and said: "It is a frightful catastrophe. I can hardly believe that it is true, and I shall be terribly shocked if it is proved that poor Scott is dead and his expedition a failure." Captain Amundsen, who is at present lec- 1 tliring 111. tniS auu miunneu i the fate that had overtaken Captain Scott, and a message from Chicago states that the discoverer of the South Pole utterly refused to believe the statement. He said Why it is impossible that all the party can have perished as stated.

one of them must be alive. A South Polar blizzard ds not necessarily mean a fierce storm, and jf Scott was so nearlv behind me I can hardly credit that such a "fearful change took place in the weather as to cause a blizzard which has blotted out his expedition. Until it is proved I shall believe the report to be a Ameasage has been received to-day from New Zealand, via Vancouver, which states that Captain Scott's body was found and that records in his notes 6howeq that he had found Captain Amundsen's Norwegian flag planted at the South Pole. DEATH AFTER REACHING THE POLE; WHOLE SOUTHERN PARTY PERISH. UNAVAILING STRUGGLE TOWARDS SAFETY.

AMUNDSEN'S TENT FOUND BY ENGLISHMEN. Captain II. V. Scott, the famous Antarctic explorer" and four other members of the British Polar Expedition have- (lied amidst ho Southern ice. The five men were the whole Southern party.

They had reached i ho Pule on January 18, 1912, just over a month after Captain Amundsen, the Norwegian, and had struggled far back towards safety when they were overcome. Scott and his last two companions it i bclievpd, on the 29th of March, They had descended the glacier from the gnat inland plateau on which is thei Pole. From it.s foot they had marched northward to within a few miles of a stock of provisions at a place named by them One Ton; Jlppot. There, almost in reach of succour, ilw struggle ended. Presumably, the bodies' wi-re found by a search party sent out from tin- base on McMurdo for Lieutenant Evans, of the Terra Nova, Scott's ship, who ipports the disaster, gives details which must have been learnt from the dead men's records.

One is that the explorers found at the Pole ii Norwegian tent and so knew that Amundsen had been there before them. Death was due to exposure and want. On the journey southward the party left One Ton Depot on November 17 on Januarj' 18 they were at the Pole; on March 29 the last died near One Ton Depot. Thus ii- days were spent on the march south and 71 at the Pole and on the way back. Those few days' delay, due very likely bad ttcatluM-, were perhaps tho cause of the final divister.

It should be noted, that even, in days, aro included five days delay to storm during the ascent in of the Bi-aduion glacier. Mis. Scott, the wife of the explorer, is- now on lior way to New Zealand. Her plan was meet her husband there on his return from the Antarctic. She left San Francisco tor Auckland a few days ago, and is now out of reach of news.

She will not hear of the disaster until the steamer on which she is travelling establishes wireless telegraphic communication with New Zealand. Tho names of tho men who roadie' the Pole and perished are: Captain Scott. Royal Navy. Dr. "Wilson, chief of the scientific staff.

Captain Oates. Imiiskilling Dragoons (in charge of ponies and mules). Lieutenant Bowers, Royal Indian Marine officer). Petty Officer Evans, R.N. (in charge of pledges and equipment).

HOW THE NEWS CAME. "CEXTKAL NEWS SPECIAL TELEGRAM.) News of the disaster to the expedition reached London yesterday in the following ir.e.agos. one of which, it is interestine to note, contains the announcement of the substantiation of Amundsen's claim to have reached the Pole: Christchurch, N.Z., Monday. The Terra Nova, tho vessel of the British Antarctic Expedition, has returned from the Antarctic. She brings new of a terrible calamity which has befallen the expedition, of which details wdl be telegraphed to you later.

A telegram from Commander Evans, of the Terra Nova, announcing the disaster, runs: Christchurch, N.Z., Monday. aptnin Scott reached the South Pole on January 18 of last year, and there tennd the Norwegian tent and records. (1n their return a word here is undecipherable the southern party perished, 'ott, Wilson, and Bowers died from exposure, and want during a blizzard March 29 when eleven miles from One Ton Depot," or 155 miles from the hse at Cape Evans. Oates died from exposure on March 17. Seaman Edgar Iv ans died from concussion of the brain on February 17.

The health of the re-niaining members of the expedition is excellent. (Signed) E. R. G. Evans, Lieut.

