The Guardian from London, Greater London, England on January 20, 1913 · 14
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The Guardian from London, Greater London, England · 14

London, Greater London, England
Issue Date:
Monday, January 20, 1913
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4 THE MANCHESTER GUARDIAN. MONDAY, JANUARY 20, 1913. MARY FISHER AT ADRIANOPLE. In 1657 when Sultan Mahomet the Fourth had removed his Court to Adrianople a Quaker servant girl appeared one day before the Royal encampment demanding speech with the Grand Turk about the things of her religion. The 'account of her journey reads like" a page from the "Arabian Nights," and. is j worthy of a place hi history beside that of : the young Saracen who found her way to her beloved across the breadth of Europe with the two words " Gilbert " and " London " for her passport. But it is doubtful whether this. seventeentn-century pilgrim possessed so ; much as two words of any foreign tongue. The mysticism which was so pronounced an element in her religion made nought of material obstacles. She was sustained by tome such vision as that which comforted jthe Quaker preacher in Newgate Gaol a 'vision of " several men, of most nations Upon the earth, whose (outward) lan-. guage I understood not, but the seed of God in them I saw and understood clearly . . . ureathing and crying to the Lord." Again, however dreadful was the report of Turkish .'cruelty which was current in England, it was not likely to exceed the cruelty which Mary had endured at the hands of her own countrymen. Although not yet 35 yearsf Age, ?ie had had long and varied acquaintance with the insides of English prisons. While still a young girl in service at Selby, her determined interruptions of the service iu the "Steeple-house" had earned her three periods of imprisonment in York Castle, and 'she was the first of the Friends to ehduro the "punishment of public flogging, the result of her denunciation of the Cambridge scholars. In 1656 she had attempted to carry the Gospel into New England, but was not even allowed the privilege of landing in Boston. By order of the Deputy Governor she and her companion . were stripped and searched for signs of witchcraft, and after lying in prison for five weeks, half-Gtarved and unable to communicate with' their "friends, they were shipped back whence they came. Mary may well have preferred the tender mercies of thej Turk to those of her own kindred. fro 5 mi mraoui precedent lor ir journey, although up to this date no Quaker missionary had succeeded in reaching the 'capital of Turkey, being invariably cepted along the route and sent home by an English Consul or Ambassador. The mis- She was not without precedent for her sion which set out from England in 1657 ,7. "7 ' " "to convert the Grand Signior consisted of Turkuh capital, where the former language three men, all of them Irish, and three uPPl"n has given place to words of women, of whom Marv Fisher was one, and, Pnan.?-. . looks very probable, hostih-according to. contemporary accounts, the only 5 Jn . ar. ontf resumed one who reached the goal of their journey. ouman,f s, intervention at this juncture will They started with the help of the 'newly-j TTn" c.ontributory causes, formed General Quaker Fund for the Service!,. I onnini,i s claim for compensation can of Truth Abroad, which contains items for j hnd ,n Justification in contract, can it be this year under the head of "Turkey," to any better defended on grounds of tort P As the amount of 177. os. 7d. At Zante," which i a ref"Jt of the war and at the price of they reached by way of Leghorn, the first unto.f sacrifices, Bulgaria will, no doubt, separation occurred, and Mary Fisher, still conslerabIy. extend her territories, as will accompanied by her two women friends and rf ,hef aIhes- But those acquisitions will by one of the men, pushed on to Smvrna. The - - at.tile expense of Turkey, who, instead of remaining two men, Perrot and Luffe, after j Srantmg reforms, preferred to have recourse travelling to and fro in Italy and interview- the arD'trament of the sword." Roumanian ing the Doge of Venice, were betrayed in mr?stf wl11 suffer neither directly nor Rome into tho hands of the Inquisition. The imlretly- The only link between Roumania fate of the unfortunate Luffe was for some d , , Turkish provinces is the Kutzo- time in doubWhe was reported at the end a. P?Pulatlon m. Macedonia, whose Teal of the year to have died in prison as the D,atl0naIlty still remains an open question, result of his refusal to take food, the hunger-; Preponderant majority of this interesting strike being one of the many early practices ; Sf' 10wever w, not fall to the share of of the religious world which have been re- ga.r,1Ia' but wlU be han3ed over to Greece, vi'yed of late years" in the political. The10,, . eni? the dubious advantages of truth, however, leaked out at last, that he A,ban,an autonomy. It cannot be seriously had been hanged as the reward of his too miUntamed "that the Kutzo-VJachs will be plain speaking before the Pope Alexander afJy . worse for this change in their VII. Perrot's captivity lasted for two or ; aiIeg-,anf ' .A fhort time a6 the "Man-three years longer first in the prison and cestr Guardian ' pointed out that several of latterly in a madhouse. When at last his! most prominent public men in Bulgaria release came his shattered mind had revolted : we'of Kutao-Walach or Tsintsar origin. In from the doctrines for which he had suffered faras all careers should be open to talent. bo crueny, and He became th VW nf first serious schism which took place amoncst the Quakers. The crueltv of William pPn' i summing-up of this history is onlv equalled oy its quaintness "John Pprmt. wl,n it - . - v I v ax lie Jiad been as faithful as his companion might with him have been hanged at Rome to his Own Comfort, the Truth's hnnnur ,,! imi nave oeen nangea at Home to his Comfort, the Truth's bnnnnr nn !,. Church's peace." 