The Observer from London, Greater London, England on September 22, 1918 · 3
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The Observer from London, Greater London, England · 3

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THE OBSERVER, SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 82, 1918. 3 Debe nham bodta rn.tr Ik O . widmone otree' (Cavendish Square) London. HOTK.'ihU E$UxblUhment is doted on Saturday!. FURS AT SUMMER PRICES. Until the end of Ssptember ell Fun will be narked at Speeltl Summer Pricei. Fur rnova. tiont and remodelling thould be put id hand cow. The sew Winter Mcdtls tre all in stock and aaa be copied. NEW MODEL PUR COAT (as sketch) in fine duality seal-dyed coney with large collar, cults and Bounce oi moie-avea coney, inw toft titln. Summer Price 35 Gns. NEW MODEL PUR COAT (as sketch) in selected eal-djed coney, with handsome collar and cuffs of natonl Canadian beaver, lined rich OQ Ine quality brocaded silk. Summer Price Vina. DEBENH AM A FREEBODY Ho. 92a 356 . Tfee "Individual' Corset. Each IZOD Corset shape is especially designed for one type of figure only, and -is scientifically cut to display that type to the fullest advantage. Model 920. A very gracefully cut corsot. modelled far tall slender women. The long skirt assures a smooth symmetrical hlp-linc, and the somewhat low front gives unfettered ease of movoiaent while allowing free bust dsvetopment. There is arlvettod nook below the busk, whl oh lends added support and maVesforgroaterdurability. In fin C quality broche. Sizes, 20 in. to 28 in. CORSETS. A Perfect Fitting for Every Figure. From 011 to 47,'B. If unable to prdcure write for name of rclaiter to toe laid AdierlMno Dept. Dudley Mouse, Southampton Street. Siraud, London, W.C. 9. War Workers Want a Regular Dally Ration of REYNOLDS' WHEAT MEAL BREAD l.'SasPl Giw tana to (ho system and stnogthens tha muscles. Order from Bakers. Everywhere. J. Reynolds & Co., Ltd., Flour Mini,filoueeter. PAUL CAMBON. 20 YEARS AMBASSADOR IN LONDON. HIS WORK FOR FRANCE. THE EVOLUTION OF THE ENTENTE. By Andre Ceraud.' ("Pertlnax," of tha "Echo de Paris.") It was twenty years ago yosfrerday sinco M. Yaul Cambon was appointed French Ambassador in London. .On October -28 thirty-two years will bavo elapsed 6inco tho snmo statesman was promoted to ambassadorial rank and sent to Madrid. Buck a career exc.eeds iu length, ovcry other ambassadorial career on record iu France as well os in the other countries of tho world. In order to find a parallel for such art unbroken spell of political influence in poets of tho highest importance to tho State, wo must turn from officials to politicians, and quoto the case of Pahnerston, who was in and out of tho Cabinet for half a century, or the case of Thiers, who, with a long interval of nearly thirty years, ruled over successive generations, of "his convoatriots. Being an official, M. Paul Cambon never had the supremo authority committed to his care, but as he has been a very successful and powerful adviser of all tho French Cabinets that held power since tho 'eighties, tho total -weight of the power ho was able to wield uninterruptedly and in. the most critical circumstances, probably makes him tho equal of tho greatest among those who by their doings stamped for ever tho fate of their own country. Tho first part of the ambassadorial life of M. Paul Gambon. was chiefly devoted to tho solution of tho great Mediterranean problems. As Be6ident-General at Tunis (18821 . Ambassador in Madrid (1880) , Ambas sador in Constantinople (1891), ho had to approacn them .front various standpoints. The measuro of success he achieved in each cose made, for the' striking unity of his work a work that was to be finally confirmed by tho exchange of Kotes of April 8, 1904, bet-ween tho British and French Government on the subject of Egypt, and Morocco. From that dato onwards M. Carnbon had to "deal with the European consequences of what ho had done heaore. ;: The occupation of Tunis was the first great colonial venture of the Thirtl ltepubno. To-day we perceive only its advantages. Still, its dancers were many. The purpose of Bis marck, when favouring the expansion, of r rance oversea, was unaoupteaiy to mairo ncr quarrel with Italy and England, and, little by little, havina separated her from every poten tial ally, to attract her within the orbit ol tho German