The Guardian from London, Greater London, England on April 12, 1919 · 9
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The Guardian from London, Greater London, England · 9

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Saturday, April 12, 1919
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TJTR BIANCHCESTEfP,. GUARDIAN, -SATIERPAY APRIL .12, 1919. THE ANGLO-SAXON'S BURDEN. SALVATION OF EUROPE DEPENDING ON BRITAIN AND AMERICA. MONROE DOCTRINE GENEVA THE PEACE CAPITAL OF THE WORLD. Oar special correspondent in Paris again calls attention to the irrelevancy of the extreme demands for damages from Germany in the supreme task of restoring the credit cf Europe and of rescuing the suffering populations from famine and the consequent : Bolshevism. He urges that Great Britain and America alone, by a generous policy, can save Europe from increasing rain and France and Italy from bankruptcy. Thf League of Nations Commission has decided to exclude the Monroe Doctrine from the operation of the Covenant. Geneva is to bp the seat of the League. The report of the Commission on International Labour, with certain amendments, was adopted yesterday at a plenary session of the Pence Conference. Mr Churchill, speaking in London yesterday, said that the situation in Germany was grave, the Government was tottering, and Mip great need was for peace with her. We ould not afford to drive over to the Bolshevik camp the orderly and stable force in German democracy. THE FATE OF EUROPE. (From our .Special Correspondent.) Paris, Friday Afternoon. There is odly one way of saving Euorpe, and there are only two nations that have the power. If Britain and America will stand in with their less fortunate allies it is possible to restore the economic life of the world; if they stand out Europe is ruined. That is the truth which has to be brought home to two peoples, neither of them wanting in generosity or imagination. To those who know the facts and the plight of the world at this moment, the men and women who are hurling their frenzied threats about indemnity across the Channel are giving about as much help as if they were angry haboons pulling faces behind the Lars of a cage. If every German in the world were stripped naked, if every fragment of German property in the world were confiscated to-morrow, it would not save France and Italy from bankruptcy, and Britain and America from an industrial crisis in comparison with which the crisis that followed the wars with Napoleon would be a storm in a teacup. The industrial regime depends on a basis of credit which the war has destroyed. Until that basis is restored a great part of the world lives " under the shadow 'of famine. Famine in the Middle Ages meant the silent disappearance of great populations and the gradual and painful establishment of a new equilibrium between the resources and the needs of the race. That is not the consequence of famine in a highly developed civilisation. Bolshevism a Revolt Against Famine. Famine to-day is one of the signs of the paralysis of the life of the world, and it will be followed inevitably and quickly by revolution, for men and women no longer accept such a fate as inevitable, and they have not such blind confidence in the rulers anfl the systems under which they live as to suppose that any alternative must .necessarily be worse. As a rule, it is easier to degtroy than to create, but our Governments are learning that it is easier to make Bolsheviks than to destroy them. I have never understood why this question was not handled long ago. If Britain and America had given this evidence of their determination to see their allies through this crisis, it would have eased the strain of the situation here more than any fine speeches or declarations. There have been many discussions of the subject here, as your readers know. M. Jacques Stern aired a project in the Chamber last December for pooling war debts. M. Aulard discussed another, project in the interview he gave me last February. The question really governs the consideration of policy in every direction. j If a Frenchman thinks he has to 'choose between bankruptcy and losses and dangers of chocking the resumption of trade, it is not surprising if he decides against bankruptcy. It he thinks that Britain and America, having themselves got all they expected from the war, nrp thinking chiefly of the profits to be r.iado by their industry and commerce aa soon as liberty of trado is restored, He. looks a little coldly on their zeal for humanity. A lipid and generous policy would have changed the situation, and it would have put the En-lt?nte on a new basis of co-operation for the salvation of Europe. Half our difficulties rnr.in from the false atmosphere that poisons dict:fir)ns-at the Conference. Enlightenment Needed in England. Of one thing I am certain : if a few men like Hoover put the truth about Europe at this moment before a few English audiences, if he described the misery of millions of people who are as much responsible for the war as thev are for the Flood, if he .explained the causes and pictured the consequences, the whole