The Guardian from London, Greater London, England on March 11, 1919 · 9
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The Guardian from London, Greater London, England · 9

London, Greater London, England
Issue Date:
Tuesday, March 11, 1919
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THE MANCHESTER GUARDIAN, TUESDAY, MARCH 11, 1919. JUGO-SLAV. CLAIMS. THE DIFFICULTY WITH ITALY. COrXCIL OF TEN'S DILATORY ; rOLlCY. (From our Special Correspondent.) Paths, Thcrsdat. The State of Jugo-Slavia, or Greater j &rhi.i. consists of (1) berhia, () Montenegro, by comparing the present position with that ?, liosni.'i-IIorzpgovina, (4) Dalmatia, (5) in March last year. Tho Chancellor had then Crcnii.i .lnvonia, (G) Krain, (7) parte of to provide for an estimated deficit of 2,265 Ca-'lf.Jii.-i :i?id Styria and Is'tria, (8) some dis- : millions. He made it up by 67 millions to tr;t:, ia Hungary just north of the River come from tho normal increase of existing Dr.iv. It embraces, roughly? the whole terri- taxation, G8 millions to come from new taxa-orv roir. the lliver Drav to the Adriatic , tion, rm tho balance of 2,130 millions he ex-aR(l .i population of about 12 millions. ctoil to have to borrow. In the coming rM5" .. 1 1 . r. ,. , r,T,T,v ;finannl year 1919-27 the total (estimated) There arc three relzpioiwOrthodox, Catholic, , expenditure will be about 1,300 millions, made and M.-'h:i!iir.ietlan ; their followers are scat- upjnincipally of 350 millions for debt charges, teresl and intermixed, but tho Catholics tend 287 millions for the armv, 149 millions for to towards tho north and along j 7, and the staggering sum of 495 mil- , ,w, , . , ! Isons for tho Civil Service-:. For 1918-19 the !ho Orthodox towards the south-. tota, pstimate(1 expelu1it,lre waB 2,972 mil- Mit, wjiiic tii .uonammouiin minority, au.uw rOi'.COf. . only to be louna m rsosma. ' The terms "Sorb"' and "Croat" de- vzv.uinl originally a difference in; tribe, but f 1 T. hi-- d::f-ivnte has lung since merged in the ' rc''io:i- or political one, which it was tho ; ro'ru-K. Hirv of the Hapsburg Govern-! 1 1 ... ! men!. to lower. Croatia has been an ilun- cnrir.i: !:'f:vi:ic" since the twelfth century, j ahnz t Adriatic coast. l:i the sixteenth centurv Macrvars ond T:irU :. prc.-entcd the wo opposing forces of f'iuisiiaiiity and l.slam. The Bozuiaks (who (Im herety-n'l " Hogsitiits " had had no mercy fpi.a their Catholic and Orthodox neighbours) aiready broken loose from Hungary and flioir lor willi t!ie Mnlmmmpdan TV-!; l.':t the reliirious difference kept the Hi:ii:::iry nr.n euico io.igni iur uin.-o I yields in 1919-20 .one-half only of the 300 t-ir.r - the p.-x-scs-ion of th:s district. The ; millions which it was estimated to yield, and ,ii-:.:ie was divided finally in 1420 by tho 'no doubt "will yield, in 191S-19. The deficit refi.i!i f) Venice of Dalmatia, a strip of land; for 1319-20 will then bo round about 550 . - r I. l r . .1 i Crcat f:iitii!ul to Hungary. Thov had alwavs ; ago it was thought that their realisation 1 , 1 " 1 -OT ll "'.v..' T . A. 1 i -I , ort -11' retained tncir aiuonoiu, aim in ioji tui-v : fleeted tho Hapsburg dynasty, ns kings of ia. freely and ol tlieir own choice 130! . 1 3 A NAT' '.Vtof".-:XRCflTu-5.4 crt-iS CW -V ' It was unfortunate for the Ilapsburss? thatnot they repaid the loyalty of the Jugo-Slavs, tiiiniili many centuries, with so little gratitude. ' We have received as a reward what i!: Magyars liavo rec'i-cd a.s punishnient," v.;r. i!ie dictum of the Croat leader who fv.'cl i!:p lT;iri.slm r,r Kniiire in the Ilevolu-tien (, 1S4S-9. Of iill the Southern Slav iiMurrii-s. Montenegro is thn only'Htne which h.i; r.'t iineil it uiiieiiendenee tbriiiifli.-mh. Tli.i-e politiei.uis who express doubts as to ' the reality or practicability of a united J hum- ! S'avia generally has.- tlieir lack of faith "on I liiMoriral fnuiuhit ions. Tliey point out that tiie .In av.. h:ne never lniin the earliest Ion t:me.; tormed a single State, that thpv liave ' never even hoen united in subjection to a ! filmic empire; hut surely in that connection v.v h.nii'd eneniher the history of Italy, the, veiy recent date of its first "unity. Tho j two lii.stnrics have indeed many" parallel j V"';!s- i ::e due diffi( luty v. hieh confronts the Jugo-' Wnvs, and :rum yhMi the Italians were free, : t:ie i-ohiiiiuis difference. But hero we can: nly pmiit t.i the reiunrkablo fact that re-i lizi.-iN division which have been fostered : null purposeful maliciousness through years ; ef e.ose.maii ui appear to have sunk into com-' t- eie a..e;..:uce as kiu sis that domination ; renioved. Ij.ere can be nr. possible doubt ; tlat the .Jneo.-lavs to-day feci, themselves ; eini's'tli'.V-.Mv''0 ,a'S10"!U-' f ,,k,Ji!ro.u f. te n- so As against tlie religious ; dil'.erciKcs one might, moreover, cito the iiiinpleie uniiy cf Innguago which exists! t!:;eiie!:0;it tiie various provinces, and which j l 3" aitecma. j Italy and Dalmatia. Ihe only aitual dilljculties to the immediate; pense of their collection is high in propor-r aii-aiioii i.f the Jugo-islav aspirations come' tion. It is to be feared that tho only direc l.oiu i no Italian claim to Dalmatia. This: tion in which tho Chancellor can look for t; eiai;.; on both historic and political ' cvn.-inrra The Italians claim that Dal- i'.:r.;a waa eneti:::i province from the loth ; (' iry '.ill it was taken forcibly from Venice ! ".' "' a"" aiso mat tlie prcsouco ot , aa-M-'ei i;ite tac:::g lUily so closely across ' cipiitv anv further increase in the tax with-ti;e Adrian.- would constitute a political and 'out a radical reform both of its incidence bi:ai.-al iiiei-.aee to tlie Italian coast. i... i.i t pnipiuotion it ia hardly necessary t ' i lie Witsoman principles, to wiiiihu-c all, at any rate nominally, adhere, :e i : .e the assignment of any territory to on historical grounds alone and in ' la iu iie.n ;i the will of its population 1 he i-'rateeical arsiunicnt is rnnrn .-;n r :. it can ne met ley some arrangement for i n linn uisaimameiit or possible , :.:.;.:.i:v , r naval centres, such as has been 1 i" .... iuu ,elt nauh ai wi0 it ill ne. Tho Ju .u, i u.nn vo accept, such an :ir i a:-. 1 ae : 1 ;: T Horn the lowest to tho uignest. iSo expert - Italians make some attcmpti will admit that there is anv practical diffi-.tue.t,,,,, the will of the . population, I cuIt.v in this propoMl. A working man's in- ' , . - .... "'S LU "un-1 p.e uscito. I J.ey would, indeed. ; i r... chance at all if a plehiscite were e. i, lv-dmatia. In the two town, of ' ' "-aand Finnic in CroatuT tjl ' .,-v ii-i.t it,i; , i '.' .v.i !t!i:,n in th ...,;L j!