Empire. Tho fact that the feud of tho Mediterranean Powers, as fostered by the German, Chancellor, -was kept, within moderate limits, nVd then gradually replaced by a bond of goodwill and co-operation, speaks eloquently in favour of French statesmanship. Thirty-seven years ago it cannot be said tbnt the French rule over Northern Africa had been put on a secure basis. Algiers had beenl seized in spite of the violent opposition of tho j Loudon Cabinet, and through tha greater port of the nineteenth century tho French and British Governments stood iu direct hostility to each other over the consequences of that initial quarrel. On. tho ; other hand,., too Ffench management of theoversea territories had not been- an undisputed success, as was seen by the revolt which took plaeo afr the close of tho war of 1870. In complete contrast to the method followed in Algeria, the result of which was tho permanent division of interests between tho European settlers and the natives, M. Paul Cambon tried to initiate 'now departure. The old dynasty was left in power ; all tho authorities in the land were respected , supported, and, littlo by little, made useful. French activity did not assort itself brutally and through the- destruction of the original civilisation of the country. On tho contrary, it was mado subservient to it. Tho greatest praise that could be'bes'towod upon such a policy came, twenty-five years later, from the vjsry lips of German diplomatists. As .the European controversy -was started about Morocco, French statesmen had to meet the accusation that they wcro going to " Tunisify " the Sbiriffian Empire. In saying this, Germany meant to convey th.itj, if left to themselves, they would gradually, without any open break, without any apparent commotion, instil French civilisation in the old Moroccan organism. " In Constantinople M. Cambon bad to deal with a. now phase. In spite of tho .considerations of higher policy that stood for tha friendship and co-operation of the London mid French Governments on the Bosphorus, Turkey was then their .favourite battlo ground. The gradual establishment of the British rulo in Egypt was. o? course, mainly responsible for that disastrous rcsulf. The 'traditional rivalry of England and Bussia in tho Straits was, of course, a very powerful additional cause, since the understanding between the Tsar and. tho Republic, then at its very beginning, which, was welcomed o enthusiastically by the French people, as it marked tho end of their isolation on, tho Continent, was understood in Russia to bo aimed far more against tho Bri-tish' than against the German Empire. Two courses ol action Jay open beaore tne raris Cabinet. One. of them was to overlook the German danger, the seriousness of which, was then minimised by a good many people, end to hunt after extra-European gains by the side of St. Petersburg and Berlin; in that way Egypt was to bo wrenched from England, etc. The other was to resist tho temptation of what could bo at the best a very hazardous enterprise., to place the permanent interests of the country before every casual and partial interest, to remember that the problem of European hegemony overshadowed all others, and to develop the Russian alliance in the direction of London rather than in the direction of Berlin. Immediately beforo tho war there were people who used to say that equally good reasons could bo found for euch term of the alternative. M. Paul Cambon never was of such an opinion. According to him the very iilna that a nreat colonial Power like Franco, havin" oversea possessions to defend and no adequate navy to rely upon, could bo brought into conflict with tho greatest naval power in the world, was an absurdity in terms. Those wero tho most nrduous years in liis whole Itfo. The man who had then the greatest iunuenco on tho foreign policy of Franco, M. Gabriel Hanutaux. was in direct opposition to him. All tiio initial stages of tho undertaking, of which the closing chapter was to be called Fnshoda, wqro prepared apart from liini. He was left in the dark. In tbo incan-imo. hp. did all that could be done to secure the largest possible, sham for Franco in the development of the Turkish Empire. One by ono nearly nil tho concessions which, once pieced together hv Berlin, wi-re to enable Germany .to" build "the Hairdad railway, wore obtained bv him from the. unwilling