nation would declare its determination to save Europe. As it is, men here who have travelled in these unhappy countries are breaking their hearts with sorrow and fore boding, while the nation at home seems like another planet as far distant as Mars whence we catch echoes of election speeches and, the rhetoric of a dead age. England and America must put their credit behind the victims of the war. . They, muse be ready tc renounce debts. The'" must -feed the countries where want and fainine-are raging, including Kussia. They must -release tne ou 01 jju.u ior ltussian transport TbeV must lend money and provide 'raw "materials so that industry may revive, .thev' most' in r i 4.1.A r.tf. : I -1 . "i xaci., KtxKv- "-'""Mruiiiy or tnetr proud position in the world. For. the whole world in this sense, uepciai . n the courage, the imagination, and the rrnerositv cf tne two nations who alone can restore" the basis of its life. - , OUTSIDE LEAGUE. A BRITISH DAY. MR. BARNES AND THE LABOUR CHARTER. (From our Special Correspondent.) Paris, Friday Night. The Peace Conference held its fourth plenary session to-day. The Conference met, not in the familiar Clock Boom, but in the long room at the end of the Foreign Office. M. Cleraenceau was in the chair, sitting as before between President Wilson and Mr. Lloyd George, looking as if he would be the last of the three to divulge the secrets of the last few days. What years seemed to separate us from that first session three months ago,, when not even the suffocating atmosphere of the place could quite extinguish the spirit of hope with which the whole world watched the first acts of this group of men! To-day the Confer ence had a look of weariness, but that was perhaps a reflection of the spectators' feel ings. Ihere was a moment's ' excitement when M. Paderewski walked to his place, and it was-difficult to resist the tempting illusion that the Polish patriot had come to play the world to peace. But art lent few enchant ment to trje scene. Mr. Barnes was the . first speaker. His voice was excellent, and his speech solid, quiet, dignified, sincere seemed to typify the character of his country's contribution to the cause of progress. How rude a note the " Marseillaise " would . have struck in (the midst of this kindly , and dispassionate argument! What a spell would have been thrown over us if it had fallen to Jaures to expound this theme ! Britain's Day. .but it was essentially Britain's day. It is no secret that tha scheme is British, or that the Committee, not too happy in its chairman, owed a great deal to the tact and skill of Mr. Barnes. M. Colliard made a most generous acknowledgment, the more striking because it is known that the French lepreseatatives were in favour of what is called super-legislation. The best speech of the day . was made by M. Vandervelde, who stated that the British proposal to give two representatives to the State and one each to employers and workmen had been welcomed by the Belgian workmen, who did not regard the official members as unfriendly to their 6ide. The Belgian workmen would hold a great demonstration to celebrate the two events, the recovery of their freedom and the introduc tion of the eight-hour day. He said one thing that everybody must have been thinking, that such a scene was of little use if one of the chief industrial nations of the world was outside, and that the enemy's empty chairs must be filled as soon as possible. Siguor Barzilai, the Italian spokesman, hoped that provision would soon be made for giving the force of law to the Labour charter ; end Lord Sinha, speaking for India, said that the protocol to Article 19 made it possible for Eastern countries to assimilate Western ideas without risk of a violent disturbance. Welcome to Washington. Mr. Barnes announced in his speech that it was proposed to hold the first meeting of the International Labour Conference at Washington in October, and that the arrangements would be made by a committee of seven. President Wilson rose to give a hearty invitation, and the Conference broke up wondering for what sort of a world Washington would be legislating in an autumn that seems very distant. The League of Nations Commission decided last night to recommend Geneva as the capital of the League. it is believed, apart from the obvious conveniences, that the choice of a neutral .country will make a happy impt-ession. The desire of America to be reassured on the subject of the Monroe Doctrine will be met by an amendment which will safeguard the American position without affecting the authority of the League. It is obvious that in practice the United States will act for the League if action has to be taken in South America. The peace that is emerging from the deliberations of the last few weeks will set up a little State in the Sarre basin under the League of Nations, the French being given the coal mines in perpetuity. The left bank of the r Rhino will be demilitarised. On the head of reparations, different categories of loss will be drawn ip. ' Germany's liability in respect of those categories will be declared, and the extent of her liabilities will be ascertained by investigation by a- Commission. Such, at .least, are the outlines as at present A report of Mr. Barnes' speech and nrahfiefllhtis at the ntenary session of tie ffoaM Conference ywterday appesrs oil Pake '10. J ; ' ,; . VG&MApXGt SPEEDED UP. '" " " . . Washington. Fbidat. tWo White" Houseiearnsthat, according to -aavice;from'P. progress has been ma:e'at, In 'Peace Conference in the last 48 $1 than during the .entire previous two wee&Reuter. BAVARIA IGNORED IN TREATY. ' ;' '".. ';.,''' ." " " . "' Pabis, Thdesdas. , .i-K5fcBlento Governments have informed the rnet2. . nf Berlin that Bavaria will- not b inc ided in Pef-ceTreaty, and that that 0 ,BUU i.