-:::..-0. i ;i M-.v.ratc the towns from Vhoi ... ' I -;,!,. would be an impossib!e proposal ! witb w,,icn WO &I& ,MW confronied. ..tin is taken as a whole and it must is to be fear however. that no such : iUe:v-the Italians would form about i reform can to carriei oufc in t,nio for the : ent ef the whole population. If the I coming Budget- If the Chancellor turns are allotted Trieste and the western ; once raoro to tho income tax it must be on f l.-fia which is the probable award ' the old basis, and that will cast a further and : -.partial c.nirt-and nothing else, there ' most inequitable burden upon those medium be more Jugo-Slavs under Italian ' incomes which have already borne far more Van Italians in .Tugo-Slavia: I than their share of the burden of the war. is unfortunate that the question was not! Suppose that the Chancellor hardens his e.i e:!. -., v. I he Council of Ten have let heart and extracts from income tax and other n-.att.T i.vng on. and the delay has en-; minor sources of revenue an additional 50 riical animosities on both sides. The ' millions. There remains 300 millions of de-:m. Lo ..tight to be thinking of their ficit. and to provide for that there is 1: i !. h.-, .. .... ... . . v,.,u onnerstandmg with :i;VS,v ftCS3t,ai-f av. thought il.nU Slnt .nfcwl in odSays ffi & I , .... . u'vs ""O dur-' soSrloX S Iset V!re wo cannot make .both ends e ui:::e!iitv. M.amvhilr. the situation has ho ' nor., difficult by local incidents, and by 7cZ cf v.olen-e and usurpation on th i,a.uiiiifl fifllin.lmm,AoAt . . " "f armi-tieo nrrnmrpmnnt . - " 'wro a decision. w?:.ed and hadlv allocated. The onlv nr" peace for the future is to apply Presi- '.ei'.t Wilson's TVrineinlps. n t.. i: j.i - -. , x c j ucuiiaii. xne vi'"!atian rwirc unit n mnU r . l . , i j ' " '."."d jjiu.iaiuu I ()r tVtr'e"ts f .minorities in all caseswhether "1G-e minorities are Italian or Jugo-Slav. BUDGET PROSPECTS. A DEFICIT OF HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS. By E. Hilton Young, M.P. Since we have a Government that is based . On ZL rnmnrnmicp it. is r riA T-nftoji1 .Tio-. the be a too. Will it be a Tory Budget with a Liberal camouflage, or a Liberal Budget with a Tory camouflage? The financial outlook is overclouded. TVe can gefc a ray of ch.eerful ght Upon it oniy uons, so that the armistice has visibly lightened the Chancellor's burden to the extent of 1.672 millions. To provide for tho estimated exnenditure of 1.300 millions, the Chancellor may expect to get from existing taxation a total revenue or iWO millions. But it is unlikely that all i-sting taxation will continue to exist ; we must allow, in njirtipiilnr fnv n rlfprfnsr in the ie,d , . Emission in the rate of tho excels nrnfits rlnr-e Snnnnsn that it millions. Tr ic imTirvccililn f n Tnnlrft an flPOll- rato forecast, but it Keems nrobable that that will be the order of the sum. Realisation of Assets. TTow is it to bo met? There is a large sum to come from the realisation of Govern- mcnt war establishments and stores A vear n.i.t uniig in as mucn as i,iuw minimis We are now iold that it is impossible to say what the sum is likely to be, but that it will probably lie between the limits of 900 millions and 200 millions. Let us take it at the lower, figure, and suppose that that sum will be realised in the coming year. By setting it as revenue against expenditure, the deficit will be reduced to 350 millions. It may be said that money yielded by the realisation of capital estato'should not be used as revenue, but for the reduction of debt. Siace, however. 5t will undoubtedly be necessary -to borrow in 1919-20 a sum greater than 200 millions, to use this money to meet the deficit is equivalent to using it for the reduction of debt. There is nothing wrong about that as a matter of financial policy. Whether as a matter of general policy it" be right or wrong to sell up the Government's war assets at break-up prices without any Parliamentary control is another question. But the process has begun, and it is unlikely to be stopped. ; Tho balance of 350 millions of deficit is the problem which the Chancellor has to solve. Here conies the tug-of-war between sound and unsound finance. Needless to say that , sound finance demands that tho sum shall be I made up as far as possible by taxation and b' borrowing, and that the taxation shall oe vi iiip rigiit son. ljiuerais nave noticeu with apprehension the nco-Protectionist tendencies of Tome of the utterances of Ministers. However that may be, one thing is still clear : that, quite apart from the merits of the economic controversy between Protection and Free Trade,- there is little or ro hope of "retting any substantial help towards the. reduction of next year's deficit from any tariff that can possihly be imposed at no present time. With food prices at their present level the Government will scarcely venture to propose to put a tariff foodstuffs. The eftme is true of raw materials for our principal industries. To increase their burdens would bo an odd way of initiating that great revival of industry which alone can savo us from disaster ton odd even for tho economics of Highbury, There remain only tho manufactured articles, clocks, motor-cars, and the rest. Of these oui" imports, even when present restrictions 'are removed, are likely to be small in amount, and the effect of a taYiff would be to reduce that amount to vanishing-point. There is no practical or substantial help for the Chancellor in anv form of Protection that n j,0 Safoly "proposed or immediately nt!0,,tod. A camouflage of Protection may bo painted on the sides of the Budget to a set.tion of tho onlookers. jf it iSi t will do much harm, but it will not bring mcl rovcuuo. Income lax. Fancv taxes are full of interest and attrac- tUm but t)ov havo tho fc donlerit that their vield in revenue is small and tho ex- llllnP of fresn rovcn,, is towards tho income I lIlcIlU'-, wi; tiio uiiid suui'iun i i - ...i,:..i, i. , i c it from war prices, are already carrying a den of income tax which is almost toe bur ton hie to be borne. It is not possible to effect with land of iUs scope. Nothing is more urgently necessary than that the rates and scales of 'the tax and the machinery for its collection 'should be simplified, so that the ordinary ! citii-.en should bo ahle without a violent in- tellectual effort to discover how much 1 1 .