Sultan. mi. tlmcn rmuilfca wero lost shortly after the departure of the Ambassador, owing to the shortsightedness oCjfho financiers .who wcro expected to start working ou them, and to the bitter opposition of interests which long after aahodA still obtained between French and British companies in Turkey. An opening was lett to tho Germans of which they managed to make good lino aninst tho Western Powers. Iho ami -Turkish bias of the Qladatoman tradi hou won another aid to tho Hnhonxollern, In a few month, nothing was left of what had hew patiently built, up during eight years of hard work. Henceforward it was within tho power or hranro ami England to combine together in order to resist tho great Pan-firrmanist onslaught arising mainly from tho suecos of tho Bagdad, undertaking ( it' was hardly possible for tlicm to provent it. . Tho twenty years spent in London by M. Cambon run ho numnjari.iod in a very few words. .1 ho increasing strength of Germany, tlio boundless dreams of her Imperialist, tho .,..j.u.v.ui imuaxivcs takon up on several occasions by tho German Emperor (for instance, tho telegram to Krugor), mado it imperative to revive the long-dormant and more than lialf-forgotton Entonto Cordialo. M. Dclcasse, on succeeding to M. Hanotaux at the Quai d Orsay, know very well that the trench representative in Constantinople hold very strong opinions on the suhjoct. Ho know that ho had been called a dreamer by his predecessor in offico on account of an ofton-ropeatod plea in favour of Anglo-Froiich-Russian understanding in tho East. He commissioned liira to take charge of iho London Embassy, and not only to cut tho losses of tho Fashoda business, but as a necessary consequence to pave the way for a bargain, wherobv French rights in Egypt would bo made tbo counterpart of British rights in Morocco. The foolish African venture of 1808 had been to France a proctical losson that her real interests woro to be safeguarded, bytho sido of England. Moreover, the Boer War, while laying bare the foundations of the British Empire, showed to tho most enlightened of ita statesmen that the days of splendid isolation were gone by, and that some support had better bo found on the Continent. In that way the famous Convention of 1904 was brought, little by littlo, within tho field of practical politics. The league of Mediterranean -nations which, fifteen years beforo, was nearly constituted against France, was gradually nut into shapo around her. In conjunction with the Russian alliance it. mado once again a reality of the European balance oi power, destroyed in 1870. In tliat great political transformation the personal action of M. Paul Cambon can hardly be separated from the personal action of several other statesmen : but there is ono feature of it that must be .underlined because, had it not been for it, tho whole fabric would probably have been wrecked either beforo or at tho timo of the supreme crisis. The persona action of uno Jjrencn Ambassador testifies to an unswerving moral courage and to a great gift of accuracy in political prognostication. Insuperable obstacles stood in the way of a formal military alliance. The only course to bo followed in order to make tho Entente Cordialo as effective as possible was to abstain from hurrying up matters at too quick a rate, from pressing a definite pact upon tho acceptance of tho British Cabinet, and to trust maihly to tho common sense, to the honourable feeling, and to the energy of tha British nation in cso a difficult time would come ahead. There wero manv wise men on our side who deemed such an experiment a very daring one. Fancy, to establish the whole external policy of a great country liko France on assurances which, in the trifling matter of a house being bought or being put oa sale, would bo considered as ni too vague a cliaracter by tbo average lawyer ! The midying merit, tho groat prowess of M. Cambon, was to preceivo clearly that, if tho military support of r.ngland was over to to ro-nuired on tho French soil and in the French seas, the voico of common interests would sneak louder than nl! tho pacifism that seemed to be engrained in the British people, and that on those terms the great game could safely be played. Tho technical conventions concluded iov'avds the end ol 192 are stitfic.ieut to show what kind of pressure was brought to bear on him from Paris. Ho stood the test very courageously in the -last days: of- Ju3yaod-iu the-opening days of Auguse,-. 