-fM tiv more food of an State win J ' . MR. LLOYD GEORGE TO SPEAK IN LONDON NEXT WEEK. Paris, Friday. It is understood that" Mr. Lloyd , George will leave Paris on Tuesdav. He will speak in London on Wednesday, and return here at the end of the week, or more probably at the commencement of the following one. lteuter. PRESIDENT WILSON'S SHIP SAILS. New York, Friday. The Presidential transport, George Washington, sailed to-day. Reuter. SARRE BASIN A NEUTRAL STATE. COAL FOR FRANCE FOR EVER. Paris, Friday. It is understood that it is now definitely decided that the Sarre Basin shall form a separate State under the aegis of the League of Nations. The coal will go to France in perpetuity, to replace the damaged mines and as part of the sum. due to France for reparations. It has also been decided that a certain zone shall be completely demilitarised along the left bank of the Rhine. H.euter. FOOD FOR RUSSIA. CONDITIONAL ON CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES. NEW SCHEME. UNDER NANSEN. Copenhagen, Thursday. The Food Administrator of the "United States' and Allied countries has asked Fridtjof Nansen, the well-known Norwegian Arctic explorer and scientist, to organise and take over the position of chief of an international neutral commission which 6hall investigate the possibilities of providing food for the starving Russian population. Nansen has expressed himself as willing to undertake the task. The plan is to be realised in a similar manner to the arrangements which were made for the provisioning . of Belgium. The arrangement is to be private and non-political, and to be conducted on humano principles. America will deliver the food necessary. A sum of about 550,000,000 (10,000,000) monthly is required to carry" out this gigantic plan. The main condition is that hostilities in all parts of Russia shall cease, but general party propaganda in Russia may continue. Another condition is that imported goods shall be distributed among persons who need help, without regard to politics or religion. If the plan materialises Nansen will negotiate with the Russian Soviet authorities in order to secure guarantees for the loyal observance of all the conditions. Exchange. GENEVA THE SEAT OF THE LEAGUE. MONROE DOCTRINE UNAFFECTED. Paris, Friday. It is officially learnt that the League of Nations Commission last night decided to in sert a new article in the Covenant specifically excepting the Monroe Doctrine irom tne operation of the Covenant provisons. By 19 votes to 12 the Commission to-day decided that Geneva should be the headquarters of the League of Nations. Kxchange. Renter's correspondent savs that in the voting France, Belgium, China, Portugal, and Czechoslovakia voted for Brussels as the League's-meeting place, and the United States, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Serbia, Greece, Rumania, and Brazil for Geneva- (Official Report.) The 14th meeting of the Commission on the League of Nations was held on Thursday evening, under the chairmanship of President Wilson; The Commission first received a deputation from the International Council of Women and the Suffragist Conference of the Allied Countries and the United States.- The deputation were introduced by Lady Aberdeen. The members of the deputation raised several points of interest to women, and before leaving were thanked by the Chairman, who assured them that the Commission appreciated the merit of their suggestions. If all of them were not embodied in the Covenant of the League, this was because it was deemed inadvisable to" burden the League with a multitude of details before experience had shown of what it was capable. The Commission then proceeded to discuss the redraft of the Covenant, received from the Drafting Committee, and covered the Articles from I. to X. The discussion of subsequent Articles will take place to-night. ALLOCATION OF ENEMY . TONNAGE. (Offioial Announcement.) Paris, Friday. Notice is hereby given, that arrangements have been made between the associated Governments for the use and management of enemy tonnage (acquired and to be acquired since the conclusion of hostilities), as to management. The position is that the allocation of the vessels for management as between the associated Governments has been determined according to the ability of the respective Governments to bring the vessels into speedy use, and in the case of passenger tonnage according to relative needs. The