R.N., Commander. THE KING'S SYMPATHY. reply to a message from Lord Curzon ICedleston, who is president -oi the Royal Centra phical Society, to the King, "who" is I a i ron of tho Society, announcing the news the death of Captain Scott and his com-; anions, the King telegraphed last evening follows: am deeply grieved to hear the veryj o.i i news which vou give me oi tne loss oi ut. fsurr nf his nartv iust when ewe were hoping shortly to welcome tneni home on tnevr return uji arduous undertawng. j.

neuruuy xu Timro SOCietY i Scott in February and we can imagine tho i depots missed and food running short, whilst strength gradually gave way Of the peril from shortness of food, Sir lirncst Shackleton's journey is the classical example in South Polar exploration. In the final dash for tho Polo ho and his party took with them sufficient iood had they been able to cover fifteen miies a day. But they voro not able, owing to unexpected difficulties of ground aud weather. "Tho short food," ho says on December 28, "is trying." "Our sleclgo is badly strained," he adds on December 29, and on tho abominably bad surface of soft snow is dreadfully hard to move." On December y0 We only did four miles one hundred yards to-day a blizzard spring ing up ii-om the south. Our precious food is going." On January 1 ''Struggling up mil all day in very soft snow.

Everyone done up and weak from want of food." A day passes, and then Wo are weakening from want of food." On January 4 "The end is sight," he says. Short food and a blizzard from the south, with driving drift at a temperature of 47deg. of frost, have plainly told us to-day that we aro reaching our limit." "Hunger grips us ho says on January 5, and on the 7th, blinding, shrieking blizzard all day with from GOdeg. to 70deg. of frost." And so at last, on January and on tho 7th, "A blinding beaten only by hunger within a hundred miles of the South Pole.

There is enough even in these quotations to explain the fate of Captain Scott. But perhaps the cause was scurvy. Turn, lwuv, mui an mt lu-euauuuiu mat nave ueen taken, is beyond our ability to explain. Tho uvil having come, the great thing now is to banish it. It was comparatively easy for aptain Scott to hanish this dreaded disease tho outset of an expedition, when all kinds stores were ready to his hand, but if by ny chance he and Ins men were attacked by it on their return from the Pole hundreds miles from the ship, with only the scanty depote or food to rely on, this again even apart from a.

the other perils that ho hl to face would be sufficient to cut them off ron' safety. IV. THE WORK OF THE EXPEDITION. On the 3rd January, 1912, Captain Scott, then about 130 miles from the South Pole, wrote: "I am going forward with a party of nvo lneu an(i am sencijng three back under Lieutcnant Evans with this note. The jiames and descri tions of tJle advancc party arcCaptain Scott 1 Dr wil.

chio of scienfcist Btaff; Captain Oates, Inniskilling Dragoons, in charge of ponies aud muUa Lieuteiiant Bowers, Hoyal Indian Marine, commissariat officer; Petty Officer Evan charge of sledges and equip- 1 1 incut. Tho advance party goes forward with a month's provisions, and the prospect of muuiu lUVlSlUJiO, dllll Lilt- IL success provided that the weather holds and nQ unforeseen obstacles arise. It has been yery diffiei party as everyone i cult to choose the advance is fit and able to go for- ward" disappointed. Everyone has worked his The weather on the plateau has been good on the whole. Tho sun has never deserted us, but temperatures are low (now about minus 20 degrees), and wind is pretty nutant.

However, we are excellently equipped for such conditions, and the wind undoubtedly improves the surface. So far all the arrangements have worked out most satisfactorily. It is more than probable that no further news will be received from us this year, as our return must necessarily bo late." Those words of Captain Scott were telegraphed home from New Zealand ten months ago. They had been written at a place 87deg. 32min.

south, situated on the great ice plateau which surrounds tho Pole. Lieutenant Evans turned back towards the base, and Captain Scott with four companions pushed on to death. Until yesterday's tale of disaster arrived no later news of the explorer had reached the world. The Explorers' Progress. Captain Scott left England with a hope of being the first man to reach the South Pole.