-i. li-i tr nav. V or tins niirnnoQ miAnqt inn ctnn. :n serve. What is wanted is a simple tax with a single, steeply graduated scaJe Equally necessary, it may bo said, from the nnnu. i-mw nl liinei'jil nnamv iq it, t.lmfr. h jioint of view of Liberal fin ar-jtax should bo made applicable to all incomes, - ... ' pftinn t.:ix ean be ueoucted Irom hit n-aum: he ,..,..:k. .w rr,;ilin;r f i,:? a;; ?j 71 , ? re have an income tax of that fic nature we shall havo an enectivo instrument ot taxation wjiicb will enable an embarrassed Chancellor to meet with ease and equity any such deficit as that apparently notlung for it but to borrow. such is the outlook, and its grimness from the 1 TT D -.viv.Vx.qw In a word, at this n .f We know what that means in the finances of i a household, ana ine nuances or a household are not raail Q,,i "m those of a State. Besides borrowing and taxation there nf course, anomer way to meet a deficit i nnf that is TO lenuce expenditure, "... . - -L- j j.- many millions could be saved next year, with out loss nnncnimtb of efficiency, by strenuous and rnja " po no Tni st n tr ? Not enough. o , -t3 nat,nTe in mvpr ,ha n'ml HaRnH: !, enough, nobody can doubt, to make it look much less formidable. AMERICAN SOLDIERS AND LONDON POLICE. OFFICIAL INQUIRY OPENED. THE BOW STREET PROCEEDINGS. A board of United States army and navy officers began the official inquiry yesterday into the circumstances of "tho friction which arose on Sunday between the Metropolitan police and a number of American soldiers and Bailors." The official announcement says that a large number of witnesses report puts the figure at ISO have to be examined, and until all the facts are established and the case is completed the board of inquiry has decided to make no statement to the press. Four soldiers three British and the fourth a Canadian were brought before the Bow Street magistrate yesterday on charges connected with Sunday's disturbances. The Chief Commissioner of Polico had a conference with the Home Secretary and his advisers at the Home. Office during the day. Admiral Sims and General Mitchell, the American Chief of Staff, are in London at present inquiring into the circumstances of the Strand riot. They have commanded that the fullest investigation into the riot and its origin shall be made, and a combined naval and military board of investigation sat yesterday at the American Naval Headquarters in Gros-venor Gardens. The proceedings were private. The British police and military authorities were represented. It is reported that probably 150 witnesses will be examined. The members of the board are Commander Stilling (U.S. Navy), Major Kennedy Whi.te (Judge Advocate, U.S. Army), and Captain F. H. White (U.S. Sanitary Corps). In American military quarters the greatest concern is felt over the whole affair. A certain amount of resentment is evinced at press reports which threw the whole blame for the affair Tipon American soldiers. Some of the published details, it is contended, will not stand the test of the slightest inquiry, notably an al.egation that one of the Americans drew his revolver. This man was considerably knocked about, and is one of the two Americans who were arrested by the British police. At present they are both "inmates of the hospital in Lancaster r.ate. suffering from extensive cuts on the head and bruises on the body. One American seaman is detained in hospital. THE POLICE PROCEEDINGS. Three British soldiers and a Canadian soldier were brought before the Bow Street magistrate yesterday morning on charges connected with the disturbances the previous day in Bow Street. J. R. Campbell was charged with causing prievous bodily harm, and Frank McMalley and Forcet Wright were charged with obstructing the police in the execution of their duty. The fourth prisoner was Harry Gluff, a Canadian soldier, who was charged with " insulting behaviour." He was the first prisoner brought before the magistrate. Prisoner Who was " Looking at Statues." A police constable said that the accused was one of a crowd of 80 other soldiers and sailors who were outside the police station endeavouring to rescue two people who had been taken into custody. "At 11 30 yesterday morning," proceeded the witness, " I was on duty in Bow Street, when I had to assist in dispersing a crowd of about SO or 60 soldiers and sailors who had assembled outside the station for the purpose of rescuing some prisoners who had been previously taken into custody. In endeavouring to get the crowd away I spoke to the prisoner, and said, 'Come on, you must get away out of it iow. it is all ngnt. xie saiu, ' I am not going for you.' He then turned round and put himself in a lighting attitude, and said. ' Come on, boys, we ean see after them. Let U3 get them out.' '' The witness added that he closed with Gluff and took him into custody. The accused said nothing when charged. Police Sergeant Henry Smith gave corroborative evidence as tc the remark made by the accused. The accused, asked if he had any witness, said that he had one, but he was an American who was released yesterday. The police sergeant explained that Gluff referred to an Ajnerican sailor who was taken into custody and with others had been handed over to the military authorities. Gluff denied using the words alleged. He said that he was standing in the road looking at some statues when asked to move on. The officer did not address him in a gentlemanly manner in any way. He said, " Come on, you stargazer. Get out of here." In the oase of Frank McMalley, charged with obstructing the police, Police Constable Sawver said that at 2 30 -the previous day he was in Bow Street, assisting to clear a hostile crowd rrom tne street, wnen ne saw the prisoner, who called out, " Come on, boys, let's give it to them." The witness asked him twice to co awav. but McMalley broke through the police cordon and made his way towards the station. The witness ran after him and took him into custody. When arrested the prisoner said, "All right,' and went quietly. Appeal to American Consul. McMalley, who appeared in British uniform- stated that when he was charged he asked if he could refer the matter to the American Consul, and the po'.ice said they would do so, but he had heard nothing from the American Con snlate. He did not know whether the Ameri can Consul had been sent for. He would like the case to go before him-, as he w?.s an American citizen. He was discharged from the British army, and was on his 23 days' leave. An officer in court said the American Consul had been communicated . with, but had de elined to have anything