vessels, will fly the flag, of the Allied Maritime Transport Council as well as the national flag of the country undertaking the management- These arrangements in n'o way prejudice the ultimate disposition of the vessels-b'v the terms of peace, and it has been agreed that in the discussion of the ultimate disposition no argument shall be founded ou their allocation for management or service in the meantime. It has been further agreed that the associated Governments will hold as null and void from the standpoint of the final disposition of the ships dny- action; such as the-transfer of shares in enemy; shipping,, which is calcn-lated to. render.it more difiicult to apply -the principle that the interim allocation of enemy tonnage for management and use shall in iao way prejudice its ultimate disposition. ' TROOPS FIRE ON CROWD AT .V" - DANZI&. . CONFLICT dUXSiDE RAILWAY; ' STATION; 7 atpias Friday j A Danzig telegram of yesterday's date says : A sanguinary encounter occurred" this even ing, between a Crowd and troops-: who were keeping the square, in front of the railway station clear of people. - , v , - - Tho troops fired, killing three nersnna cm) wounding several others. Renter. FRENCH LABOUR APpBAhi , V - Aro;:jifciT. . morning posted on the walls of Paiii an appeal 'for a Peace Treaty to which, all nations' can sub-I scribe ' and, ambng . other things, protesting ATLANTIC AIR RACE. HAWKER STARTING WHEN WEATHER PERMITS. MAJ. WOOD FLIES TO IRELAND TO-MORROW. " St. John's, Newfoundland, Thttrsdat. Mr. H. G. Hawker's Sopwith aeroplane made a successful flight this afternoon. It was in the air from 5 to 5 30. flying at a height of ,000 feet at 100 miles an hour. The machine ascended light, carrying only 25 of the 350 gallons of petrol which it ordinarily carries. All the machinery worked smoothly. The new wireless set was equally satisfactory. The aeroplane will be inspected to-morrow by the Governor and other officials, and the Atlantic flight will be made as soon afterwards as the weather permits. Friday. The weather was fine again, to-day, and the ground at the Sopwith Aerodrome is drying well. It is, -however, unlikely that the' real flight will be possible before early next week, because the machine when leaving will" be fully laden and will be unable to land again owing to the risk of smashing, when alighting in heavy giound, a part of her machinery. Yesterday it took twenty men several hours to move the machine over a section of the field, and she was then carrying" only a quarter of her fuel supply o! gasolene. Reuter. SECOND COMPETITOR REACHES NEWFOUNDLAND. A Eeuter telegram from St. John's. Newfoundland, announces the arrival yesterday of the liner Sachem, which carries Mr. F. Rayn-r am, the pilot; and "Major Morgan, the navigator, with the Martinsyde biplane. MAJOR WOOD'S PLANS. The " Daily Mail " states that the race to be first in attempting the transatlantic flight rests between Mr. Hawker with his Sopwith-Rolls; Royce biplane at St. John's, Newfoundland, and Major J. C. P. Wood and his Short Rolls-Royce machine, with which he will attempt a western flight via Ireland, starting from Eastchurch in ali probability on Sunday. Both Major Wood and Mr. Hawker have completed their trials, and are detained only by minor adjustments and weather conditions. Major Wood's first stop in all probability will be at the Curragh, Dublin, where he will wait for a favourable weather report before flying to his iumpinir-off ground at Dawnmore, near . Limerick. He will stop at Dawnmore only for I his huge torpedo-shaped petrol tank to be com-j pletely filled. The machine's wireless apparatus has been ' fitted by a Royal Air Force officer, and experi ments have shown that it will be in touch with the Clifden wireless station, Galway, for 800 miles after leaving Ireland, and will pick up Glace Bay, Newfoundland, when about 800 miles from that station. There will be a blank space of 200 miles in mid-Atlantic over which the machine will be navigated by dead reckoning. The P.A.'s Limerick correspondent states that the arrangements there for Major Wood's flight have been completed, and the ground has been marked out. This evening the winds were variable and unfavourable. The Marconi Company are reissuing their fortnightly and daily charts showing the position of snips.. Mr. W. W. Bradfield, the Company's manager, said yesterday: " The fortnightlv chart shows ; a man what ships will be crossing the Atlantic and the routes they will take. Having selected ! a day whn there will be a large number of I ships afloat, the airman can ascertain from the I daily thmts ex.ictly where he may expect to meat or pass the ships. Transmitting apparatus can be- carried by aeroplanes which will give them jc sending radius of 150 miles, and if they -keep i within the steamer ' lane ' ;'bdtween America ( and England they should be able to get in touch in the event of a .breakdown.