1914. These heavy responsibilities would have broken a lessor man. tlian he. As. everybody knows tolay, it is a fact that the "British Cabinet showed a considerable amount of vacillation. Think of what would have been hia position if tho advico ho had repeatedly tendered to' his own Government had proved to bo wrong ! I believe I still see him on tho fateful Sasurday beforo the declaration of war. He looked very pale, but very composed and resolute. Ho had been unable to wire to Paris tho relieving word- He had ordered his carriage and was going for a drive in Hyde Park. All that he said and wrote in thoso critical circumstances are a perfect model of wise and perhaps tho word is not misplaced here heroic statesmanship. No Frenchman and, I daresay, no Engliehrnan, will over forget tho part that wns "played then by the great Ambassador. .; I beg to be allowed to refer very briefly to some personal aspects of, tho man himself. In tho deepest sense of the expression there can be no bettor representative of Franco. Educated bv an admirable mother, under the guidance o? an uncle who was a priest and ended his lifo as Bishop of Langrcs, and having spent the first part of his official activity in the prefectoral service, he -was brought into the closest possible touch with provincial life, changing his residence from Marseilles in the south to Lille in tho north. Plunged next into the cosmopolitan world of the diplomats, ho has como to be equipped with a profound knowledge of human nature. When ho tries .to explain a political situation, it is very seldom, that lie does not bring to light first tho picturo of the chief actors. He does it in a classical way, concentrating, ou the main motive of the man, on tho anecdote that strikes home at tho main root of tho character. No metaphysical tlieory, no cut and dry scheme-are to bo found m what ho says. The impression ho conveys is of a great artist v;ho knows how to mould political fife Thero is an artistic touch in his dealing with the political circles in his own country. He has been thirty-two years an Ambassador, he has probably served under twenty-five Ciibjtietp French Cabinets aro short-lived and nobody can say that ho ever associated himself more intimately with such a Party or such a man than with any other man or party. He knows how to use to the best advantage of everybody concerned a secretary of Embassy, an officer, a bishop, or a Majori-tarian" Socialist. . MR. EDWARD MARSHALL. ... tt -n..:in;n rpnk. .rrAt.hr a fp.w friends Dir Jxanv ijih.uo.iii 6- - - - -- at the American Officers' Club on Friday night to say au revoir to JMr. tawaru iunuuit well-known American writer, whp during the past four vears has dono ao much for tho Allied cXuse Among those who were present were Mr - J- Balfour, Mr. Hayes Fisher, , Admiral Ma'vo, U.S.N., Sir Albert Stanley, Admiral Sirost Lord Stanhope, Mr. Ian Malcolm, and Mr. Robert Collins. 200 BATTLE PICTURES. Two hundred photographs of Italy at war are being shown free to the public at the Mendoza Galleries in Old Bond-street. Such novel features in warfare as the Tcleferica, an over-v,.rl cable bv which men, guns, ammunition, and provisions are taken up the mountains, are illustrated. Alpini dogs at work in sledges, soldiers on skis, and ladders ui sheer precipices, and other reminders of tne remarkable ir,A arduous character of the campaign in tho mountains. There is also a photograph of Vienna taken by Major D'Annum.io from the air during a raid. A continuous flow of sweaters and (comforts will bo wanted from now onwarrts at tno uircctor-ti ...l'c TVtini. &! Unrseferrv-road. S.W.T. i ... " , . , i, , - Plainly1 printed patterns for knitting theso may be hail on application (enclosing stamp for postage) to Mr. John Penoyre, 8, King's Bench-walW. TeniDle. K.C.4. " When Knights Were Bold " will be at Wimbledon J neatre ,tlua ween, and seven xiays Laavo " at the King's, HainnierimiUi. MR. HENDERSON AND HERR EBERT. GERMAN OBTUSENESS OR INSINCERITY. Mr. Arthur Henderson, M.P., in on interview with a representative of Router's Agency, said ho failed to find any justification for the state-nicut tliat lis had made a material concession in his reply to Herr Ebort, tho Gorman Socialist Majority Deputy. Ho had endeavoured to make tho position