to do with the ease. The prisoner was remanded until to-day in his own recognisance of 5. Forcet Wright, private, as:ed 17, charged with wilfully obstructing the police in the execution of their duty, pleaded guilty, and said he was sliffhtlv intoxicated. A police constable said that during the disturbance in Bow Street the prisoner swore at him and attempted to strike him. The witness then arrested Wright. Tlie prisoner denied that he tried to strike the officer, and said the officer struck him first. Private J. R- Campbell was charged with causing grievous bodily harm. police Constable Blown said that he saw prisoner strike Police Constable George Field on the head with a black stick with a silver knob that he held in his right ha,nd. Field turned round, and .was falling, but the witness caught, him. The prisoner then ran down Bow Street, and ws subsequently arrested by another officer and brnupht to Bow Street. The prisoner, who when charged had denied the offence, now declared that the charge was absolutely false. It was a case of mistaken identity. Police Constahle Brown, hovever. Said he was absolutely certain Campbell was the man. " Caught in the Rush." The accused, who was wearing the Mons riubon, said: "I Mine down from the Camber-weil Green Y.M.C.A-, and landed there. I saw this crowd going up Bow Street, and followed them up, getting there about the lime the police rushed out. I vas caught in the rush, and down the street, three policemen crabbed me. I was hit over the head several times, and was then arrested and taken to the police station." Police Constable. Allen, the officer who arrested the accused, said Campbell was in possession of a thick stick (produced) when arrested. The accused made no remark, but at the police station said: Someone struck me and I had to strike someone." ' It was stated that the constable who had been injured was in hospital suffering from contusion The magistrate remanded the accused for seven davs. The first two prisoners, Gluff and Wright, were again brought up. and, addressing them the magistrate said : " You two lads, instead of hnlninn thn Tnina tm 1 n rl ,. T-f ... . ....... 11 and interrupt them in the course of their duty If you do that sort of thjng you will find yourselves in more serious trouble than you are today. Take my advice, and keep clear of this sort of following in future. You must each pay a fine of 40s." J THE COAL INQUIRY. BIG STEEL DIVIDENDS QUOTED. NATIONALISATION OPPOSED. LAND TAXES AND HOUSING, j When tho Coal Inquiry resumed its sitting ...... j . . ' . , : .1 : raujiuiT, .ur. justice eannev pn-siumy, Mr. Balfour (Sheffield) said that a 30 per cent advance to a million miners would mean an addition to the wages bill of 50,700,000. j Evidence was given by Mr. Ridley Warren that any further advance in the cost of coal would probably have the effect of . leaving the whole market to the Americans. During tbo past year, .ho admitted, wages had not gone up in accordance with the increase in tlie cost of coal. Mr. A. G. Hobson, who opposed nationalise-1 tion, said nationalisation might mean an j increase of wages of 25s. per week, but it would aiso mean dearer coal. " j Asserting that for generations one part of j tho community had been getting more than its share, Mr. Smillie quoted dividends j paid bv the Consott Steel Works between ; 1898 and 1910 ranging from 12 to 60 per ; cent. Mr. Smillie again referred to miners' housing conditions, and drew from Mr. Hobson the retort that since the imposing of tho 1309 tariff on the land " no private capital wanted to look at building a houso again." Mr. Balfour's Figures. Mr. Hodges, secretary to the Miners Federa tion, replying to Mr. Balfour, said the sub- stance of the Government's offer to the Miners' Federation was that for every four points risei in the cost of living there should be an increase of Is. per week, and as the rise had been 20 . points since the miners had their last increase, that worked out at Is. per day to the miners, who worked five days a week. Mr. Balfour said that a 30 per cent advance j to a million miners would mean an addition to the wages bill of 50.700,000, as against' 13,750,000 at a shilling per day. The total; wages bill based on a 30 per cent advance would bo 219.700,000 and the probable reduction of : A i . , t uuipui m consequence oi snortening oi nours would be to 220 000,000 tons. Mr. Sidney Webb said it would be misleading to the public for it to be assumed that there would be any fall in the aggregate output. He thought that would not be less than in 1914, and in a few years it would be much'more than in 1914. South American Markets. Mr. Albert Edward Bowen, chairman of Messrs. Wilson, Sons, and Co., and chairman of the Buenos Ayres Great Southern Railway, said his company was one of the largest in the kingdom. Determined efforts would be needed to restore British coal to its former supremacy in the South American markets, and any further advance in its cost would probably have the effect of leaving1 the whole of the markets to the Americans. Witness did not suggest that the British miners should accept a lower standard of life merely to pTesprve the South American market, " but, ' he added. " if you do not secure the market I don't think the miner is going to improve his position. If we lose our markets there is no standard left for him at all." Mr. Ridlev Warren, general manager vt the Ashington Coal Company, Durham, stated that before the war they produced 2 millions a year, of which about 84 per cent was exported. Germany competed with them in the exnort trade, and he anticipated that that competition wcmiu siy'iiK in me ruiure. Mr. Webb: You fear German competition f I do. Coal at Less than Cost. Replying to Sir Leo Money, witness said that in "1914 Germany even sent coal to London. Mr. Webb: Would it be possible for concerns to be run at less profit than what they have been earning lately? The Witness : Certainly, than what they have been getting during tho war. In answer to another question, the witness said they were selling coal to railway companies at 24s. 3Jd. per ton, which was less than the cost of production. Sir Leo Money asked if it was not a fact that in spite of gloomy .anticipation the coal export trade rose 18 millions in about seven years following the sitting of the Departmental Committee on the eight-hour day. The witness replied that that was nothing in comparison with the increase in other countries. The witness admitted that but for the Coal Controller the price of domestic