3Ieanwhile Mary Fisher had learnt, on arriving in Smyrna, that the Sultan was to be found at Adrianople, and thither she resolved to pursue her journey. But the English Consul, having tried in vain to dissuade ' O J 1 aill IU UlS&UadO - her from an enterprise which seemed to him uuvu niaa ana oangerous, put her on board i a ship bound for Venice. When she learnt I the destination to which she was beinc carried. Marv nersuadeH tJh eKin.n.aAM set her down upon the nearest coast. From this point there is no further word of any companion, and it seems certain that it was alone and on foot that she performed the land journey of 600 or 600 miles along the sea coast of the .Morea, Greece, and Macedonia, and so across the mountains of Thrace to the broad plain where Adrianopfe lies watered by the River Maritsa. Here the bultan was encamped with his army and the whole of his vast retinue of courtiers and attendants. -It was only after many attempts that Mary, found a friend bold enoughto speak for her to the Grand Vizier and tell him that a woman was come who had something to declare from the Great God to the Sultan Ahmed Pasha belonged to an Albanian family who for two generations supplied a Grand lzier to Turkey, and by their magnificent gift ana uneir genius for eovern raenr. mient even now mva 1,. i: ,v TWiniilnr Mklmno t a ii lo xn6 1 A c 7r audience with his master, and fh fnllmnn. - , ushered into his presence, where three draco-mans stood ready to act as interpreters between them. The Sultan Mahomet IV ,t 2rt oiWK Ung man 17' rod her with all the honours accorded to an ambassador. As she stood " weightilv pondering " how best to deliver her message, he spoke to her with encouraging words, bidding her not fear, for all present had good heart, and could hear it They listened gravely while she was speaking, and then the Sultan, acknowledging that what she had spoken was the Truth. HbsuW) Jim- wa hi iUa uouniry asjoxjsted onlv in the trayellod from so distant a land to briZfW a. message from the Lord God " When cH insisted on returning to her friends he r,rA her at least to accept an escort, as he" woSm not for anything that she should come to least hurt in his dominions." But it w Mary's wish to go to Constantinnnl " Ti had come, without a guard, " whither conn'ct- Therein lies the principal danger of says the old history, "she came withonf f,itho present Roumano-Bulgariah quarrel, and least hurt or scoff. A curious sidelight is thrown on the la-t stage of this journey by a letter from str Thomas Bendish the English Ambassador at Constantinople, to be found in the Thurlon State Papers. It is dated 24th July, 1658. Nor are all our troubles from without he complains; "some are, as I may sav. fmm anoongst us and from within us. ncMmrln'. generation of people crept in unawares called SfrL, yJa BOt, l0,11"106 amved FKflSS wS'tSdST-? unTv Teason of their . disturbances of our Divine exercises and several notorious contempts of me and my authority, I friendly warned them to. return, wiuuu iue iu mnuen aid quietly but John Buckley refusing. I was constrained to ship him hence upon the Lewis." In this manner Mary Fisher returned to England her mission accomplished, to be Quakers as he that spake to the Grand r Mabel R BHAronr. I ROUMANIA AND BULGARIA A CRITICISM OF THE DEMAND FOR COMPENSATION. (FROM A BULGARIAN CORRESPONDENT.) Stripped of euphemisms, Roumania's demand for compensation signifies nothing less than the right of neutrals, by threatening : invasion of the unprotected provinces of belligerents, to extort full payment for the benefits, real or imaginary, which may have been derived from their neutrality. The least which could be objected to this theory is that it is somewhat novel. Cynical studenta 0f history may insinuate that there is nothing unusual in such conduct, but it is nonethe less a historical fact that one must go pretty far back to . find a precedent warranting similar pretentions. Neutrality has often proved a profitable policy, but in nearly ah the cases the reaped advanies had been stipulated' by a preliminary arrangement. Tn the present instance no such agreement exists between Roumania and Bulgaria. The former country was more than once invited to join the Balkan States, but, for reasons which are best known to its statesmen, preferred to remain outside the ring. The neutrality which Roumania has observed during the present war can hardly be described as benevolent in so far as the Allies are concerned. Roumanian sympathies have all along been with Turkey; the Roumanian Custom-houses, railways, ports, and steamers were placed at the full disposal of the Turks, and it is no secret that hundreds of cannons, ammunition, and other war materials have been fiowin ginto Constantinople by way of Constanza. If the Turkish army behind the Tchataldja lines is not a mere mob, this is in no small measure duo to tho manner in which Roumania lias observed her obligations as a neutral Power. Whatever doubts may still have remained as to the real attitude of Roumania towards the belligerents have been definitely dispelled by the unblushing flirta tions wnicn aro now going on between Bucharest and Constantinople. Members of the Roumanian Cabinet have boldly proclaimed the political solidarity of the two nations, and at this hour the brightest ray of ), n..i . , , i . ZTu- frm thLbanks ,f the XftWmA ms my Jmerely a inter-'tSTl fT ? S& 71 f i - TueJ. fnfn ulSa"a sub?on, utite immediate effect has nave rarea netter in fulga,na tnan m the country which now nrearens war on their behalf. The Question of Nationality. Roumanians, of all people, should he very caref ul in using the argument of nationality nn ,otv.iic 4.: x ii voouuig covetous eyes - on foreign territory. ' It is too often forgotten that the Roumanian Dobrudja is, geographically and ethnographically, a Bulgarian province, as was also that part of Bessarabia in exchange for which Roumanin. nKtQ;nA 1 o?D , -, , .ijwu tlx ic 8 ,territory on tbe right bank of the " twenty or thirty years ago one. nno visitea places like Giurgevo ',A lexandria, Zimnitza, Craiova, or Ploesti. and - an uw muauiwims speaKmg pure Bulgarian, would have suspected that they is no exaggera tion to say that even after Bulgaria h annexed the Kutzo-Vlachs of Macedonia there will be at least five inhabitants of Bulgarian origin in Roumania to one of Roumanian origin in Bulgaria. The differ enoe between the two countries is -at whereas in Bulgaria everybody is free- openly to proclaim his nationality, the Roumanian authorities have adopted a policy which makes it a very unpleasant task to be anything except a direct descent of the Eniwror Trajan. 