of British Labour so clear that thero could bo no misunderstanding about its present attitude or future intentions.. " If a Conference is to bo held," Mr. Hcndor-Bon said, " it is all-important that quostions involving fundamental principles should as far as possible be settled in advance. In no other way can an international gathering suoh as we desire promote the ideals of liberty and democracy. If this method is not adopted the projected meeting might defeat the objects for which it was called together. Those-objects can best be sorved by a public declaration of peace terms in precise form, such as was considered essential by tha Londou Conference last February. " It cannot be mado too clear that British I abour has long sinea placed Belgium otatsido tho category of questions upon which there can bo either negotiation or compromise, and regards the question of Alsace-Lorraine as essentially one oi rigat ana uot ui vernuvnut readjustment. " Herr Ebort suggest tliat the first tiling to do would h tn trv to come to an understand ing on a common peace programme. This is exactly what we have been asking the Gorman Majority to do ainoe February, and wo regret that ao far wo have not had from them the measure of assistance we were entitled to expect, while the existence of the infamous treaties of Brest-Litovsk and Bucharest have created new and almost insuperable- obstacles to a peace of understanding on international principles." A CANDID GERMAN. AT LARGE IN LONDON SINCE THE WAR BEGAN. A remarkable story was told at Marylebone yesterday of a prisoner, described as William James, forty, charged with failing to register as a German. Police-constable A. Boxall, on his annual leave, was walking through Sutherland-avenue, Maida-vale, when he noticed that clay and grass adhered to tho mackintosh of a man in front of him. Thinking he might be an escaped German prieonor, he taxed him with "looking like a German." The man -implied that ho was a war worker from Bexlev; produced a bank-book in the name of Win. James ; and said his foreign appearance was probably duo to the fact that his father's father was Norwegian. This satis-fled the constable for the moment; but ho ran after him again to ask how, if his father's father was Norwegian, he camo by the name of danics. " Well," said the other, " I suppose you mean business. I am a German, born near Berlin in 3870, but'enme to England as a child." He admitted not being registered and said he came rrom Australia four years ago and had since been to Ireland. The Bcxloy address' wa fictitious, but he " had friond3,', could get food coupons, and was not without money. " But I must consider before telling vou more," ho added (according to tho constable; " there are others to study. I am German )n sentiment if not actively hostile. What would you do if our positions were reversed! " . Dotcctlvc-scrgennt Bushnell said that beyond saying he was born near Berlin, prisoner refused to give any account of himself. Prisoner : " I said -I bed never been disloyal, but. was German in sentiment to a certain extent." . Remanded for inquiries. WATERLOO SENSATION. EXCITING PURSUIT OF MAX WHO SHOT TWO CONSTABLES. As the result of an affray and chase outaido WaaNs Rrfiilvn on Friday afternoon, in which two plain-clothes constables wero shot in the leg by a Canadian soldier, Milford Granger, 13$ (an absentee from his regiment for three weeks), was charged at Tower Bridgo yesterday with attempted murder. The two constables Williams and Richardsonarrested Granger on the platform at Waterloo Station on the arrival ot the Guildford train.- He was in civilian clothes, and while being taken to a cab he tried to escape. During the struggle prisoner produced a Colt magazine revolver, and fired several shots, two hitSng the constables in the knee and thigh respectively. ,,',,, He then escaped, pursued by Constable Bishop. Dashing through an open doorway, he went through a house in Lambeth -square, climbed over' a wall, and landed in a wash-tub. A woman, Mrs. Dudley, clung to his legs and screamed for help while he was trying to climb ovr the secona waii. du no wm his revolver at her and sho released her hold. On reaching the top ot the wall, nowever, escape was cut off by soldiers and policemen? i , .a4 rI' li r wAiwm taken from ani ne wjmic.. i- him contained several hve cartndgas and four spentones. . , ji-. - Tjolice- station, when charged, prisoner l-eplied : It wafl an accident, l aian j"j' miuv In a statement made to the pohoe, prisoner said ne oesert-eu irum nn , , ? He stole ft civilian suit, and on Friday, receiv- ma permission to wasn nunseu in cottage, no swj j " 35 tt revolver from a returned soldier for 3. He explained the shots at Waterloo by sayrng that .. ' - ..1, L 1 Yttn nrv.tr at in T1 A the revolver ieu am w "7 rj" struck the ground. It went off three or four times w-nen ne pjuK--" " "f- tii- ii.