That ambition was not satisfied, for Captain Amundsen, the Norwegian, starting from a base at tho eastern end of the Great Ice Barrier, about 360 miles from the spot chosen for his starting place by Captain Scott, marched southward and reached the Pole on December 14, a month and four days before! Captain Scott, who arrived there oh January 18, to learn by finding a Norwegian tent that he had been forestalled. The other objects of his expedition the British explorer accomplished. His ship the Terra Nova, an old Dundee whaler, which had also carried Sir E. Shackleton to the Antarctic, left New Zealand on November 29, 1910. In the March of the next year she returned, having laned the expedition, with its 35 dogs, 19 Siberian ponies, and motor-sledges, at Cape Evans on McMurdo Sound.

A year later still the Terra Nova, after another voyage to the south, was back at Akeroa, New Zealand, with reports of the explores', progress and information that a third season was to be spent in the Antarctic. The plan from the. beginning bad been that titer-nrat part of the stay amidst the ice sbotud- be devoted to scientific investigation and the SIR E. SHACKLETON INCREDULOUS, (Keuteii's Correspondent.) New York, Monday. Sir Ernest Shackleton was amazed when he was shown the despatches received from New Zealand reporting the late of Captain Scott, I cannot believe it true," he said.

It is incouceivablo that an expedition so well equipped as Captain Scott's could perish before a blizzard." Sir Ernest Shackleton added that ho had laced the severest blizzards without disaster, but he declined to comment further until luller reports had been received. SIR GEORGEREID, R.S.A. received in Aberdeen yesterday oi the death, iu Somersetshire, of Sir George Heid, president of the Royal Scottish Aca demy. Sir George Reid was born in 1841 in Aberdeen in the house of Jamesone, the first great British portrait painter. Very early in life Reid was apprenticed to the lithographic trade, and he served lus time.

His ideas seem to have turned to painting tliTough his acquaintance with Wil-iiamXiddrie, an itinerant portrait painter of a type not uncommon in Scotland before the era of photography. Young Reid studied under Niddrie in the early morning at a shilling a lesson, and in the he copied topo graphical scenes irom view hooks. At tho an of twenty-two he was studying in Edinburgh at ujo ifaaemy scnocis, where Scott Lauder, the famous teacher, among whose pupibr were urcnarcison. iMeTaggart, Taul Chambers, and lorn ixraliaru. was then his work.

'J'hs turning pouit in Reid's life came sud denly at the sight of a painting by the Dutch aitisi Zollinger an artist now quite forgotten among his many remarkable contemporaries won louniieu tne modern Dutch scliool. Some tiling in the sohor colouring and romantic senti ment of the Dutchman appealed to Reid, and with characteristic decision he settled that this was the master for him, so lie ivrote to Mollinger aim asaeu it ne would tako him as a nuoil. Zollinger, probably much touched by the tribute irom a young artist of another land, cordially agreed, and Reid went to Holland and studied uouei mm ana latterly under Israels. The incident reads like a page from Vasai i. After a year in Paris under Yvon, the painter of uuuie scenes, and some months with Isreals at the Hague.

Reid returned to Rdinbureh A certain blackness which marks off his work from the other Scotsmen of his time are the obvious signs of his Dutch training. Yvon's example probably inspired Reid's "Montrose's Army," a snowy scene with wild hills and dark clouds, a long hlaok Hue of Highlandmen advancing out of the storm, and birds of prey overhead. Overwhelming as the landscape is, the sinuous black line of the clansmen holds its own and gives the significance he desired to tne composition. The Royal Scottish Academy accepted one of his picture? in 1862, and elected him an Associate in 1370 aud an Academician seven years later. The President ship fell to him in 1891, and the customary knighthood followed.

He retired from the position eleven years later. In Scotland Sir George Reid's position as a portrait painter was hardly challenged for twenty years, and his gallery of Scots scientists, statesmen, noblemen, lawyers, lairds, and pro vosts is for its time almost as representative as Raeburn s. Scotsmen seem to have a special gift for portraiture in art as in letters. Reid's gift resembles Boswell's in the firm clearness with which his subject is made to stand in the light, in the absence of anything showy or insincere in the presentation of the man, and in the concealment of the art by which he seems to allow the man to put his own case himself. The character and reality of his sitters were never overcome by robes, uniforms, and trappings, as his portraits of Bishop Moorhouse and Sir Bartle Frere, for example, proved.