1 As neither of these two excuses for the Roumanian demands on Bulgaria aro very convincing, a third argument has been invented in support of Roumania's contentions. It is said that Bulgaria ioi disposed of the Turkish problem, will next turn -iier atxention northwards and will beir If anj-tlnnK. this last argument is than the other two. Those who are acquainted with Bulgarian affairs will bear ready witness to the fact that for the Bulgarians no Dobrudja problem exists. They have found sufficient consolation for losing a province that formed part of their countrv ..i. ..o tu.iLv Liiab a, uuuer oLate was creaxi oei-ween tuemseives and Russia The idea of protecting Dobrudja from imaginary Bulgarian peril by adding to it a further contingent of Bulgarians is nothing short of political folly whose immediate consequence u w iieaiB a, prooiem mat nas hitherto or 8.cbeming politicians. For it does not 1 reqmTO any xcePtlonal prescience to foretell that the aca.uls,t,on b7 Roumania, through ;Physica? or molH Pressure. of large tracts undisputed Bulgarian land will provoke amonS tbe Bulgarians bitter ; resentment which will sooner or later find vent in in it is a danger far graver for the future f Roumania than for that of her temporarv antagonist. A policy which is calculated to make of Bulgaria a permanent enemy can only be pursued at the expense of those interests which stand nearest to the heart of the Roumanian nation. What Roumania stands to gain by the embarrassment of Bul- earia is so insignificant in comparison with what she is certain to lose that, unless common sense and self-interest count for nothing with R-an tetesmansbiP'. there is Wy 6round for -hoping that wiser counsels will Preva n Bucharest before any fatal step has been taken. At their annual meeting held at Stafford on Saturday the Staffordshire Agricultural Arviet.v decided to hold this year's show at Wolver- the 1914 ehow at Lichfield was received. The ZL 1 president. PROFIT-SHARING. SIR W. P. HARTLEY AND HIS WORKPEOPLE. Sir W. P. Hartley addressed a large meeting of- the men and women employed in his jam factories at Aintree on Saturday night, on the profits under Uie Aintree profit-sharing scheme. ! Aintree Institute, was of the amount of 4,650,; divided into upwards of seven hundred shares, j Sir William Hartley gave a short account of; the progress of the scheme, comparing its results with those of similar schemes in other parts of the country. He said : " Our profit-sharing has been in existence for such a long time and has taken place every year with such unfailing regularity that it has now come to be looked upon almost as a permanent institution. I spoke a year ago of the succession of strikes that the country had experienced. I am hoping that this year the country will be comparatively free from these labour troubles. With good employment and good wages the public will have more money to spend on both necessities, and luxuries, and should this happy state of affairs occur it will help our business, because we enjoy in an unusual degree a national reputation for our goods. A SCHEME WHICH HAS WORKED WELL. " We have now reached our twenty-eighth distribution, and we can claim that ' profit-sharing has worked well with us. Our interests are mutual, each renders some indispensable service, and it is for us to endeavour to look at all questions from the point of view of the other side. Both you and I have much to be thankful for. Our business has been established in Liverpool for about forty years, and we have never had any labour difficulty.' Within the past two months there has been published by the Board of Trade a report of all the known profit-sharing schemes in the United Kingdom, 133 of them,- and the average of the profit-sharing is given. The report says that only a little more than half (57 per cent) of the total number of workers in the profit-sharing concerns were entitled to share. in the profits, and it also gives the average percentage of profit-sharing compared with wages. In our case every person in our employ receives some profit-sharing, and I am also glad to tell you that the average of our profit-sharing is neariy double the average for the entire country. In this connection it is interesting for me to read to you what was said by the Board of Trade in their first report on profit-sharing in 189122 years ago. The report was presented to both Houses of Parliament, and in it the following statement is made:' The preserve factory of Mr. W. P. Hartley, at Liverpool, is an illustration o" profit-sharing. Mr. Hartley has always sought to maintain good relations with, his workpeople. factory is a model. All the arrangements of this establishment indicate an employer who has been anxious that his prosperity should redound to the well-being of his workpeople.' j.he official of the Board of Trade, who wrote j fPort Paid a personal visit to the works, and therefore spoke from his own knowledge. THE PENSION FUND. " Our pension fund was started four years ago, and after adding interest and deducting the payments for the past year, the fund stands at 7,207. I have now real pleasure in adding 1,000, so from to-night the pension fund. will stand at 8,207. I do not ask you to contribute to it, but I hope to be able to add something from year; to year. I now come to our weekly collection for the Liverpool hospitals. Eight years ago you authorised me to deduct Id. per week from the men's wages, and Jd. per week from the women's wages. The amount contributed by you during the past year is 87. 6s., this being the largest sum we have reached. When the fund was started I promised to double your contributions for this work, therefore, the total amount available to-night is 174. 12s. THE INSURANCE ACT. " Many persons think that the Hospital Saturday and Sunday Fund will suffer because of the Insurance Act. The insurance payment from the workers' point of view is not a tax, but it is an insurance, and the workpeople have also the great advantage of having placed to their credit the payments made by nie and also the payment by the State. The contributions to hospitals, especially from workpeople, should not suffer, because, instead of the insurance payment being a tax upon them, it appears to me to be a great benefit. I do not speak politically ; I "simply .desire to give a business and humanitarian view. I have carefully gone through the entire list of persons who are to leceive the profit sharing, and have personally settled and entered with my own hand the share which each of you will receive. The amount to be distributed to-night is 4,650, and the total from the beginning 71,155." MR. NORMAN ANGELL. THE SENSORY NERVES OF THE MODERN WORLD. Mr.. Norman Angell, author of "The .Great Illusion," to whom a. dinner, will be given in Manchester to-night by the president of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, delivered the Sunday afternoon address yesterday-at the New Islington Hall, Ancoats. His. subject was " The foundations of human society." Mr. Angell