- .-.AA mnstn.hls are in hospital. ioui &ue wwwiv. -. T , v x tho injuries of one of them being somewhat dangerous. ' Prisoner waa reni"uw. THE NEW RATION BOOKS. -. . DANGER OF DELAY IN MAKING APPLICATION. Yesterday was tho date fixed as the last for tlie sending in to tho Food Control offices of 6) in the ration books, applying for a new book, which becomes opera tive in November. aiiucaruucra muii-itix:, however, that tho public, .in many places, have up till now paid insufficient heed to the official notice issued by tho Food Controller, urging people to send in their applications promptly. Delay in doing so is likely to cause serious inconvenience to the applicants, as ihe forms will be dealt with m the order in which they are received, and if a largo section of the t-v i cc .nnJinf in thp anrtlication forma public pui, -i -j-- i t it will ho impossible to supply the new hooks in time, x-verjuno """.i"- so, should .at onoe fill m the green leaf and return it, in a stamped envelope, to the local ''everaieimprovempnts have been introduced "in the new books, which will be for six months instead of three. Tliey aro a trifle larger, and have double the number of coupons on a pago. One of the spare pages will probably be used for lam The perforation of tha . coupons, like stamps, so that they can bo torn out instead of having to be out, is a time-saving improvement which 'nil be much appreciated by the traders. - i Burrongnes Watts' Billiard Tables for the Army, ADULT EDUCATION. INDUSTRY AND THE NEW NEEDS. (By a Labour Correspondent.) By an interesting coincidence the Interim Report of tho Ministry of Reconstruction's Com mittee on Adult Education dealing with in dimtrial and social conditions, was published whilst tho Trades Union Congress was in'session at Derby debating some of the questions which, aro tho subject matter of tho tkmimittco's recommendations. It is significant that organised Labour approaching the problems of industry from experience within tho system, and a Committee ou lAiUvabtou ouuBiunriiig uiem umn tjxiwiiuiivu of tho effects of industrial conditions, should reach agreement on fundamental needs. There is, however, an underlying similarity of atti-tudo on tho part of orcamsod Labour and the T' 1 i; t .' . . . .1 I . I . n r. members of the Committee. The case of Labour against the conditions under which it so often w-orks. is not tliat thev are " bad business " and do nob pay, though that is probably true, but that they are an insult to human beings. Tho claim of Labour is essentially a human and not an economic claim. It rests upon the rights of personality and citizenship. And these are precisely the. grounds upon which the Committee on Adult Education attack the conditions of industriaj life, ' The Committee boldly asserts thero is not of necessity " a fundamental antagonism betweesn ethics and economics,"' and that if " industry and commerce and' tho fecial conditions which sue in a Jorge degree dopen dent upon them . . . cramp the life of the in dividual, no amount of economic argument will suffice to justify them." This is the root of. the Labour demand -the recognition of human personality as the criterion of industrial, as of social, progress. "THE HUMAN ,VD3W." Tho Interim Report of the Committee on Adult . Education merits careful attention. It was set up "to consider the provision for, and possibilities of, adult education (other than technical or vocational) in Great Britain, and to make recommendations." The Committee, which is under the chairmanship of the Master of Balliol, is Composed of people of varied experience trade unionists, employers, and educationists. It satisfied' itself as to the "wide and growing demand among adults for education of a non-vocational character." The activities of the Workers' Educational Association, tho University Tutorial Class, and