- If they are blown out oi men course ine matter will De dinicuit- AMERICAN BASE SELECTED IN NEWFOUNDLAND. Washington, Friday. The United States destroyer Barney, having completed the location of a base in Newfoundland for the transatlantic flight, is now returning home. The name of the place has . not yet been made public Reuter. LONDON-PARIS FLIGHT RECORD. ONE HOUR AND A QUARTER. A remarkable new record has been established by a Royal Air Force pilot for the flight from London to Paris. Starting with despatches from Hendon Aerodrofne at 3 20"on Tuesday afternoon, the pilot landed 'at Paris (B.uc).in one hour fifteen minutes after his departure. The course followed was via Dieppe; involving a sea crossing of 70 miles. ' As the distance from point to point is 215 miles, the average ground speed of the machine was 172 miles per hour. The machine was a Martinsyde single-seater . scout, fitted with a Rolls-Royce "Falcon" Mark III. engine of 275-h.p. General Sykas, Controller General of.. Civil Ay'ation. recently predated that before the end of the summer the London-Paris flight will be performed within an hour. . PROPOSED AERIAL POST TO HOLLAND. A Commission representing: the Dutch . Government arrived in this country last week with the object of tudin British aviation'' condi' tions and obtaining, i nf o'ririation regarding the possibility of establishing an' aerial postal service between Britain arid the ' Netherlands; Every facility has been given to thetni As 'a practical demonstration- of :tne advantages of the rente the- Commission will,'' if ' weather permits, -make the return -jmirney, to .HoTlarid to-day from Felixstowe to Amsterdam-, a dt'si tance of 170 miles,- and tHe" time f akeft; should be approximately two and' 'half hours.. i3 :? ? On the occasion -of a visit by a Dutch Commission last month -two1 rnembers returned to the island of Tesel, Holland, by- the air-route. This inauirUrated'"tlir'rfhT?5'fir with nui sengers-to Holland, and was- accompushed ul two hours thirty ininni AEROPLANES AS' MERiiHAl -Srtfp AUXILIARIES. : r . It ;is. announced. tbj&ttaAfirt fieefc oi-.iseto4 ship Company, ana -wUl- ta piaei service-. within -'le-1rtfWt'ii?i the1" Company's rflerehiifm marine When placed in serv ee.$etopSM have a speed of 180 miles a'onr will ttfee-ships ttt 86'hctf'e8s$M left Trt7 And wOL Joh'detivtAiot mpnt and nailers. Sieairfirs ftm hi fcort" "mi8 be rea-Joea' iw tap wards of. a'day.-Unil STATUE TO TO BE UNVEILED BY THE, inipgaents'fiti "Deinaie fof Mf7T3byii George to unveil.' asi to the memory of the i late. CaptoinjBaUsrV".C.. s" . .- The Prime Minister.:Vill receive the freedom bjt the citjurlng Ms visit,1 ahd"is;name oh the freemen's roll will follow, tiat ;of Captain Ball, wHo received the honour on the last visit he ever fard-, to-nii-'native eity.r.r: ntoliarieSto steanrasi THE KING'S HOUSING CONFERENCE. . DELEGATES AT PALACE. THE " NEW OFFENSIVE." London, -Fbidat. The housing conference convened by the King and held at Buckingham Palace this afternoon was an interesting innovation. The King arid Queen and the Prince of Wales received the delegates, who represented local government bodies throughout the country, arid after the speeches by the King arid Dr. Addison, tea was served and the reception broke up. The delegates were much ; impressed by the urgency and reality of f,he interest of the King and Queen in the question. Manchester was represented by the Lord Mayor (Alderman W. Kay), who, after the affair, was good enough to give his impres sions of it to a London representative of the Manchester liuardian. In reply to questions he Bid : When we had arranged ourselves in separate parties in the reception-room, the King and-Queen came into the room and took, their places below the dais, with their suite behind them. The King and the Prince were in civilian dress, and Queen Mary was in black, wearing- a double strine of tiearls which were verv striking. The delegates were, I think, representative of aiuiost every class m tne country, ana mere were a number of ladies amonsst them. The Queen seemed deerjlv interes'.ed in seeing for herself who were t.hp. rf?orle entrusted with the solving of these nroblems. and I noticed that she looked all over our ranks, regarding every one separately. The Kintr's sneech was delivered so clearly and' emphatically that, one could follow every word. I was particularly interested, in a reference to how his. father, King Edward, bad served as a merriber of the Royal Commission on Housinsr in lfiRi after bavin? seen for himself some of the wois't-housed and most overcrowded districts in London, and in King Ueorge s reier-ence to the visits he hiinself and hii family had paid to the poorer quarters. Another strong point was the King's reference to the necessity not only of giving people houses but of giving inem comes. The Queen did not speak, but followed the whole affair with the closest interest. Dr. Addison's reply well represented the feelings of inose present. Turning to the more personal side of the affair, the Lord Mayor said that the delegates were presented to the King in the order of the London County Council first, then the Lord Mayors of the municipalities beginning witb Birmincham, then Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, Leeds, and Hull. Sir J. S. Harmood-Banner