called attention to facts with which he has dealt at greater length in. his well-known book. These relate to the financial interdependence ,of the modern world, and he showed how. the working of the division of labour intensified by facility of communication had brought about the decline of physical force. At a time when the division of labour was so little developed that every homestead produced all that it needed, it mattered nothing if part of the community was cut off from the world for weeks and months at a time. All the neighbours of a village or homestead might be slain or harassed and no inconvenience resulted. Nowadays, however, if a general railway strike cut off- an English county from the rest of the " economic organism for as long as 48 hours, we knew thaf whole sections of its population were threatened with famine. If, on one side of a frontier, a com. munity was wheat-producing and on the other coal-producing, each was dependent for its very existence on the fact of the other being able to carry on its labour. Interdependence had by the countless developments of. rapid communication reached such a condition of complexity that the interference with any given operation affected not merely the parties directly involved but numberless others having at first sight no connection therewith. This vital interdependence was largely the work of the last forty years. ir. aueu weni on to snow tnat tne role ot finance in the modern economic organism was to furnish it with sensory nerves. Credit was performing, among other functions, an immense service to the economic and social, organism by providing these sensory nerves, by which damage to any part or to any function could be felt - and, thanks to such feeling, avoided. The importance of this sensibility, or organic consciousness, in politics was not, he urged, generally realised. Mr. Angell had a large audience. Music was given by Miss Bertha Guthrie and friends. ATTEMPT TO WRECK A 1BAIN MANCHESTER PASSENGERS ESCAPE IN CHESHIRE. It was reported to the Cheshire police on Saturday night that on reaching Nbrthwioh at 8 35 the engine of a Manchester-Chester train on. the Cheshire Lines was found to be carrying a sleeper with a rope attached. The driver reported that he had felt a shock and his engine rocked at a distant sixnal-box near AsnW Investigations suggest that the sleeper had been fastened to the lines by an iron bar and a rope. The engine fortunately tore it away. No clue nas yet oeen oouuneu. SASH ALL OVER BABY'S H 15 ATI When abont three week old the HtO son of iln. H. 'AloSV lhe jtatg ftu&S iMtSffiSS fiS r&tV&h Outtoura Ointment faa wu completely eured. AnrxJ MAHLER'S SEVENTH SYMPHONY. FIRST PERFORMANCE IN" ENGLAND. London, Saturday Night. Gustav Mahler's work is a challenge to the conservative musician. It stands to attract the 6torm like a lightning conductor; it courts battle; and yet, in England at least, Mahler is less known almost than Bruckner. Two of his symphonies were, performed some years ago by Sir Henry Wood, and to-dayby Sir Henry Wood and the Queen's Hall Orchestra his Seventh Symphony was introduced under most favourable circumstances, but it will be a long time yet before we shall be able to claim familiarity with the bulk of his work. The reception was friendly enough, though not by any means enthusiastic. It looked as if the audience had derived some pleasure from the performance, though they felt not sure whether they were right in enjoying it. The house was full, but one missed those signs of rapt attention, of keen interest, with which people listen to a first performance of, 6ay, Strauss. They accepted the most daring harmonic feats as if they were a matter of course. Some people grin when they hear a C major chord if it happens to come in a symphonic poem of Strauss. To-day one heard a major and a minor chord played simultaneously, and yet all remained as solemn as judges. The usual plea of too short acquaintance cannot be accepted in the present case, because Mahler is first and foremost a colourist, and orchestral colour is the one element which in a composition will strike immediately or not at all. Even the tenor-horn missed fire somehow, though nobody could have 'mistaken it for one of the usual instruments of the orchestra. ; MahleT is, of course, quite justified in choosing whatever instruments suit his needs best, but there is something to be said for the purist who will not add to his orchestra- instruments which-belong to the, brass band. Certain instruments are common to both the orchestra and the brass band, but the tenor horn is not of these. In the orchestra it tyrannises unmercifully. It aots ju3t like some famous singers whose powerful voices enable them to neutralise the best efforts of their fellows. Then, again, the herd bells. That they can be used with great effect there can be no doubt, but one feels doubtful as to their efficiency in this particular instance. They are heard in the second movement of the symphony, and a German commentator says of it that "the spirits of the past seemed to be invoked, and, returning, to earth, they pass before .us in a weird nocturnal procession." The passage is quoted by Mis. Newmarch, and its accuracy should consequently be above suspicion. But what are cow-bells to these spirits of the past, and what are they to cow-bells ? The relation does not seem quite obvious to the plain man. But it is as easy to do this music an injustice as it is to praise it too highly. Probably Mahler alone could tell us whether we are to take this symphony as programme music or not. This apart, the workmanship is that of a master who knew what he wanted in the matter of colour and how to obtain it. There are passages in the score which again and again excite the wonder of the student, not only because they are daring but because they are extremely telling. And still more admirable is the strength of it all, aiming always higher and higher truly a megalomaniac of genius. As a conductor Mahler was too much in contact with the works of others not to be influenced by them in some slight degree. Unfortunately it is in his melody that foreign influences are most apparent. He is far too skilful a workman to fall into clumsy plagiarism, but a hint of some other known thing must tell at present against him, as people are only beginning to realise that melody is in itself of far less value now than it was when Brahm9 wrote. The valse section pleased most to-day, probably on account of its brilliant orchestral colour. In time the judgment may be