Extension Lectures Movements, the Adult School Movement, and similar organisations, as well as tho working men's colleges, Ruskin College and the Labour College, are perhaps not widely known to the general public. But vigorous and valuable educational work is being carried on, which is none the less important because it is not advertised from the housetops. But the Committee. were brought up against evidence which shows that " prevailing industrial and social conditions evon before the war were only too often of such a character a to form in many cases almost insuperable obstacles to adult education, nod so to prevent individual-workers from realising fully their powers and capacities." This supplies one reason why the Committee has devoted its first Report to a consideration of tho removal of these obstacles. Secondly, it is realised that " the quality of an educational system must always depend to a large extent upon tho economic framework of the society in which it i9 nlaced." , Therefore, tha Committee wisely decided to place before the Government what may be called the human view of industrial and social reconstruction. The fact that the recommendations of the Report are the considered views of a number of'pooplo with industrial ami educational experience sitting round a table and removed from the .atmosphere of propaganda and controversy gives the Report an importance which no Government will be able to overlook. HOURS AND CONDITIONS. , The uommittees proposals provide the-wSsis for a far-reaching ' policy of industrial recon struction. They suggest the establishment of a, normal legal wonting day of eight Hours. They go further, and propose that in heavy and exhausting kinds ef work and work accompanied by special disabilities (e.g., irregular hours) hours of labour should be less. Heavy and exhausting occupations should be specially regulated) and wherever possible superseded oy n.-echanical devices. Overtime should be more closely regulated by law and reduced to a minimum. " Shift " work comes In for special consideration. It is an effective barrier against participation in educational pursuits, in social and political activities. It is eurtgostod that where it continues, the hours of labour should be reduced below those of the normal working day. The unanimous verdict of those who submitted their views to the. Committee was that, night work was " unnatural," inverting the normal order of life, and cutting off the workers from the organised lifo of the community. , It is proposed, therefore, that' except where it is absolutely essential, regular night- work, whether periodical or continuous, should be prohibited by law. The evil effects of con-' tinued monotonous employment are emphasised. and it is suggested that they, might he met " by alternating forms of employment, by creating opportunities-for the exercise of initiative, and, by establishing works committees for, the consideration of matters affecting workshop lifer." Steps should also be taken to guarantee to the worker eomo reasonable security of livelihood, either by! such a reorganisation of industry as may. prevent or minimise fluctuations - in the volume ol production, or, where that is impos sihle, by some extension of the pfinciple of in. surance which would protect the wage-earner against tne ruinous euects ot sucn nuctuationa as cannot be prevented. ine question of holidays, too often overlooked, is treated boldly. The Committee would extend the weekly half holiday to agriculture, and in addition institute a statutory annual holiday for wage-earners with Jim pay. THE NEW SPIRIT. To deal with the social reforms .suggested would take us too far afield, but reference must be made" to the wider industrial point of view whioh finds expression in the Report. In the long paragraph on " The Effectej of the Industrial Background," the Committee analyses the defects and shortcomings of tho industrial srvs-iem. There can 'be .no doubt," weare told,! tliat the degradation of. human beings to the position of mere "hands;" and the treatment of labour as a commodity to be bought and sold, has created a revolt in tho minds of a large seotion of the community. Tho conditions of industrial ' life have only too often outraged human personality. ... Thero is undoubtedly a growing reeling of dissatisfaction, on the part of workpeople with what they