His straightforward, almost offhand portraits of men standing in their every-day clothes with habitual creases' and folds, was an original department of his work. The best of these is J. C. Hook, the painter, but his W. Robejtson," with its extraordinary account of a modest hard' headed, tired-looking business man wearing a well-used overcoat as well as a.

gold chain of office, has the veracity and insight of a Maroni. Old Lord Stair in his loose country clothes and grey hat is an instance of his most matured skill in painting. Like Boawell, however, Reid also tended to be prosaic, even prosy, at times, and a collection of his work would probably show a noticeable lack of variety in design and tones and callousness to the possibilities of colour. But even to the end of his long; life he was generally esteemed as one of the three lading portrait painters of men in Britain. As a landscape painter Sir George Reid has a great reputation among artists, but the' present generation has seen very few of 'these, works in public exhibitions.

A painting of Mary's Loch." shown in a retrospective exhibition a few years ago certainly confirmed high opinions. The lonely hillside with a few headstones of a forgotten churchyard, the steely waters of the 'ittle loch, and the evening settling down with clouds, were rendered with a powerful grip of essential tones and the; movements of the light a beautiful piece- of unforced romantic poetry. Reid's flower pieces, where he allowed his sense of colour most freedom, are also sought after, although seldom seen. It is to be hoped that the Royal Scottish Academy will honour "itself by gathering ujsreuier ine m-any sines oi me wore- in onei comprehensive exhibition. Only then ehall we 1 lVjf the full stature of this.gifted-a.nd serious CAPTAIN SCOTT.

I. A SKETCH 0E THE MAN AND HIS WORK. By X. RUDMOSE BROWN (of the Antarefic Expedition of 1902). In the summer of 1900 Lieutenant Scor.t, then serving on H.M.S.

Majestic, flagship to the Channel Squadron, was appointed to lead the British Antarctic Expedition in tho Discovery. That expedition, one of the uest equipped that ever Bet out forbe Antarctic, sailed the year following, and returned in 190-1. It was a conspicuous success and added most materially to our knowledge of all branches of science in the South Polar regions, while tho southern sledge party, jon-sisting of Captain Scott, Mr. (now- Sir) E. H.

Shackleton, ami Dr. E. Wilson, succeeded in reaching 82deg. lGinin. south on the great Ross Barrier, the world's southern "record up to that time.

Despite difficulties in liberating the ship from the ice, which entailed' the spending of a second winter in the south, all went well, and Captain Scotb justified the choice that liad been made when he was chosen, an untried man, to command his expedition. Moreover, he was the first to undertake a long sledge journey in Antarctic regions. On his return to Europe Captain Scott was jo-ceived with a great welcome. He was promoted to tho rank of captain in the navy an early promotion, considering his age, and received a shower of gold medals from almost every geographical tociety. For several years Captain Scott held an appointment at the Admiralty, but his Antarctic ambitions were not dead.

The success of Sir Ernest Shackleton in reaching 88deg. 22min. south fired Captain Scott to further efforts, and after many trials and disappointments he succeeded, in 1910, in raising enough money to equip a second expedition. In June of that year Captain Scott left Cardiff in the Terra Nova. Many of his former comrades accompanied him, and Dr.

E. Wilson should specially be remembered. No finer tribute can be paid to the leader of a Polar expedition than to say that the men who served with him before aro willing to servo again. The Terra Nova was well equipped in every way. and all on board were confident achieving their object.

Captain Scott expressly stated before he left that his object was tho scientific exploration of the unknown region, and that tho attainment of tho Pole, much as he desired to achieve it, was only secondary to such work. A Threatened Danger Captain Amundsen, who reached the South Pole in December, 1911, had spoken the Terra Nova in his ship the Eram, in the Ross Sea, and, though that was earlier in the season, thcie were grave forebodings in what ho had to tell. A few months ago I had a long talk with Captain Amundsen about Captain Scott's chances of reaching the Pole. Captain Amundsen predicted that Captain Scott would be there about the middle of He actually reached it on January 18. But would he come back? That was the problem.