reversed, for Mahler is not as successful as Strauss in keeping at a good distance from an undistinguished prototype. No one who list tr i dance section in " Zarathustra- will a moment Strauss's dance with the valse tunes of Waldteufel; in listening to this valse of jnaiuer, on the other hand, the link between this, classical, and the common kind is often quite apparent. It remains yet to be seen how far a second performance might modify these first sions. Such a performance ought certainly to iaxa piaee not too long hence. In the first place the work deserves it. This mm nt. He the highest music, of all, But it is unquestionably good and tremendously interesting. One may not .find in it one mighty emotion which dominates the whole, but what there is instead is .almost as good in some ways. What' more fascinating exercise than to retrace th work ing of a mind like Mahler's, with its firm belief in its own power, with its extraordinary strength ana resource it is also due to the orchestra that a second performance be given, as their playing was astonishingly good considering the nature or uie worn: indeed, one can hardly praise too highly their : aocuracv anrf t.ha in. telligence with which they followed th Wrf of Sir. Henry Wood. Mahler, himself a con ductor or consummate ability, did not scruple to make use of every device of which the orchestra is capable. The score has innumerable " asides " for the conductor. For instance, before Mahler, conductors had to persuade piayers uiat sjxmgs should be plucked in a certain way. Now Mahler demands site. Kettle-drums and double ' basses must tune in this symphony to an unusual pitch; yet these are some of the minor difficulties of the score. In spite of them there never was the least hesitation even on the part of the mandoline players, who cannot have long been accustomed to the ways of an omriest. good a performance deserves to be repeated. ' ' P. B. VICAR'S LIFE LOST. FALL OVER THE CLIFFS AT SCARBOROUGH. The Rev. Albert Knight, the .Vicar of Christ nurcn, Leeds, lost on the cliffs at Flamborough on Saturday night. He had gone to Flamborough for the day with his wife, and they walked .round the. cliffs, of which he tried to get flashlight photographs .with his camera; it was about half-past five. While on a piece of grassy slope he overbalanced and fell head loiur on the Tocks below. His wife Via a u. . " wj waUL a quarter of a mile to the nearest house to raise tne alarm., xne- nsnermen at once got out cliff ropes, but owing to the rough sea and the darkness it was impossible to find the body. Mi. Knight was educated at the University of Manchester, Episcopal School, and was ordained deacon in 1901 and priest in 1903. ; From 1901 to 1904 he was curate of St. Stephen's, Burnley; from 1904-6 of St. Clement's, Leeds! and from laoo-o, waen ae oecame vicar, of Christ Church. Leeds. Mr. Knight was one df the most popular clergymen in Leeds. At the time he went there Christ Church was in a languishing state, but bv nreaohinar and enerev he ant church every Sunday evening. He ran three fcunday scnoots. -in spite or the fact that the church, is surrounded by slum courts. h nia j &i0vu 2,000 in two years to restore the building, wnose tounaations were sinKing. Mis patents live m Bolton. Renter's Nice correspondent telegraphs that Gknebal sir ubobob rancis Bkville, a Mutiny ami Afghan War veteran, died there on Saturday at the age of 75. SPBEAD OF CO-OPERATION MEMORIAL TO THE LATE " ; MR J. C. GRAY. A marble monument to the memory and work of the late Mr. J. C. Gray, for over twenty years general secretary to the Co-operative Union of Great Britain was unveiled at Hebden Bridge on Saturday. It stands in the corner of Birch- cliffe Baptist Church graveyard, where Mr. Gray was a scholar and his father the pastor for many years. It was unveiled by Mr. Deans, chairman of the United Board of the Co-opera tive union, who was supported by the cnair-men of the English and Scottish Co-operative Wholesale Societies. Mr. Deans said Mr. Gray's activities were as varied as they were numerous, and covered wide and expanding field of operations. The great feature of his career was the part he played in the initiation and spread of co-operation in foreign countries, the development ot the International Co-operative Alliance, and the conception of his marvellous scheme for form-i f; all the societies of tho United Kingdom into one great organisation. Their foreign friends would admit the conspicuous part Mr. Gray took in laying down the foundations of his scheme. He found the co-operative movement in Great Britain comparatively small and insignificant. To-day it consisted of 8.0J0 cooperative societies, nearly seven million inon bers, and its ramifications spread over 24 countries and three continents. Much of the credit of this unprecedented success was due to hiin. His mark on the fabric of the co-operative movement, both in this and other countries, would remain undimmed and undiminished as long as the fabric cQptinued standing, testifying to the ability, devotion, and unqualified success in which he served its highest 'nterests. . . Mr. Stewart, chairman of the Scottish Wholesale Society, said in Scotland they had just as deep a regard for Mr. Gray's memory as they had in England. They regarded him as one of the greatest leaders the movement ever had. Mr. Shillotoe, chairman of the British Wholesale Society, said he recalled Mr. Gray as a magistrate, and his conduct on one occasion, when in the . chair, stood as a memorial in Manchester to-day. . He sat as arbitrator between the police and . the people, and he did and 6aid that which was right and just in the interests of the people. Mr. Halstead (secretarv of the ' Productive Federation), Mr. A. Whitehead (general . secrer tary of the Co-operative Union), Mr. J. Davidson (Northern section), Mr. Broderick, and others took part in the, ceremony. MR. A. R GILL, M.P., AT ROCHDALE. COMBINATION OF CO-OPERATORS AND : TRADE UNIONISTS. The Rochdale PioneeTs' Co-operative Society held their annual party, and concert oh Saturday night. ' Mr. A. H. Gill, M.P. for Bolton, said he started life by. selling newspapers in the streets of Rochdale. ' The town was famous as the birthplace of John Bright and as the town represented in Parliament by Richard Gobden,. but still moTe famous as the town-where cb-opera;'on was started. The Rochdale Society started with a capital of 28, contributed by 28 men. The society's capital now stood at 368,000. Last year they had made a profit of 70,890, and the .total profits of