coal would be much higher. Mr. Herbert Smith elicited from the witness the admission that the wages of the miners had not during the past year gone up in accordance with the rise in the cost of coal. Sir Leo Money: Do you believe that your colliery would be better managed if it were nationalised 1 No. I do not. And why? I think that at the present moment we. have men who stand as high in their profession as those in any part of the country. Questioned as to the competition in European ports from American coal exporters, witness said he did not suppose that workers in other countries would be backward in asking for improved conditions if British workers got certain improvements. Mr. Smillie said the death-rate among miners' children under twelve years of age was four times higher than amongst middle-class children. Profits at Pittsburg. Mr. A.' G. Hobson, representing the Council of the Associated Chambers of Commerce, the Sheffield Chamber of Commerce, and chairman of several steel fiTms in Sheffield, said the pressing, of such claims as the miners put forward would seriously jeopardise the export trade. He had established sheet steel works at Pittsburg, and more money was made out of them in proportion to the capital than out of any works here. Mr. Hobson and Nationalisation. Mr. Hobson, dealing with tho question of the nationalisation of the industry, declared with emphasis : " Bad as I think the effect would be on our export trade of an advance of 30 per cent in wages and shorter hours, I would rather that you did that than that you should have nationalisation of the coal mines, because through suffering we could redeem the one mis take. Din me oiner misiaKe woum last- lor ever, i Mr. Webb: I take it you think the Govern-! ment management of coal mines would lead to! an increase ot wages ot Zbs. s l think it quite likely. An Unpromising Ourlook. Are you assuming that coal will necessarily be dearer? I am quite sure it will he under nationalisation. Mr. Webb: On March 22 the miners' notices expire. Can you help us by any suggestion as to how much the miners' wages are susceptible of consistency with your trade going on?- I can't, but I say the trade cannot be carried on at to-day's prices. Answering another question, witness said he was arranging his business on the basis that the future would be extremely bad. Asked if he would remove his works to America in the event of the miners' demands being granted, witness said : " I decline to answer the question, and the Board would have to decide when thev have all the facts before them, including the decision of your Commission. I threw out the suggestion here because I think it is necessary that Mr. Smillie should know there is an alternative. In reply to Mr. Smiilie. Mr. Hobson said there was the alternative of taking his works to America or Sweden. Mr. Smillie suggested that the water-power in Sweden was such that Sweden would probably be "Hobson's cioice." Mr. Smillie : Theiy is wonderful heating power in the sun if we could get at it? Yes. There is another place with great heating power too. (Laughter)? Yes. . Mr. Smillie Quotes Dividends. You say that if one part of the community gets more than its share someone else will have to go without t Yes. Would yon be prepared to say that one part of the community has been getting more than .1 capitalist. Mr. Smilhe : I am going to say more than that. I am going to assert it. Witness : I don"t believe it ie true. Mr. Smillie read from the report of the Conceit Steel Works showing that from 1898 to 1918, they had paid dividends ranging from 12j to 60 per -cent, and that in 1916. on 1,000.000, capital, tho dividend was 50 ner cent. "That Company." he remarked, " got more than their share. This Comnanv paid on its capital in. in. nividcnds seven timei in 21 years. Well, that is a very good thing. Effect of 1909 Tariff. T c.:ii:- , ii.. r.f mine ' ! ""S" uiit-i -luuse-s.. Mr. Hobson: Housing is what you and your; friends have made it. and ver, largely you are : sice , t icna vn nut w ,l41 ucus. ' a tariff on the land, and r.o privatp capital wanted to look at building a house again air. Mr-line: This Company Has paid out to er again. n. mpuiii . ofdops-'to'Mve Mr."SniiHie added that what the miners were its 6harafor generations T I suppose you mean usiwpg. ior would be equivalent to spven m.i to snow an improvement. Fewer children are i: "thV? u,1 as Tpared with the rvious rV country can stand it, I should be glad to see ana only one department of a school is closed, it done. I this being due to the illness of members of tlie Mr. Smillie: Wc sav thai the landlords andjstaff the capitalists will have to do with less of t.iei , ' , wealth produced in future, and the workers "8 compared with previous weeks, the returns will have to receive more. J f deaths for last week areas follows: Mr. Hobson Tt nnnit.n.1 for the maintenance of industry can be pot 011 cheaper terms you are quite entitled to it, but. personally, I doubt if you will got it on such terms. Mr. Frederick J. Pearson, assistant accountant general of t'.io G.P.O., gave evidence as to the post office telegraph and telephone finances as a "nationalised" concern. The Price of Gas. Mr. David Milne Watson, president of the National Gas Council of Great Britain and governor of the Gas Light and Coke Company, stated that an advance of Is. per ton in the price of coal meant on the average an advance of id. in the price of gas per thousand. Tho experience of Government control had not been satisfactory to the pas industr-. Answering Mr. Smillie, the witness said that the gas companies of the country had produced more out of a ton of coal than anybody else. Mr. William Frewen, general secretary of the Federation of Firemen, Examiners, and Deputies of Great Britain, representing 20,000 members out of 24,000 men so employed, put forward a claim on t'.icir behalf to have the same benefits as the other mine workers. Mine-owners were experiencing great difficulty in securing men to fill the positions of deputies, because of the wages paid. In reply to Mr. Srr.illie, the witness said that as State servants thev could do better work. They would be independent of the mine managers and the men. Tho Commission adjourned at 8 30 p.m., and the first "witness to day will be Sir Richard Red-mayne, Chief Inspector of Mines. FRENCH MINERS' DEMANDS. The Miners' Union of the Pas de Calais, the chief organised body of the French miners, has passed a resolution demanding (1) a 50 per cent increase in wanes ; (2) an