regard as their position of inferiority. This inferiority, it is urged, is due to a forced submission to undesirable conditions, to the subjection of the worker both. to the machine and to the will of others, who are vested with an authority in which the workers have- no - share. The new currents of thought, which during the past fow years have increasingly agitated , Labour, are a sign qf a deep-seated reaction against the de-humanising influences surrounding industrial life. One of the most insistent demands made by the rising generation of workers is for what is, called " in-' dtistrial control." . .. . It is, generally admitted that from the point of view-of . both the individual' and the community it is desir able that the new claims should somehow, be met. The Committee boldly assert, what is implied in the foregoing quotation, that " industry exists for man, not man for industry." The Com- rmttnfi pleads for "a new orientation of our industrial outlook and activities." The Report expresses the need for what tne llnest spirits m the Labour movement are striving to attain, freedom and justice in industry as m other sides of national 'life. :It is true, as the Committee points. out, that "the real lack in our national .history has been the lack of bold and clear thinking.,- We have been well-mea,ning, we have had good - 'principles; where we have failed is in the. courage and the foresight to carry out our principles into our corpora to life." Nowhere is this more needed than in the sphere of industry. , It . is there, that those principles have been most violated. Tt is th eve. where the real national peril of the future lies." ' mm SHORTAGE Are You Prepared ? Unless you are careful with Goal, Gas and Electric -Light ow, you will have to face serious hardships before the cold weather is over. Production at home is falling this year the amount mined is over 13 million tons below last year. The total shortage is 36 million tons. Now is the time for you to prepare. Have you iut in firebricks? Have yon shut up unneces-'sary rooms? ' Have v you taken out : every unnecessary light? ; Have you reduced the number of hot baths and hot meals? ," ' . - Are you mixing coke with your coal? Are you keeping a reserve of coal for illness ? Millions of tons of British Coal are wanted by the American Army- America's Coal is too far away. Millions of . tons are wanted by the Allied Armies in France and Flanders French Coalfields are in enemy hands'. Millions of tons arc wanted by the Allied Armies in Italy Italy has none. Millions of tons -are wanted for Munitions, ' for Transport, for. the"Flcet. and for the Merchant Ships. , British al IS B.T. 7 UtMtiyJCcalMlna D,t., , ra r-- m ' - - 1 1 rai ' . 1 ' I he National I ribute M,JJZr' "V."""i'i-,- ,rt, m'- i iinsrrmWfflflatllTiBiaV me Lora Kooercs luemonai YOTKsncps VISIT The Lord Roberts Memorial Vorkhopi i Fttlham Road, London,, or at '; Brightor A, Edinburgh, NewcaeUe, Belfaat, Braord,i Plymouth, Liverpool Nottingham a j 'To: l? -"v,'. oivacsi.cr ouu . uuuuugiuuu. The more you see the more y 6a Will vou do omethinsr to helo a lougm wrouc you woreeu m who to-day needs a chance to, Will you help to buy a machine a permanently-disabled soldier or sailor can earn a living wage ? You will T Then mad a Mener Order or Chmiaa now ! Mji-Gcn. Th Rt. Hen. THE LORD CHEYLESMORE, t-CV.O , fthatrfaan, . . j., , 1J3 Bromptoo Road. London. S.W. J. . littic I SHOPS FOR DISABLED SOLDIERb AMD lyf !.mfSQ Tl I The Right Hoo SlrMPrederlck MUner. Bart. 'VS-jOUgj '' Major A, Tndor Crali.c.n.tt., ...', Comptroller "MLSlaa td'ifi. i"lTii-.', -1 - ggBaBanBBBaaBaBfafBBBaBHffjaaaaa - 8l4tWdttei:--! 'X'HE surpassing value of the , models now offered,; of which the following are typical examples, lends' added weight to the assertion that at Maxson's can always be obtained the Highest possible quality at the lowest consistent price. Terms : Cash with Order, unless credit account opened. Special from Coat" Department.., French' -Model, .Coati in rtlour cloth wUhtcrap (haul collar. .tUncd.rtlk. i 6 O Q key Board of Trad, WfTfifj ;?,". fcJS.i'Tr- - to JLord Kobens ' . .- V-V.S1 will help Mill man who ,-.i j: ariiciy, inna, work alioii, at whlch vVjtS'- '' ' SPtectALFROICpSTUMC iiWfoldTIf fl- ' ' vrtjiAK rlrmrkfnr in ' ,'vlA-',:.'lif,'::j'. - '- i:;.fm&':-.i

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