the society amounted to the enormous sum of 2i millions. The co-operative movement had now become world-wide,-and there .are-now' 2,381 societies, with 2i million members and an annual profit of 14A millions. The movement employed 72,000 persons, and paid 2 j millions a year in wages. These. were remarkable figures, but the influence of the co-operative movement could not be measured by figures. ' The Rochdale Society had established libraries in " connection with the movement, and ' they could take credit for the . establishment of free libraries throughout' the country. Mr. Gill went on to refer to the increasing influence of working men in all movements, and said it was ridiculous to say that working men were deficient in brain power; -culture, and business capacity. What the workers desired was a more equal distribution of the wealth of the country, and the irregular distribution of wealth was the cause of a great amount of labour: unrest. The way to realise this was by the combination of co-operators and trade unionists, as they were twin movements. It worked hand in hand they would effect a great improvement in the condition or the-workers. The wealth of the country was forming combines, and they would have to combine to get more of the wealth in their hands. (Applause.) MR. ARTHUR SHERWELL, M.P. THE CO-OPERATIVE BASIS OF THE INSURANCE ACT. . Addressing an audience of co-operators at the Huddersfield Technical College on Saturday, Mr. Arthur Sherwell, M.P., said that the real extent and influence of the co-operative movement was not generally realised. The most striking illustration of legislation -on the co-operative principle that we had known in connection with British politics had been the Insurance Act. That Act recognised that the liability to sickness was not calculable, nor to a very large extent was it controllable, by the individual who suffered from it. Moreover, the incidence of sickness bore no sort of true proportion to the ability of the victim to bear the strain of sickness, either financial or physical. It was precisely because the Insurance Act was based upon . the cooperative principle that it had encountered its severest opposition. The indictment levelled against it was that a man did not pay according to his need but according to a standardised or flat rate, and in some ways the most searching criticism was that the good lives paid for the bad lives. That was true. But was it not inevitable under any co-operative scheme, was It not the very essence of the co-operative principle, that the strong should bear the burdens of the weak f (Applause.) The doctors had been standing out for payment on the basis ot individual cases. " Thev had forgotten that under the co-operative aspect of the scheme they were getting the. benefit of the payment for the good lives while the treatment was directed solely to the bad lives. (Applause.) THE WEATHEB. FORECASTS FOR TO-DAY. The following forecasts of to-day's weather were issued by the Meteorological Office last night : Lancashire and the Nobth-Wesx (No. 7). South-east and east winds, increasing strong to a gale at times; squally, unsettled, some rain or snow, fair intervals; moderate temperature. The Midlands and West Ridino (No. 4). Increasing south to south-west winds, strong to a gale at times; squally, unsettled, rainy, misty locally, some fair pariods ; rather milder. GENERAL CONDITIONS. A very deep cyclone now centred off the Kerry coast will occasion very unsettled conditions over the whole country during the coming twenty-four hours. YESTERDAY JN MANCHESTER. Manchester Umversitt Mxtbobouwicaz. Obsbrva-tort, Whitwokth Pabx, Jan. 19, 1913, 9 p.m. Unsettled, slight rain at times; rather mild. Barometer falling. Tex rsKATUBE (in shade). Sunday. Bturdy. Sunday. . Saturday 9 a.m. 36 2 ... 37-9 Highest... 42-8 44-1 9 p.m. 40-8 ... 37-8 Lowest ... 332 353 Highest on black bulb Sunday 47, Saturday 50 Sunday. Saturday. Sunshine............ Nil. Nil. Rainfall 0 028m. ...... 0O20in. Sunday. Saturday. Bum. PIa a.iQ. .9p,m. Humidity, per cent 89 86 92 ...... 92 B&BOHBTEB (corrected) : Sunday. Saturday. Jfc9a.m. 29-678 29 530 At 9 p.m. 29-298 . 29-699 Wind. A gentle breeze, direction veered f rom E. to S.E."; average velocity 10 miles an hour. Sun rteaa. Ssti. Moon rlaaa. Seta. To-day 8 12... 4 Si 1 16 p Jn. . 6 68 a.m. To-morrow 8 11- 30 ...... 2 30 p.m. ... 8 0 a.m. For every tea mile north of Manchester a unset U earlier by 41 seconds. LAMP-TIME FOB CYCLISTS TO-DAY : 5 28 r.K. SECOND EDITION SPECIAL MORNING EXPRESS. GENERAL HERTZOG AND IMPERIALISM. SPEECH BY MR. SAUER. Reuter's Capetown correspondent says that the Hon. J. W. Sauer, the Soutli African Minister of Justice and Native Affairs, speaking at the Watsonians dinner on Friday evening, said he wished to remove an erroneous impression. General Hertzoft had said that he preferred to safeguard Suth Africa's interests before those of. the Empire: He (Mr. Sauer) thought there was no harm in the attitude. He had said the same himself seven years ago. He felt, however, that the likelihood of a divergence of interests was very remote. Tho reason for General Hertzog's exclusion from the Cabinet was -ffiSLt. ho and bin rvtllcuiariicui fa. ln 1 " ..uuu . v ,uati VTCTUclcll Hertzog's attitude and discussion of public matters tended to separate the races. If the two white races were trnintr Ka 1 - - o o oojiiuami, as General Hertzog suggested in his recent speecn, tnen xne ruture ot tne country was indeed doomed. As regards South Africa's support of the navy, it was fpr the people of each colony to determine whether they were in a position to nmlffl a- contribution . Ho nktJl , j L.r lUCir loyalty being judged by the amount of their payment. EXPLOSION IN RHODESIA. TWENTY-NINE KILLED. Renter's correspondent at Salisbury telegraphs that a serious dynamite explosion occurred on Friday in the Arcturu Slate Mine, two whites and 27 natives being killed. THE LONDONDERRY CONTEST. DEATH OF TWO NATIONALIST -ELECTORS. The Press Association says: The net change in tho situation - in Londonderry is the death of two Nationalist electors; a faotor. it is thought. of. far-reaching importance in determining the result, ine in ationajists still declare that they are sure of victory by units. The Unionists are equally confident that with the response of distant voters they will retain the seat. . RUGBY FOOTBALL IN PARIS. Reuter's . Paris - correspondent says that a ttugoy football matcn was nlaved there vester- day between fifteens reDresentinir .h Star? Francais and the London Ilospitals, the visitors wanning Dy- two- tries (six points) to nil. THE OUTBREAK OF TYPHOID FEVER AT NELSON. MILK THE SOURCE OF INFECTION. The fortieth case of typhoid fever and the) tmrd deatn were reported; in Nelson yesterday. All the cases, it is alleged, have been traced to the supply of milk from a farm, and the medical officer of health says that the peril of infection will not run out till next week-end. In one family five persons are suffering, and there are other cases of two or three ill in a family. A number of the oases have been iatlAtfn sit a fftrm u.