eight-hour day from pithead to pithead ; (3) communication with other French miners, French transport workers, and British miners and transport workers. II LADY SYKES'S DECISION NOT TO CONTEST CENTRAL HULL. Lady Sykes has decided not to contest the Central Hull seat held by her late husband, Sir Mark Sykes. In her reply, while appreciating the honour of the invitation, she says : " Unless I could put my whole energies into the service of Central Hull as its member the attempt to carry on even a small part of my husband's work and ideals would be a failure, and I dare not undertake the task. The upbringing of my children and many other responsibilities that have fallen upon my shoulders alone are duties I must put before all else, and must absorb the greater part of my time and interest. I hope and believe that the ties of friendship and affection I have formed ir. Central Hull will never be broken." Unionist Candidate Selected. Lord Eustace Percy, third son of the Duke of Northumberland, was last night adopted as Unionist Coalition, candidate for Central Hull. Lord Percv is 32 yeaTs of age, and has been engaged in tho Diplomatio Service. He addressed the Central Hull Unionist Association yesterday, and summed up his policy a being .one of national unity and national understanding. He supported the League of Nations, and said that a oetter feeling between employers and employed was the only remedy for industrial unrest. POLICE AND " BOLSHEVISM." A Russian, giving the name of Michael Cobven, was charged before Mr. Brierley, the stipendiary imagistrate, at the Manchester City Police Court, yesterday, with failing to notify his changes of address. There was a further charge against him of disorderly conduct. Sergeant King, of the Aliens Department of the city police, said the prisoner was addressing a crowd in Peter Street on Sunday afternoon. He was told to go away, when he went into St. Peter's Square and got together another crowdi He made an attack, in his address, upon people possessing money, and urged his hearers to join the Socialist party. .When again asked to move away he used abusive language to the officer. King said that Cobven was a" rabid Bolshevik." He admitted having escaped from a Russian prison. He was sent to gaol for a month and will be recommended for deportation. PROFESSOR ELTON ON VICTORIAN LITERATURE. Professor Elton lectured at the Manchester University last night on " Victorian Literature." Dean Swayne presided. The period of which Professor Elton spoke was that which came to an end about 1880. Of Anthony Trollope he said every generation ought to have its Trollope, faithful recorder of ordinary beings in the light of plain day. Walter Bagehot's work on the English Constitution had become an authority, not only in theory but in practice; Bagehot lived by his thinking, and by his keen, pure English, careful and without surplusage, willing to be himself, writing his own thoughts in the simplest words. Coining to the great writers, Professor Elton said Carlyle did not "talk like a book," as had been said; his books talked like him. His style vexed some people like a continued mustard plaster, but the essential part was good Englisn of the highest standard. It was not in the great classical tradition like Ruskin's, but Carlyle was never flat, and, artistically speaking, never wrong. Of Ruskin Professor Elton said his prose was in the centre of the great classical tradition. He lived to see a time when many of his heresies had become commonplaces. Algernon Swinburne had his great, period between 1868 and 1882; his great moment about 1871, when he produced " Songs before Sunrise." In. all his works there was hardly a line which failed of its intended melody, and yet we became aware of the perfect writing we could never forget and the blameless writing we could never remember. WAR ADDITIONS TO THE NATIONAL DEBT. A return was issued yesterday showing the aggregate gross liabilities of the State from the years 1875-6 to 1317-18 The return shows not only the amount of funded debt, the estimated abilitrtn1nnfTnnnViK?bnaninuities' and the amount of unfunded debt, but also any other liabilities which may be regarded as proper additions to be made in astatement of the to ndebtedness of the nation The National Debt or gross liabilities showed an increase during the year 1918 of 1,857,450.838 the figures on March 31. 1917, being 4,083,644,981' and on March 31, 1918, 5,921,095,318. At the end of March, 1914, the national de'bt was 7C6,154,110. The Finance Committee of the Lancashire County Council, out of the balance accumulated durins the three years ended -31st March. 1918. on the Exchequer contribution, . licence and-! e5taJfe-diy,.haveJdelded - aPP?Pnate a anm of 7o,000 towards the expendituie on. main I0ad6- . . . . , r ; fr AUZARIXE YELIX)W, lor Oalioo Printtnf. Cutler Hill worn, Fuiswonn, aincnester. ladttj THE INFLUENZA. ITS HEIGHT REACHED IN MANCHESTER. There were 20 deaths from influenza in Man- Chester last week. In addition, the number - of deaths from bronchitis reached a total of 87, j nnd tnere were also deaths from pneumonia. jThe deaths from all causes numbered 514, giv- inn a rate rtf ZA. A -url.h fllsn Tenrespnts the rate of the nrevion, w.pIc. . - : The figures for influenza last weefe show an increase of 13 deaths, as compared wijh the week ended March 1. The only hope - , - iui sign is ttiat the increase is mucn less ign is that the increase is much marxea tlian 1:1 the earlier weens 01 uiu epidemie. The i, .a noHihilitv that the I ' .1..Jr:4. u.....t,s. , uie.ire may nave reacnea us neigiu, duihuuii,. Tr.lirio.- re, , . ------ wiU not bc dcfiniteI- kno for another week oi the S con "l ?' PIidnt ! or .two. The elementary schools still continue '. Conference, tho Rev.' Samuel aiadwSk'Tn WHk onrted March 8 Maroh 1 February 22 February 15 February 8 . Xnflucnsa. Bronchitis. Pneumonic 204 87 44 191 78 63 127 66 52 44' 56 41 28 42 37 The death-rate per thousand from all causes for the week ended February 8 was 17.9, so that the rate has nearly doubled in five weeks. INFLUENZA AND MENTAL DERANGEMENT. A CORONER'S COMMENT. Suicide whilst of unsound mind was the verdict reccrded by the Lambeth Coroner yesterday in the oase of Benjamin Adams, a farrier, who for 23 years had lodged at Camber-well New Road, London A brother stated that the dead man had been affected by air raids, and three weeks aco had influenza, wluch depressed him. On Thursday he said he would never go to work again, and would drown himself. On Friday bis body was found on the foreshore near Waterloo Pier, .London. Mr. Ingleby Oddie also found that Emilv Wood (64), widow of a stage hand, of Roupel Street, Lambeth, committed suicide. On November 16, when suffering from influenza, she left her lx-d and jumped through a window, falling 14 feet. The Coroner : That is rather a common sequel to the last outbreak of influenza. I have had a lot of cases of persons who have gone off their heads and jumped through windows. 