presented the Lord Mayor of Manchester to the King. After the speeches, the delegates passed into the Picture Gallery, where tea and coffee were served. The whole affair, from the entrance of the King and Queen till the party left the Palace, occupied only half an hour. "It. was," said the Lord Mayor, "a businesslike and democratic affair, and I think will do much to assist the ' great offensive ' in housing reform of which the King spoke." The personal presentations by Dr. Addison included the Town Clerks of Liverpool and Blackburn. King-'s Chat with Salford Surveyor. Among the guests with whom the King chatted was Mr. F. "W. Piatt, the building surveyor of Salford. The King said he was interested to learn that Mr. Piatt came from Salford, which was part of his own Eoyal manor, the Duchy of Lancaster, and he recalled his recent visit there. His first; question was as to what the - Salford Corporation could do. Mrr Piatt mentioned that they. had a scheme for building 850 houses and had got the land, for as many more, and that they were making an early start. The King expressed his satisfaction and said that he had great hopes that the movement would lead to dwellers in industrial towns being benefited by a new environment. The environment in which they lived at present did not tend to the betterriierit of their lives. It was, in fact, difficult to expect anyone to live in a narrow street in houses deficient in brightness, comfort, and cleanliness. Mr. Piatt, who' is an enthusiast in the cause of town-planning, declares that with- a free hand there is no reason why 4,000 houses should not be built in the Greater Manchester area in' the' next twelve months. The King's Speech. In his speech the King said: - .1 am. informed that the immediate need of working-class .houses for England and Wales alone is estimated at approximately 600,000. To. meet this riee,d the same untiring energy and enthusiasm will be required as-that which enabled the country, to meet the. demand for munitions of -War. As it. is not merely "houses" that are needed, the new" houses must be also "homes.", Can we' hot aim, at securing to the working classes in their hoiries .tho comfort, leisure, brightness and peace .which we usually associate with the word "horde"? The sites of the houses must be carefully chosen and laid out, the-houses themselves properly planned and .equipped,, and . I would ask you not to overlook the supreme importance of the planning and equipment of houses to the women who will live -in them and -whose convenience should therefore be a prime consideration- ' Well'Spent Money-Building of houses 'at the present time will necessarily , be a costly undertaking owing .to the present high level ;of prices. " But the money will be well spent,- and we. may look for a sure, even though deferred, return upon the expenditure in 'a'healtiirer and more contented pedple. . I know -that- s "certain -acriety is" felt with regard to ; the-supply of the'.netessarj building materials, but I am . informed that energetic steps have .been, taken to stimulate the production of bricks and Other building materials, and' X- -hope . that - the . producers of -these materials, both manufacturers, and workpeople' by whole-hearted" co-bferatiori,' and, with' thei introduction of hewfcr methods and better con- ditioB, : will . be able- to increase;, their output sumqtBMiy toneep pace who me aemana. -.- j A.-'need .not, enlarge upon lae impi securing .rsnitaoie -lana,. ana iinavUie su-eh lana will De reaav.ana wmine great, public neeqs;noi?.m.regal.:to the site?' igqifpreu jui..(io "uupa am , ai me .clearance of ovrcrow&wl and insanitary areas. .; . .Great Offensive Against Disease. 1 ;J?1?t." $&&ih ?Utb-4 -greatest social, importance, never Has now. It iS not too much .folufen'nf.'the. ndi tiori'of aU.social progress, a Heidth arid housing areiinditsoWbly ckeotM. '-If :tttla - eSuntrV is to,be the. couritty Wft; desire td see H rjeJpiine." ft gtest- offerielfre' Sttist' be; tka agatrist 'dttette attack must befell vei&l M tb anhealtliy, qriy) oveioiowdWilibus tethe naah street whicil allxd us know too WeiLc T ac& w diaM ;:Jfcdnktwid crime are, to be naoiMsSiOr eoin- hataddtosenfcnnitacmas If, "imflt!' :ltO-befconverfiidtitn vti ment, thexpjoTtsion'.of ,good-Adngs,niayvproVe t AreEaajo :axve una oppoitanity .orrsnow-inlgiiarjdeep-rearineriiifi Ihej gjrekfe tWc; that da b3oryTiieniogreaas watch en oy toe ween lanou XDysei-witb tbe wrtn , tna greaiesc ;e both' look W11 Tuwinla of this. MuntrxumaV' have homes of wWh rSSV!CvM ZL. had;so i,y often witnessed tne; wretaned - conditions which rsome of the 'poorett people? lived' SdrfatW i staff " and other dlculie8fcraaWjrel sKWmh .v?hantjng Jfo,$tf$jti; -iSap5riaKwHIJ? 'WSk ' vprogresA had been made In tackling the pTdbleni. Lloyd George. -Hehadofoand among ,tha .,ii6miaeiaaSUmt W tMXsj-fjSSZ COALITION DEFEAT A TURNOVER PEACE DELAY AND NO CONSCRIPTION AS THE DECIDING ISSUE. In the Central Hull byr-election the Liberal , candidate has converted the Coalition Union ist majority of 10,371 (polled by the late Sir Mark Sykes four months ago) into a Liberal majority of 917. The total poll was 16,315, as compared with 17,239 at the general election. The figures are : Lieut. Com. J. M. Kenworthy (L).. 