Already there had been symptoms of scurvy, the most dreaded diseaso of the Polar explorer. There was no definite assurance that the southern party was affected, but there was a. grave, risk, even though tho symptoms might not be acute. The weakening effect of the milder attack would be sure to tell against them, and where, under tho terrible conditions of travel on the inland ice of Antarctica, the balance in favour of men's lives is so small, the prospect was ominous indeed. The news to hand ascribes the fate of the party to their encountering a severe blizzard, but blizzards do not kin men, if they aro well fed and in good health.

It is true that they may have lost their way and missed their depots of food, but that is hardly likely, especially in view of the fact that the disaster must have been discovered by a search party following Captain Scott's tracks. A year before he left for the Antarctic in the Discovery I first met Captain Scott. It was in the house of that veteran of Antarctic exploration the late Sir Joseph Hooker Scott was to lead the Discovery, and I was to sen under Bruce in the Scotia. Neither of us knew anything of Polar exploration, and we listened eagerly to the words of our great master. We both learned much, and applied it in opposite parts of the Antarctic, and though Scott and I met frequently afterwards, I do not think that any occasion was more memorable.

A quiet, reserved man, laconic even in his speech, he gave many the opinion that-he was supercilious, but that was a mistaken impression. He believed in himself, as every explorer must, and he knew his work, and, above, all, he knew how to choose his men. His heart was in his work, and he meant above all things to carry his country's flag to the South Pole. He has done though at the cost of his life, but in December 190' It is said that a' blizzard has overtaken his! partvand himself, but it seems probable that there must have been some other cause which weakened the powers of resistance of tho "allant explorers. This may have been due to a of provisions or it may have been due totn undermining of their strength by an outbreak of scurvv, for tho return party is reported to have" suffered from this terrible scourge.

There seems to be no doubt that the weather experienced by Shackleton and Scott was more severe than that experienced by Amundsen, although probably the which any Norwegian party would have in the uso of ski must have made travelling for them over those I same regions infinitely lighter. Captain Airmw1fm nonpars to have had a finer i eciuinment of docs than any other Antarctic expedition has ever had, which has also told in his. favour. Be that as it may, had not some untoward event happened such as I have indicated, bcott, with the fine equip- ment that he had, would certainly ha accomplished the journey to the Poland back to McMurdo Bay. It seems clear that Captain Scott records are savea, as uuuouoieuiy companions would consider their last duty to T1 1 1 lioliitirl MPm oiai expiuianun lu the record of work done.

These records can- not fail to add much to our knowledge ot the interior of the Antarctic, of great value to future explorers, anu aiso to inose mu undertake a systematic scientific survey of Antarctic investigation. The observations must enhance the value of other observations that havo been taken syneftronousiy. jspcci- in metonroloirv and magnetism, the com biiied results of Scott's, Amundsen's, Mawson's. and Filchner's expeditions aro of the greatest value to science, and it may be commerce, in South Polar exploration. III.

AMDNDSEN-S1IACKLEK )X SCOTT. We have only to turn to the records of the sireat Antarctic explorers, Shackleton, Amundsen, and Scott himself, to read on page after page of dangers which, singly or together, may have led to this last disaster. The telegrams speak of a blrzzard. Every book on Antarctic exploration teems with instances of terrible blizzards which descended suddenly on the travellers and delayed them on their way, using up the precious stock of provisions, or making it more difficult for them to find their way to the depot where safety, in the form of further food, awaited them. Take, for instance, Amundsen on his way to the South Pole in November, 1911.

"In the course, of the night," ho savs, "the wind had gone back to the north and increased to a gale. It is the devil own weather said one it to me as if it would never get any better. This is the fifth day and it is blowing worse than 'There is nothing so bad as lying said another it takes more out of you than going from morning till "A few. days later," says Amundsen, ''the wihel came on in earnest with a sweeping bliazard from the south-cast. If we had known the ground we should possibly have gone on, but in this s-torm and driving snow, which prevented our keeping our eyes open, it was no use.

A serious accident might happen and ruin alh" And yet again, on September 20. The wind came" from the south-east and the weather became-grey aud thick. lost the trail," he savs. "and had to tio by iumnass." And ou returning from the Pule he described how for some time the party actually lost one oil their depots. We have only to suppose a series of such storms descending on Captain I oiiuau tins -rrt i in the loss to science and discovery thrpugtt ihe death of these gallant explorers.

Please nd to me any further particulars. "Geobgb B. A'D.

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