1,000 CASES AT RUNCORN. At the Runcorn Council meeting lest night Dr. Annett, medical officer, reported that the influenza epidemic had assumed very serious proportions. A hospital opened a fortnight ago was nearly full. One doctor estimated that there were 1,000 cases of influenza in the town, the population of which is 18,000. All the Highways Department men are employed in digging graves. Dr. Annett reported that the Vicar of Runcorn had offered the Church House at a hospital, and it was decided to accept this and to appeal to the voluntary aid detachment for aid for the hospital staffs, who were working night and day. It was also decided to obtain a motor ambulance, if possible. Dr. Annett urged that steps be taken to secure a eupply of brandy and whisky, and urged councillors to send any private stocks to the hospital. Brandy had been refused on a medical certificate, and the nurses had gone round the public-houses trying to obtain, spirits-. GOVERNMENT BLAMED FOR NOT RELEASINCTSPIRiTS. At Stalybridge Town Council meeting last night it was reported that during 1918 no fewer than 106 deaths were caused from influenza or pneumonia, against 23 in the previous year. Councillor J. H. Smith, chairman of the Public Health Committee, referring to the scourge, blamed the Government for not releasing whisky and brandy. They weTe very remiss in this matter. It was almost impossible to get stimulants. The Committee had considered the question, and made recommendations to the proper quarter, but with no result. Influenza is again rampant in Stalybridge, and is causing many deaths. A tragedy is repotted in connection with a family in Market Street. The husband, Mr. William Forde. a confectioner, died from pneumonia following influenza about a fortnight ago, his son Albert succumbed a few days later, and now his wife has died of the' disdase, and is awaiting burial. Of the family only a daughter, aged about 20, .survives. Influenza in Leeds is diminishing slowly. Last week there were 101 deaths in the city, as compared with 127 the previous week. Yesterday 164 tramway employees were absent from duty on account of the disease. ALLEGED ATTEMPTED MURDER BY A MOTHER. AN UNFORTUNATE FAMILY. At Leigh County Police Court yesterday Lily Yates (45), wife of Ellis Yates, an ex-soldier and ironworker, of 10, Coach Street, Atherton, was charged with attempting to murder her daughter Ellen, aged ten years, and also with at tetupted-suicide, on Thursday, February 27. A further charge of attempting to murder her son, Thomas Cecil, aged seven years, was withdrawn. It was stated that the woman sent for the police, and told them that she had given poison to the two children and had taken some her-' self. She had been ill and depressed. Ellis Yates, the husband, said his wife had been expecting their eldest daughter Norah, who was in the asylum at Lancaster, to get better, but had recently been informed she would not. The boy Peter, aged 13, was paralysed, feebleminded, and dumb, and had to have everything done for him. He kept screaming out at night, and gave hia mother sleepless, nights. The boy Cecil, aged seven years, was ill with influenza, the girl Ellen had epileptic fits, and his wife had lately had the influenza. She was also in Dublin when he was a soldier and got terribly frightened during the rebellion there, and had been nervous ever since. She was a good wife and mother. The Bench committed the prisoner for trial at Liverpool Assizes, and expressed their sympathy with the prisoner and her husband. FIGHTING IN GEORGIA. Mr. Scotland Liddell, the correspondent of the British Press, in a cablegram from Tiflis, dated February 18, states: A few days ago, at the town of Akaltsik, west of Tiflis, the local Mussulman forces, estimated at 1,500, rose against the Georgians. It is now reported that the town is quiet. The Mussulmans state that unless the Georgians attack or reinforce they will not advance further. On February 14 a British warship arrived at Baku, and reported that since February 8 no fighting has taken place between Deniken and the Georgians. The Georgian local authorities state they will oppose any advance of the volunteer army. Press Association War Special. LANCASHIRE'S HUGE BUDGET. The Finance Committee of the Lancashire County Council in tneir estimates for the finan- '0jai year beginning April 1, 1319, and ending March 31, 1920, state that"the estimated revenue -balance : at the 'comrnenceiMsnt of the year was SbioW 7- 3d which with the esti-mnSwl in g I0:? ; & fiT IS S -rkfL 'SWlffl- - MTL ci10Q I The estimated expenditure is 2,80.230. 3s. id- leaving an estimated revenue balance at the end of the year of 440,524. Is. lid. POOR LAW AND A HEALTH MINISTRY. The Chairman of the Hnddersfield Guardians at a meeting oi the Board yesterday said it was a foregone conclusion; that the Boards had 1 nlroiidv entered uixm a process of abolition: : - .01 . . f i. - , ! i": ' They needed a Ministry of Health. They, had j'beetold that they -were losing 1,000 babieaTa; 1 week. If little pigs were dying at the rate of a i thousand a week-Royal Commissions would 't I running round the , country to inquire the BIX. rv biibw, wueuiueu uu jMuuuaea cuangeg ' reason. THE FREE CHURCHES IN CONFERENCE. SHEFFIELD'S WELCOME. THE NEW SPIRIT OF UNITY. (From our own Reporter.) . SHEFFIELD, MONDAY NlOHT. 1 me r,..,:i r .v- -r- i- , tm - Churchfis T m h ft fn the Towt nth f? Z7 5 ; .,,;,..r.m the .Ton Hall this afternoon, at 11:11 a CIVIC Welcome wno l,-o Aa. , . . Jli memoprq hv in t ,j . t ., j r .... , ""V"88 A1n-an and Mrs. Irons), and 1 V'""-" welcomes by the ie Bishop of Sheffield, : the eVenf .V.. hck-... In inn. i, ". 1, nixa " petpie s gainer- ta&rnenl Nher Oiapol and a musical enter-ti H1 ,n the Victoria Hall. London. tohM?Z. StL'"i ,q "tent'on .? be present number over 800, ?f1mpred w,th about 300 a year ago. The int wrmnn V .i "u"""Si wiui an oen- Fr,rti by the retiring president, the Rev. dSJT 1 After his inductloi the new president. Dr. a t n.,n .-n .