8,616 Lord Eustace Percy (G. U.) 7,699 Libera! majority, 917 Liberal Gain. The figures at the general election in December were: Sir Mark Sykes (C.U.) 13,805 Rev. R. 31. Kedward (Lib.) 3,434 Coalition Unionist majority ... 10,371 This, tiie Government's second defeat at by-elections, is even more striking than the first, at West Leyton, where the Unionist Coalition vote dropped by 5,041, while the Liberal increased by 2,640. The Liberal vote is 5,172 higher than in December, "and the Coalition Unionist vote is 6,106 lower. COMMANDER KENWORTHY ON HIS VICTORY. (From our Special Correspondent.) Hcu, Fbidat Night. Commander Kenworthy's victory, with nearly a thousand votes tospare, will be a surprise to the country and a bad shock to the complacent majority of Tory "Coalitionists " whom Lord Eustace Percy was 6o confident of joining. In Central Hull the result is found surprising, but riot startling. It was generally felt until to-day" that Lord Eustace Percy would just hold the 6eat, but there was" never any question of his keeping more than a tiny fraction of the late member's 10,000 majority. Liberals here have been justified in the really astonishing confidence with which they faced the task of turning that majority over. But a fortnight ago the mere weight of it had an Jiypnotic effect on their forecasts, and most of them would have been well satisfied had the Tory lead been brought down to a bare four figures. It is perhaps unkind to re member Lord Eustace Percy's little habit of addressing Central Hull as my con-stituencv." but it srives a measure of the shock which that constituency must have inflicted on a Tory candidate who really gave the impression sometimes that he was in clined to treat it, as Commander Kenworthy would say, as a pocket borough Not that therp was on the Tory side any of the over-confidence which shows itself in half-hearted electioneering, it would be a great mistake to assume that the losers have goue dgwn .here because they did not realise the gravity of the situation. "With West Leyton before them as a warning, they turned a good many stones in the endeavour to save Central Hull, and. their . candidate, whom they cannot fairly blame for the result, had all the support that the Coalition WhiiJs could nrid him. There as rip question here of a snatched victory or of any tactical advantage secured by surprise. The Coupon. Nor can the result be attributed to any confusion by either side of the issues at stake. It is true that both candidates professed tp stand for the general reconstruction ideas for which Mr. Lloyd George sought a mandate at the general election; true, too, that Lord Eustace Percy had the coupon, issued quite frankly and deliberately with the idea of shaking the allegiance of Commander Ken-worthy's Liberal friends, but as'the campaign developed the issues of the poll became abundantly clear. In their letter tp the Tory candidate Mr. Lloyd George arid Mr. Bonar Law. quite definitely denounced the Liberal as a man who was to be beaten because.be might be expected consistently to oppose the Government in the House of Commons, and Commander Kenworthy shewed a, growing deposition to accept the rSle ,thu assigned him. The Independent Liberal could no longer- be regarded as a supporter of the Government differing from the 'Coalitionist only in freedom from the pledge. " - In the main, two questions excited the interest of the electors, . and only two:., the Conscription Bill'ana tlife delays at ; Paris, particularly as they involve the indefinite continuance of the blockade and general re- itriotions ; on xraae. ouui mkw utabMgra were the initiative MrhS. Wr&L brought to tne rrow ana Kep? xncre oy f-" elasried . handssin itlf . irS:r as any butburtt bf Lord Jfiustacej ou uu wuuwj, . piumuiea &o rrr--- be one of the most consistent and reliable -Forecasted a Fortnight Ago. - tiob, represented t& Government r as tied, e.accep at "hr jtor-fcafoA ,.W".iiD down to-Tory policies bjr. yestSd interests -a turnover, instead of causing so much sur'-view Lord Eustace was j frankly qriatile' tb prise; sh6uld"h4 been rearivd by members iraderstand, ana wone :-inum do mumpu as a mere oonnnnion or wnat xney. nact been that the ;persoriility df : the '' sailor candi- publicly told n;rf:felirao'.'b 'eipbfe icL J.,,t-oA inn Knmfithinfr.' it iS'Onlv aa ill" ??ATn""lii"" Toolnra.tinn" " . ' . T endorsement: of h Oppbsitwri poUcy, that hi obiae- has 'given. 'M a new complexion;: of which the fersoai rhmiider; Kenvjforfby InterVie B ik Internes day. Cbnafldw; . tt Mtfew t,iiaink;ilr. l ihes&ee-uefi opponenup Liberals nM, mail to n aoerai ana fro Wilson and reaistrnftKe ' Chauvimrts in oth ,mtriea.Uu- Gom AiMk result. TSJSiVSH 'Kt -rmhas. ahdT Will b WTrtrTrtiT., i5r iuA-.ii ,iBuHL : ? "?Z?ZXZZZSg?SJgS I'DPWw - ' ' fe-.r;?'