--hw rWAB.iU- wiuux tli,iJll ttUUHJ nties bought a few years back during a small- PRINTWORKS LABOURERS' strike: TODAY'S CONFERENCE. The dispute at the works of Messrs. F. Steiner and Co., at Qhyrch, Oswaldtwistle, and Sabden, m wnicn BOO labourers- are on strike in support of a demand for ain- immediate advance of 10 per cent in wages, is tccbe the subject of a resumed conference to-day between Mr. A. Shaw, secretary of the Dyers.' and ' Finishers' Union, and Mr. H. K. Gill, managing director of the firm. The result is to be submitted to a mass meeting of the men called for to-night. Mr. Leech, general breraniser for th rivers' and Finishers' Union, informed our Aoorington .2-,.?v.i. i.c.1.. c vil uamiua; iiiai. ue uaa receivea a communication from a large number' of employees at Messrs. Steiner's'Sunnyside Works at Crawshawbooth (Rossendale), who have hitherto been unaffected by the dispute, asking that action should at the earliest possible moment be taken to organise tlie workpeople there. Mr. Leech states that there are between' 450 and 500 em- loyees at Sunnyside Works ready to join the D teered the information that he had alTariv plied, with the request of another section of Messrs. Steiner's' workpeople who are connected with a kindred union, asking him to communicate with their officials with a view to a sympa- mcwu siiajke wiiig umureu. An advance of wages had been asked for in respect of warn and hank dvers at MVimi-a Steiner's Hagg Works, Aocrington, and failing a settlement of this question notices are to be uanaeo in on xnursday. COMMERCIAL" TRAVELLERS' CONFERENCE. . The North-west District federation of the United Kingdom Commercial Travellers' Association, held their quarterly conference in the Bury Council Chamber on Saturday afternoon. In the absence of the Mayor of Bury, who is TSTfiRirlttnt nf t.he "Rutv Krannli v. a tion, Mr. W. Bridge, an ex-Mayor of Bury, and lULuaeii a uuiuuierciai traveller, welcomed the oTptr.Q iju Tf. - woe l"Aar,lvr1 4 i . t - o w auewin in Tnrm-3i.t.irkn rff nur rirnnKoa a At..: t' Barrow, Chorley, and Kendal within 'the next Huohci. uumaji mtiuuta ill various tarts Of tne Federations area were also discussed and MrL9.i.n - recommendationn tr fho 7--, w -wwwMatui were decided upon. . AN URBAN DISTRICT'S DIFFICULTY. There is no chemist (a correspondent writes) within the area of 'the urban district of Mottram, and people are obliged to walk, over a mile to the neighbouring village of'Holling-worth to obtain the medicine under the Insurance Act. Strong - representations are being made to the District . Council, who, it is1. expected, will apply, to the Cheshire . County Insurance Committee, to regard Mottram as a rural area, in which case local medical practitioners will be able to supply their medicines direct. ' ' ' A COUNTRY DIARY. Januabx.18. Chaffinches, bramblings, and tits were busy beneath the . beeches, gleaning the scanty remnants of a poor crop of nuts. Do they test every mit, or can they tell at a. glance if it is full or empty? If they cannot tell, mnoh of their search muet be disappointing. The finches only leave the ground when they are disturbed, but the tits frequently fly up into the trees with the nuts. Using: a branch as an anvil, they hammer off the husk. with their pick-like bills, allowing the fragments to drop to the ground beneath. Three kinds of tits were feeding- together, the majority being great tile; blue tits were fairly numerous, and there were & few white-naped coal tits with them. We saw no marsh or rare willow tits with them ; indeed, these two are much leas sociable than the others. Tits seem to delht in anything nutty, even if it is not very fresh; they are still picking away at a cocoanut in xny garden, although what little nut remains within is green with mould. Possibly there is some thing- in common in nut and cheese, and the tits may prefer it ripe. TO-DAY'S ARRANGEMENTS. Manchester Society for Women's augs at xo, ou auus oquare, i m and i . r oi A c -. " : .Moor. St. Ann's Church, Manchester: The B-?v. J- H. Tnorpe on - litne Ungin and Am-ie: tory," 1 20. Salford Education Committee, 3 30. Manchester -Education Committee, 4. Young Men's Christian Association: Thp a: j .- Jraton, b. M-anchoster-Chamber of Commerce: Diar Mr. Norman Angell. Midland Hot. Y T to Milton Hall: Boys Brigade Meeting, 7 30. Demonstration of National League for Onr w omens ounrage. -London. Viscount Ridley at Newcastle. Duke of Portland at Anti-Disestab'--Meeting-, Nottingham. House of Commons: Welsh Church B;i' mittee. CHESHIRE FARMER'S SLANDER ACTION. ' A MISSING SHEEP AT A CARLISLE -A:.? jonn saikem Irving, fanner ari(j Carlisle, at the Cumberland Assizes IC a-.-' day for 'damages for alleged s'-ar..':..:. Gordon Hewart, K.C., and Mr. Grii;;i!;i ve-g counsel, for the plaintiff, and .Mr. Ashiun, K.C and Mr. Sharpe were for the defenda:: 1 It was stated for the plaintiff thar 1910, he purchased 218 sheep at MeVrV &'.? son's auction mart, Carlisle, 128 of w1 'i'l belonged to. the defendant. The bought in two lots, but when one h.- ., j J!! counted the plaintiff and his man .c-,;M o- count 70-. The sheep were sent to : fa in Cheshire, and the auction mart p.vpfe "?. his request deducted 19s. from hi a . .' . ." the following .month the plaintiff was'iiiViir!, again and met the defendant, who t:iP:s .ii V's.'i him of having stolen a sheep. At, :he mas fat show in December of the sauie yea" -t'8 plaintiff bought some more sheep a.; ti: i "'.! belonging to the defendant. After tL;, Ve the defendant came up to him and toitl ! -jo count the sheep, " before you steal anoie- -adding that if. he had known plain:.;: -.i, ,,. bidder he would not have allowed 0 the sheep at any price. In 5en:.j;r!-r :'Ji year the plaintiff again met the ilvirniij...' ,." the mart, and was accused by him o: 1 av;".. sneaked a sheep off to the railway station ain then got the account altered at the They want together to the mart office ar.