- wm'heV "si f the'morrdng session new bldH?ted to discussions on the effects of ?ZL COntlo"sJon the ministry and congregations. The Fedemtinn r.nw ,-n 1 Geo?;; -B; MVer7Dr."K UT-Sd Mr. George Hirst (or2anisinr B.orf.f.- tritZil nn,Tindmon ot.her 'bjecta 0f discussion " utilisation ot woman's growine influence in national life. s n. h anesrtay' t,he closing day, a low? agenda B?fwew ?,ripared: The Deak of DufhamT Bimf?-oT?lldo,n' 'wil1 Prcai:h sermon, and iffSPEf17 afte tt the Conference will apply Itself to a vn rAMri-,n i - . .J 11 7 wvn ji iiic various aspects of J l?leSent ?atll olook and the creation or a new social orrW Th. xr tion, the appeal of f nri m 1 SM,5m oe there s to V"" u""' e?' ?a Walter Runciman will be one of the speakers. The New President. Dr. Guttery, the president-elect, is the son of me late Dr. Thomas Guttery, who was a president of the Primitive Methodist Conference. Dr. A. T. Guttery first became prominent aa minister of the Central Church, Newcastle. For nve years he was general secretary of the Primi. five Methodist Missionary Society. A few weeka u iviunicu to tnis country from America, wnere lie had for some time accompanied the bishop of Oxford with the object of presenting the British cnu 1. of generally promoting good feeling between the Tlie subject of a reunion of the Churches was touched upon by most of the speakers at cu, , li'11? meeting. The Bishop of onemeid sain tfiat 1 i . y!Fs ?as that Christians must draw closer together in faith, unity, and love. He was speaking, ho believed, for the clergy and . j j .ic ,nuri;ii in ringiann m that city in savins tbat thev lnnira 10.. for help to guard many sacred things which were m danger of being overthrown to-day. their members, the assembly had takerf one of mo Uti, eteps bowaras arawing tbe people to-getber. The Great Project of Reunion. The Archdeason of Sheffield said tbat this welcome was an expression, first, of a fealino. of brotherhood and comradeship, which was absolutely frank and sincere, but still more an aspiration for real and aotual corporate unity. In the minds of thousands in this country to-day what was becoming a great aspiration was nothing less than securing once again a whole and united National Church. The resolution regarding interchange of pulpits juuvou a( yanoeroury wnnvooation by the Bisbop of Chelmsford was an historic landmark in thrt great project of reunion, and, if carried out, the spirit in which it was meant was far more full of hope than any of them at present was aware. The Rev. S. Chadwick said he iwim'eon m-uti. in the movement towards reunion, and that the churches no longer stood organised, with clenched fists, but with the open hand of comradeship and co-operation. A uninn !. was imposed from without must sooner or later iLuuuio 10 pieces, oui me present movement was the breathing of an inward spirit, the 6tretching out of hands one to another. Thev were beginning to ask why they should be so far apart. The Rev. George Hooper, president of the National Free Church Council; and Sir Joseph Compton-Rickett, M.P., replied to the welcomes. Mr. Hooner declared that. m.t. social problems the churches had to face to-day were all spiritual at their base, and even without organic union there was much the churches could accomplish. Sir Joseph said that ' throughout the country, and especially among the men who had been in the forces, there was, along with a deep feeling of seriousness regard-inn.. 4.tiA fn.tiTA anrl a eonaa vtA,.l T : buity, an impatience with dogma or doctrine ana wiiu a great oeai 01 cnurch organisation. What thev should do. he believed, who vance collectively out of their church nni take hold of the interests of men and women. LONGER HOURS FOR LICENSED PREMISES. The London News Agency understands that the Order relaxing the restrictions as to the hours during which alcoholic beverages may. be consumed in public-houses and hotels will bfl published to-day. it is understood tnat licensed premises will be granted an extension of half an hour. The extra half-hour will be fixed at the beginning of the evening hours of opening in the case of the majority of public-houses. This arrangement has been made particularly to meet the convenience of ' industrial districts. AMERICAN PKQDDCE. NEW YORK, Monday. Cotton oi! dull. mm"' Petroleum. lleflned steady. : Lard. Cuh market atrong; and 624 points dMMT. Wheat. Spot nominal. Flour Arm. Maize Spot strong. Sugar steady. Tallow firm. Coffee advanced on buying by impartra, bat partially declined on realiting. The cloae waa ateady. -Tin Kcrntnal. lion and copper ateady. AMERICAN MONET & STOCKS. NEW YORK, Monday. Stocks opened arm, with Jaat week's fevourites takW the lead, and there waa also buying of lauways, with low-pra iaeaes inespecial request . Good pins wipe-also established elsewhere, and the markefc rWt T, Government bonds steady. Railroad bonds irregular. Money on call ateady at 6 per cent. Sterling escSanca steady and unchanged. Silver bars unaltered. 7 "WEATHER IN THE COTTON BELT.: . NEW YORK, Monday.-The weather in the cotton belt u repotted as follows: Atlantic States. Central Gulf. SbntOemGnM Toay. Sat. Totday. Sat. ToSy "sit Mas. tamp; 64 68 . 48 70 .... W' . ... u . ...... m Cloudy. Cloudy. Cloudy. 28 DEVELOPMENTS IN THE TINPfcATB ''"TRADE.""; We understand that negotiations are Moceedina- tot the establishment of a central selling agcroTthe oro-duct ot the Welsh tinplate manuIactufSi. The rtels taken with a view to meeting the expected'keen foreign competition after the wir, It being realised that only combined effort and working-in harmony will save the industry. The dewelopmen resembles :that In the United. . States in connection with the' steer trade there, and naturally will be watched wjth great inter by other manufacturers. . The combination, while itf will mainly aim at meetinc foreign -competltion.iabouldjtend to free the trade front the operations of speculators; and if oni-formiry in pricea-;is obtained both itaanufacturers and consumers should benenfc: "jto?the tirmlafc works-use over 100,000 toua of stseljper inpntitf the fmportanes of the step is readily r seen. A jneetfaar toicontfder the whole matter wiU be aliorth' rrsk! . Two Australian " axklorslgwlfng tom Salisbury Plain to Bath on Bandsy found i motor-car pulled up by the de-of thyroid- Inside was 4 man-with the top of his head blown off Jcneelins: by the ateeriifewfcecd nis shoulder. - ile wm, wepaaeu uper . ju. Montagu Edwardarof KaiisTrury WKLCO Coooa Ted jBifiLij Ft ; unims mem; ana. muuiiuos jna

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