-' ' "X-I v.e? i-, v ttbe. purpose : m: wm tEnrope, the Ac'rM.wufd noK .Sat- sweenine - success cair no iuuHouT.wiMuw. vice jsiu ;mr newponiai'iae Ticxor: Of West ortanise -ot TVoSld be incorrect, to regard this judg- ettfibVttraWi6ccesi in tfOiMiAn 'owners-zpr . - r. -. ---u'in"fcitfiitt-b' a Conservative. inatir A- J l finnnim.nf . ,;'i:lJ-ii.-jr - to meet this men ry-. r-lliJ"-. Tyswrn."" alitor ate. wr stvs rv? i conscnpvw",iPwi, ana .at tne fanw, t.jm felllraafittWfS an -lained o tKelJS that fc,oTl.b J-niid'it ttrttW&i&uiAttoi vikf-JHoBiBi IN CENTRAL HULL. OF 11,000 VOTES. electors and this was by no means confined w "Tinmen an appreciation of the fact that our present position in Ireland was weakening this country at the Peace Conference and threatening our good relations with the American Kepublic. He had not hreitated to declare for peace bv negotiation with the central Government of Russia, had made it quite plain that he was against the continu-fnc f e Mopkade, and had never pretended that wc could get the whole cost of the war out of Germany. Finallv, this was a great victory for Free Trade, upon which the prosperity of the whole oountrv. and particularly of a great port like Hull, so largely depended. Lord Eustace Percy. jn thanking his supporters, expressed the fear that foreisrn comment might try to make out that this election meant England was failing in its determination He knew that was not so, and that he could rely on Central Hull and upon its new member. to show that the determination of Britain wduld not flag until a ju.st and righteous peace had actually been secured. COMMONS AND THE RESULT HOW THE NEWS WAS RECEIVED. (From our Parliamentary Correspondent.) WESTME.-8IEK, FaiDAar NlOHT. Feelings too deep for words or even for cheers seemed to be stirred in the Commons to-day by the news from Central Hull, which,' when it came, was commemorated alike by the victors and the vanquished by. a kind of statuesque dumb-show, reflecting in ono of its aspects a spirit of restrained thanksgiving and in another a mood of more or less manly reignation. Probably if the benches had been full, instead of nearly empty, the emotion of the moment would have found expression in forms more characteristic of the House of Commons. Apparently, however, the subject of debate a bill to mitigate the obscurities of rafcecom-pounding had no attraction for the general body of inembers, preoccupied as most of them were with their electoral hopes and-fears, though if they had been present to see Colonel Yate in the act of illustrating his speech by handing round rent-cards in all the colour! of the rainbow (a different tint for every pourid of rent) they might have fancied -themselves in a veritable nightmare of Coalition and anti-Coalition electioneering (a different tint for every shade of candidate). Astonished Whispers. While Sir Frederick Banbury was embroidering tins or sonle equally fascinating theme with the embellishments of an obstructive fancy the eagerly awaited message arrived. It came, as has been indicated, at' a riioraerit when the. House was almost empty, but it found Lord Edmund Talbot, tne Chief Unionist Whip; among the expectant few, and, indeed, it was to Lord Edmund that the first bulletin was. deHvered--"pass.ed along to him frorn a sorrowful colleague who had come in from behind the Speaker's chair. Needless to say,--the tidings awoke no glad echoes on the .Treasury bench. . Ail that happened was that Ministers glanced at the . figures, mused over them in silence; and considerately kept them to, themselves. Presently the door again opened and in came Mr. Aneurin Williams, evidently surprised, after one or two" hasjy experimental probings, to find Himself welcomed as the first of the news-Bearers. From the pleasure shown by Major Entwisle at Mr. Williams's communication one had almost expected to hear the senior Independent Liberal member forHull break into a cheer by Himself, especially wheni Sir Donald Maclean, following what may soon .develop into a habit on such occasions, made one of his opportune entrances from behind the chair and pressed forward to his' place with all excusably assured mien. . ' Still the douse femairied silent, except, to be 8iire, for ari astonished whisper that kept passing from lip to lip ; and which rose now and - again' into jgeneral audibility " Kan. worthy in by over' fldOT" While the sensa-tiofi w$s at its rieighfcif that. phrase may be employed in relation to what seemed to be almost a pervading sense of stupefactions Mr, .Hngge hjurriedjh" and. joined Sir Donald Maclean on tne front -Opposition; beriefc At the moment these two were the only Liberals there land. it. was observed, not .without amusement but probably with more sym- ; dM-Hdve- Certainly cb wafced.MinistOTt3ritt;fromwh aeen Hi miCt&mtfftW hSwas ; cbrifident mh !!! ihflagh a pseviens Mnwat ;mJorrty: hqr Jess ?;than 10,000 seemed to ataM impregakblV -in the war. - "J -am J Central. He people of. en -M appreciative of I;fto to by-elections - which follow in tha- erni election. jnorettnan he -wjnetwsnuwreietiofl, ;De?rr n u. 4-Unf t . mnrr'ttanteintr mnt.iiii I mnmtn. In his maiden: speech onuthe Militnrr fiof . - -T.-11 . l. iJ . . V . .. .... - -V i

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