-i"' the cashier, to whom the defendant yA-.i -v the mart. The plaintiff's case had not been conclydrf when the hearing was adjourned until to-dw. "WESTMACOTT'S TONIC QUl.NISl VT CHAMP AQJJK. .All hottls.grooen.4o. 17. MuJilj" BL AIN & HANKINS0N PRARMACETTTTCAt. CHEMISTS. 69. MABXET-8T.. H AXCHE8TEB. Tctophnn Ke. 4049 Ch. WOOLLETS "JSOOVOI.." WOOLLEY'S " VALKAst? H AX h)N DALES FURVFTCRB. N.T HRACITE STOVES. lAXvnAT.I-V5. im-strt. F F F F F F F F F F . YOUR FRIENDS TOLD YOU YOUR FRIENDS TOLD 100 '' the ALBION MILK & SULPHUR SOAP ta "Pleasant to use and whlttua and softens Oa itX and M I prefer It to any other " WOULD YOTJ MIBB TKYINQ A. TABLET! .nese testimonials rrom bdles of tit! (with ninej on the wrapper, and thousands (home ud ibratdl buy the soap. If It suits so many, may It not be want your attention?. It la a toilet luxury. Is delightful tt nas, delicately perfumed, refreshing and btafdcW. Igritlsh manufacture. Sold by ohemlsts, nam, grocers, 4c, end at 76, New Oxford Stmt, Lo&dei, from -where It' can be obtained at 6d per tablet pie) tree.' Established over 35 yean. MOURNING. DRESSES AND SUITS DYEO. Kb Unmaking-. - No Shrinkage. Branches -rtryrtm. JOHMSOI? Bsoa.; Rwtle Dy-e -wort Livsaroot. Announcements of Births, Marriage, and Deatf.s la Mcmoriam hotices are charged at the K'.:--mt! rates: TWb LrtfES Is; 6d., arid 6d. each Additional line. Xotices of Thanks are cturEed Is. a Line. All such .announcements .must, be auth-mu-a; hy the uvjiiiv aim auaress oi tne eenaer. i'u:Ufc,s m poaial orders may be sent in payment. BIRTHS. AVELIXG. On-January 16.' to Dr. and Mrs. AVKLINC, of JCovton. Lancjishire. a diiirhter. L.VMBEUT. On January 17, at 351, Oldham l:aI, Fi- worm, tne wire oi hkuukkt T. LASIKKIIT Faulkner), of a son. LOHIAIKR. On the' 16tll irist., at Varna Sfoitnr. B'it'en, to Mr. and Mis. It. MAUHICK LOHIMKR. a ii3':;-:i'.er. Both doing well. WALL1S. On January 18, at 4, HighHeM T- rrai o. l'- burr. toMr.flml Airs. .1. F. WAI.I.IS. a n.ui2li!-r. .WIIIOHT. On January 17, at Sandhurst. Kti.t U-a4 Victoria Park, to Mr. aiKl Mra. UAKSETf MUbiir, a uaugnter. MARRIAGES. HAMILTON" : STEWART. At Edinburgh, on in Hi mst., by the ltev. A. D. Martin, nssii,'fl .v 'he K'. H. W. Hamilton (father of the britk-saoJ!!.!. ! i 11UIJT HAMILTON, M.H.. to ELSIK, ih:r-l dif:r of Mr. and Mrs. A. D. STEWABT, 16, Mar:." iim. Edinburgh. At. home 27th and 2Bth bruarv, Shrewablirv .S niot f1,t T..ff..P,i i.,....t.,.,c.r HOLLAX0 : " REDISGTOX. Oji January 15." at : Brompton Oratory, S.W., Captain S. . HOLU0, late. King's Dragoon Guards, vomigfr son if rhe .m Samuel Holland, of The Klins," Higlif-r ttniufir-:-. aci Mrs. Holland, . of Cliarhyall Tower, H.un.-!. n ETHKLMABEI, MA KG C KKITE, vuunufst r oi tllf. lAt .Inhn ltKIkl VI I'm V nf U. ..-,)..:. C. Ireland. ' HOWDEX : HABRI8. On the 17th inst., K-m!PJ ParisTi-Church, T. CLIFFORD HOWlJKK. .if Lodge, Kenilworth. to ELLI.VOR HAl:i:l - f ini T-..n 1. ... . 1 t- ..Kenilworth. : POWELL. On '.September' 10, 1911. a' M ter, UUGH WILLIAM, eldest son of J- Ii.t SOBUi IVestfleld, Kistbourric Ioal, B:rkiai.-, t - M-tL iUBUi : J Chester. second daughter of Alfred Llewcllvn JHWELU l Whalley Range, 2tanchster. WARBURTOX : WILLIAMSON. On Satunlav. K-:r. :-f, at St. Matthew's, Ealing Common, I.onfo::. ,1'iK.vR WARBURTOX, of Hratley and Warburtn, i h to XtLLIE HARDCASTLE, widow of thi !ai & WILLIAMSON, of Ealinir, and late of l'-r.r.- DEATHS. ASHTOX. Or. the 16th inst., at tho residonro of !-.'r f . Overlea, BrarVley Road, Monton, suildpr.'.v. JESV-ti the aearly belo,-ed wife of Edwin ASHV'N'. 'wood, Manchester Road, Sainton, and onlv Arivr of the late Robert Kay, of Bolton Road, J' -..i!ca. her 70th year. Interment at Won-Ipy V hur- li "JT (Montlaj), at 1 30. Friends plaise arivp: '- oniv) intimation. BROAULET. On the. 18th inst.. at Ash YsrUi Stt Road, Pendleton, AMY, the dearly lovni uie-'! Rev. A. O. BROAULET. .Service in the hi!.:- ' :ia Church, Salffird,' on Wednesilay uei. at 1 3" F' prior to interment in the Salford Bmph:: i 'i:.'''. All inquiries E. Simpson and Sons. 171. t'r Salford. and . 150, Lansworthy Road, S.i-dt':.- phone 9 Y Pendleton. , COBBETT. On the 19th inst., RICHAKU Oak Brow, Styal, Cheshire, in his 50t!i yr-,.r. f arrangements later. CROMPTOX. On January 17, at 19, Wilniil' v Ifr;. . Didsbury,- ANN, widow of the late John nfiMFT'A in her 80th year. Interment Southerri i-n"j Tuesday. No flowers, by request, iziqusr:?.- t-. vs. Peacock, 70, Wilmslow Boad, Di.liburv. T-l. 19 1 CROMPTOX. On the 18th inst., at Jurkhm-K W":;br-a Road, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, UdiJEIi, tiio ,-:N" c; ' John CROMPTOX, " in his 82nd year. I:. -A" Southern Cemetery to-morrow (Tuerdav). DUCHART. On Jan-uarv 19, at Roslyn, "jk At"-':; Bomiley. AXXIB, the Ijelovmi wife DUCHAHT. Interment Hatherlow Cbaf1 2 Wednesday, January 22. . DT3TTOS. On -the 18th inst., at th- Mam-h's'T B' Infirmary. FREDERIC EDWARD DLTT'.'X. Road, AWerley Edge. For 30 years Mf.--fc Shaw, Jardine, and Co.. Ltd., cotton t :r r.-r-. w ohester. ... , . KENDALL. On the 17th inst., very suddenly. ! - dence, 237, Great Chcethnni Str. ri, lire MARK, the beloved .husband of Ann KEM'AM-- '" 68tbTj--eor. Interment St. Tsui's ChuP:h. K-' Tuesday -the "21st inst.,' at three n't-lo-k. T:-V please accept this, (the only) intimation. .... LEE. On the 17th 'irist., at South :-l;ore, ' year,- HEXRYT MASON LEE (late of fiiBi..- Lane. Longsight). Interment Christ Oiur-h, Norris, Wednesday, 22nd, at 3 p.m. . PERERA. MRY HANXAY PERERA. widow nf Frederick Perera,' Esq., suddenly, on wry . Queen VillaSulby, I.O.M. Interment Li 1 ' " yard this day (Monday). SHEPHERD. On the 16th inst., at Holmrtyi. bkv MAlA. ULt3i. . uio roiant son or iessi u:, -SHEPHERD. r.f at THultpulU. J"'iuary - w, at me rP- "!. ,-(-i-VI son-in-law, a, j-nnces aoaa, oaie, jiAuir. EMMIE THORBURX. Interment Bro.k:a: -i-J-'ri ' ' lery Wednesday afternoon. Inquirie to I'--"-Sons; Sale. Tel. 790. , tfj WARING On January 11; air 96, Fiteseral'i Ec1: j Swan, Liwrpool, in her 85th year, lb . SAMUEL WAHIXOXlate of London Road. Man.-b- Was interred on Wednesday last at the &w Cemetery. Her end was peace. . All letters should be addressed either to the MUM r Jj The Manchester Guardian, Limited, a:;J c:- ' ".TJkl4.T. --- .... The Editor cannot be responsible for the return Jr onereu tor puoucauon, tnougn, so iar as ! --if not used they will be returned. Printed and Published by JOHX RUSSELL SCOW-THE MANCHESTER GUARDIAN, Lt! . a' Quasdian Building, 3, Cross Street. Manchester- , Monday, January 20, l'w

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